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Ch3 ni pt1


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Ch3 ni pt1

  3. 4. <ul><li>SRI LANKA </li></ul><ul><li>Racial Differences </li></ul><ul><li>Sinhalese vs Tamils </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicts over </li></ul><ul><li>Citizenship rights </li></ul><ul><li>Government Jobs </li></ul><ul><li>University Admission </li></ul><ul><li>Resettlement of Population </li></ul><ul><li>NORTHERN IRELAND </li></ul><ul><li>Religious Differences </li></ul><ul><li>Protestants vs Catholics </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicts over </li></ul><ul><li>Divided Loyalties </li></ul><ul><li>The Education System </li></ul><ul><li>Employment </li></ul><ul><li>Housing </li></ul><ul><li>Voting </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>SRI LANKA </li></ul><ul><li>Consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Armed Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Unemployment </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of Foreign Investment </li></ul><ul><li>Fall in Tourists </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign Intervention </li></ul><ul><li>NORTHERN IRELAND </li></ul><ul><li>Consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Peaceful Protests to Violence </li></ul><ul><li>Unemployment </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of Foreign Investment </li></ul><ul><li>Fall in Tourists </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign Intervention </li></ul>
  5. 7. HISTORY OF N.I . <ul><li>United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland </li></ul><ul><li>UK : BRITAIN England, Scotland, Wales and N.I. </li></ul><ul><li>Let’s tour Britain & London </li></ul>
  6. 8. HISTORY OF N.I . <ul><li>Before 12 th century </li></ul><ul><li>In the 12 th century </li></ul><ul><li>1690 </li></ul><ul><li>1800 </li></ul>
  7. 9. 12 TH CENTURY <ul><li>Before 12 th century </li></ul><ul><ul><li>N.I. & Republic of Ireland = IRELAND </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In the 12 th century </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ireland conquered and colonised by England </li></ul></ul>
  8. 10. 1690 (17 th CENTURY) <ul><li>King James II of England, a Catholic </li></ul><ul><li>Forced to flee to north of Ireland. Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Because he failed to force Catholicism on the Protestants in England </li></ul><ul><li>There, he tried to defeat the locals </li></ul><ul><li>New King of England, William of Orange PROTESTANT arrived in north of Ireland and defeated King James </li></ul><ul><li>Battle of Boyne </li></ul><ul><li>King William remains a hero to Protestants to this day </li></ul>
  9. 11. 17 th CENTURY <ul><li>17 TH century : England ruled Ireland </li></ul><ul><ul><li>English landlords in Ireland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>brought in Protestant Scottish and English settlers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To increase Protestant population there </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Newcomers – settled in northern part of Ireland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pushed out many local Irish Catholic farmers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Those Irish Catholics who stayed behind given least fertile lands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Northern part of Ireland thus became mainly Protestant </li></ul></ul>
  10. 12. 17 th CENTURY <ul><li>The Scots like to wear kilts </li></ul><ul><li>What they wear beneath that is anybody’s guess! </li></ul>
  11. 13. 19 th CENTURY <ul><li>For years, Catholic Irish fought against Protestant Scottish and English settlers without success </li></ul><ul><li>1800 : Ireland became part of UK </li></ul><ul><li>Hostilities between Catholics and Protestants did not end </li></ul><ul><li>Late 1800s : some local Irish demanded HOME RULE (like our concept of self-government) </li></ul><ul><li>Fighting often broke out </li></ul>
  12. 14. 20 th CENTURY <ul><li>1921 : Ireland divided into two separate parts </li></ul><ul><li>Based on majority religion of each part </li></ul><ul><li>Northern part PROTESTANT became known as NORTHERN IRELAND – remained part of UK </li></ul><ul><li>Southern part CATHOLIC became known as IRISH FREE STATE </li></ul><ul><li>Both had own Parliaments </li></ul><ul><li>But continued to recognise English monarchy and laws regarding foreign affairs </li></ul><ul><li>1949 : Irish Free State cut ties with Britain </li></ul><ul><li>Became the REPUBLIC OF IRELAND </li></ul>
  13. 15. <ul><li>1993 : 1,000,000 Protestants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly of English and Scottish origin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>600,000 Catholics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly descendants of local Irish inhabitants </li></ul></ul>PEOPLE IN N.I. TODAY
  14. 16. <ul><li>Before 1972 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Own Parliament at Stormont Castle near Balfast </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Since 1972 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ruled directly by the British Parliament in London </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>British PM chooses a Secretary of State MINISTER for N.I. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>N.I. Government in charge of finance, commerce, health and education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Britain in charge of foreign affairs and defence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Majority of ministers in N.I. Are Protestants </li></ul></ul>THE N.I. GOVERNMENT
  15. 17. <ul><li>Divided Loyalties </li></ul><ul><li>The Education System </li></ul><ul><li>Employment </li></ul><ul><li>Housing </li></ul><ul><li>Voting </li></ul>THE PROTESTANT-CATHOLIC TENSION
  16. 18. <ul><li>In N.I. Most protestants regard themselves as British </li></ul><ul><li>Want the country continued as part of UK </li></ul><ul><li>Many afraid of union with the Republic of Ireland, a Catholic country </li></ul><ul><li>A Catholic government would not be tolerant of Protestant beliefs </li></ul>1. DIVIDED LOYALTIES
  17. 19. <ul><li>Catholics in N.I. See themselves as Irish </li></ul><ul><li>Want to be united with Ireland </li></ul><ul><li>Resent past history of English conquest </li></ul><ul><li>Many Catholics massacred or treated harshly </li></ul><ul><li>Remembered long struggle for Home Rule </li></ul>1. DIVIDED LOYALTIES
  18. 20. <ul><li>Protestants – celebrate annv of battle of Boyne as a mark of protestant dominance </li></ul><ul><li>Usually march through Catholic residential areas </li></ul><ul><li>This sense of loyalty to different countries make them intolerant of each other </li></ul>1. DIVIDED LOYALTIES
  19. 21. <ul><li>Today, public schools that cater for Protestants only </li></ul><ul><li>Private schools that cater for Catholics PARTLY FUNDED BY GOVERNMENT </li></ul>2. EDUCATION SYSTEM
  20. 22. 2. EDUCATION SYSTEM <ul><li>PROTESTANT CHILDREN </li></ul><ul><li>Taught British history </li></ul><ul><li>Play British sports – rugby, hockey, cricket </li></ul><ul><li>Very loyal to Britain </li></ul><ul><li>CATHOLIC </li></ul><ul><li>CHILDREN </li></ul><ul><li>Taught Irish history </li></ul><ul><li>Play Irish sports – hurling </li></ul><ul><li>Taught Irish language and culture </li></ul><ul><li>Regard Britain as a foreign country </li></ul>
  21. 23. 2. EDUCATION SYSTEM <ul><li>Mixed schools </li></ul><ul><li>Set up by private individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Not as popular </li></ul><ul><li>Result : Protestant and Catholic children rarely get to meet and know each other </li></ul><ul><li>Generations grow up to distrust each other </li></ul><ul><li>Makes them hostile to each other </li></ul>
  22. 24. <ul><li>Competition for jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Catholics – feel that they do have have an equal chance of getting the jobs they want, even if they’re as qualified as the Protestants </li></ul>3. EMPLOYMENT
  23. 25. <ul><li>1971 : Population survey </li></ul><ul><li>Catholics males 2 ½ times more likely to be jobless than Protestants males </li></ul><ul><li>No of Catholic engineers and civil servants – not proportionate to their numbers in N.I. </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer Catholics in senior positions in public and private sectors </li></ul>3. EMPLOYMENT
  24. 26. <ul><li>Grievance : Provision of public housing by city councils PARTLY PAID FOR BY GOVT </li></ul><ul><li>Councils comprise largely Protestants </li></ul><ul><li>Catholics often delayed in getting public housing </li></ul><ul><li>1968 : 71% of local houses in Dungannon given to Protestants but 53% of the people there were Catholics </li></ul>4. HOUSING
  25. 27. <ul><li>Catholics frustrated – shortage of houses means they have to wait many years before getting own house </li></ul><ul><li>Thus find provision of housing unfair </li></ul>4. HOUSING
  26. 28. <ul><li>Before 1968 : Voting rights a problem </li></ul><ul><li>Each household – 2 votes </li></ul><ul><li>Companies </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>entitled to more votes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>depended on size </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Many companies owned by richer Protestants – thus had more votes </li></ul><ul><li>Voting districts often drawn to include a larger proportion of Protestants </li></ul><ul><li>Catholics were of course unhappy about this </li></ul>5. VOTING
  27. 29. <ul><li>Since 1968 : Everyone entitled to one vote </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Must be a British subject and above 18 years old </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Had to be born in N.I. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Or lived in UK for 7 years </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Voting districts redrawn to ensure fairness </li></ul>5. VOTING
  28. 30. <ul><li>Voting rights no longer a problem today </li></ul><ul><li>But conflicts persist because other issues such as housing and employment not addressed </li></ul>5. VOTING
  30. 32. CONSEQUENCES <ul><li>How did the Catholics make their demands? </li></ul><ul><li>Effects of the Protestant-Catholic Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>