Threats And Responses

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Threats And Responses

  1. 1. Threats and Responses Internal Threats
  2. 2. Sichuan Earthquake
  3. 3. Tsunami
  4. 4. Diseases
  5. 5. Civil Wars
  6. 6. Internal threats in India <ul><li>Floods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flooding of the Indus River </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cities were rebuilt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mohenjo-Daro was re-built 6 times </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Harappa was re-built 5 times </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flooding of the Ganges River </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cites of Hastinapur </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Internal threats in India <ul><li>Famines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Severe food shortage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually after a drought </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Internal threats in India <ul><li>Warfare </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wars between rival states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Existence of social class seeking power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kshatriyas in the social class system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Existence of ancient Indians loyal to different kingdoms in India </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Internal threats in India <ul><li>Diplomacy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Friendship, support and trade will benefit their kingdoms </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Internal threats in India <ul><li>Rebellion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When people are unhappy with their rulers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When unpopular laws were implemented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mauryan king killed and the dynasty fell </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Internal threats in India <ul><li>Spy system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To watch over the provinces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not always successful </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Internal threats in China <ul><li>Floods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yellow River, Yangtze River </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build dykes </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Internal threats in China <ul><li>Famines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Especially during the Ming dynasty </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Internal threats in China <ul><li>Civil Wars </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zhou dynasty = period of the warring states (Qi, Qin, Han, Chu, Zhao, Wei, Yan) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large armies and iron weapons used </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many casaulties </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Instability, changed boundaries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Qin Kingdom, led by Prince Zheng unified China </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>He removed the feudal system where the shi must respect the king </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Internal threats in China <ul><li>Peasant rebellion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers unhappy with the emperor and his laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Losing Mandate of Heaven </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wang Mang was overthrown by the Red Eyebrows </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Internal threats in China <ul><li>Military rebellion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An Lushan over threw emperor Tang Xuanzong </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yang Gui fei made An Lushan the empire’s army commander </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Caused much protest but emperor did not deal with matter properly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An Lushan seized opportunity to overthrow the emperor </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Internal threats in SEA <ul><li>Natural Disaster </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Volcanic eruptions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mt Merapi in Java killed many and covered Borobudur complex with ash </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shifted capital from central Java to east Java </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Internal threats in SEA <ul><li>Succession disputes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Saudara susu - internal struggles to govern </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Princes try to seize the throne </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Internal threats in SEA <ul><li>Warfare and rebellion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Melaka taken over by Portuguese due to the weak Sultan Mahmud </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Took advices from the Bendahara Tun Perak (PM) </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Internal threats in SEA <ul><li>Rebellion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sultan Mahmud’s unwise and unpopular policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forced Chinese traders to hand over ships </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Made non-muslims pay higher taxes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Did not allow Portuguese to trade at Melaka in 1509 – angered them </li></ul></ul></ul>

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