Basic fire safety


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We all should know the basic of Fire safety. The simple method will save life of our dear ones. we should conduct regular training and use the fire extinguisher. As per factory act and Shop and establishment act also it is mandatory to have operational fire safety equipment. IS 2190 lay down the proper use, maintenance or fire Extinguishers.

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  • If any of the three things are eliminated the fire will go out. For example, if there is a small fire in a pan on the stove and a lid is placed on it the fire will go out with the elimination of oxygen.
  • Pressurized water extinguishers must never be used on electrical or flammable-liquid fires. Dry chemical extinguishers blanket burning materials with powdered chemicals. In some models, the chemicals are stored under pressure; in others, chemicals are expelled by pressure supplied by a separate gas-filled cartridge. The dry chemical extinguishers can be corrosive if not cleaned immediately. ABC Dry Chemical extinguishers contain ammonium phosphate and can be used on Class A, B, and C fires, but should never be used on a fire in a commercial grease fryer because of the possibility the fire may re-ignite (re-flash) & because it will render the unit’s automatic fire-protection system ineffective. BC Dry Chemical extinguishers, suitable for fighting Class B and C fires, contain either sodium bicarbonate or potassium bicarbonate and are preferred over other dry-chemical extinguishers for fighting grease fires. Carbon dioxide extinguishers contain pressurized liquid carbon dioxide, which turns to gas when expelled. Rated for use on Class B and C, but can also be used on Class S fires. CO2 is not corrosive. Foam ext. blanket surface of burning flammable liquid that excludes air & puts out fire. They cannot be used on electrical fires because they contain mostly water. Extinguishers for Class D fires must match the type of metal that is burning. They don’t use numerical ratings. These ext. are labeled with a list detailing the metals that match the dry powder for the extinguisher.
  • Pull the pin: This unlocks the operating lever and allows you to discharge the extinguisher. Some extinguishers may have other lever-release mechanisms.
    Aim low: Point the extinguisher hose (or nozzle) at the base of the fire.
    Squeeze from side to side: Moving carefully toward the fire, keep the extinguisher aimed at the base of the fire and sweep back and forth until the flames appear to be out. Watch the fire area. If the fire re-ignites, repeat the process. Always be sure the fire department inspects the fire site.
  • Every work shop should have an appointed Fire Marshal. Responsible for monthly F/E inspections, Emerg Lighting & Evacuation Plans.
    Many org still have buildings with no FIRE EVACUATION PLANS posted on walls.
  • Recommend Pull them off the walls. Ensure hose is not loose at junction
    Shake the body to make powder loose.
    Check horn
    Check pressure meter.
  • Reminder: No one is required to fight ANY fires. Fire Dept request we don’t attempt to put out fire unless NECESSARY to get out of building.
    The fire is between you and the fire exit.
  • Basic fire safety

    1. 1. 14/01/2008 Capt Rajeshwar Singh 1
    2. 2. FIRES NEED 3 THINGS TO START • Oxygen (Air) • Fuel (any material that will burn) • Heat (sparks, matches, flames) 14/01/2008 Capt Rajeshwar Singh 2
    3. 3. Classes of Fire • Class A • wood, cloth, paper, cardboard • Class B • flammable or combustible liquids, gases • Class C • energized electrical equipment • Class D • combustible metal, chemical reaction • Class K • vegetable oils, animal oils, or fats 14/01/2008 Capt Rajeshwar Singh 3
    4. 4. Fire Tetrahedron • Consists of 4 sides Oxygen Fuel Heat Chain of Reaction 14/01/2008 Capt Rajeshwar Singh 4
    5. 5. Common Types of Fire ExtinguishersCommon Types of Fire Extinguishers WaterWater DDrryy CChheemmiiccaall CCOO22 andand HHaalloonn 14/01/2008 Capt Rajeshwar Singh 5
    6. 6. Major Causes of Fires • Carelessness with smoking and matches • Misuse of electricity (overloading a circuit or overuse of extension cords) • Improper rubbish disposal • Improper storage of flammables (such as gasoline) • Arson14/01/2008 Capt Rajeshwar Singh 6
    7. 7. EQUIPMENT Faulty equipment and the improper use of equipment are major causes of fire in any facilities. 14/01/2008 Capt Rajeshwar Singh 7
    8. 8. EQUIPMENT Clean lint and grease from laundry and cooking equipment, ventilator hoods, filters, and ducts on a regular basis. Check for and report any cracked or split cords or plugs on the equipment used. 14/01/2008 Capt Rajeshwar Singh 8
    9. 9. EXTENSION CORDS • Avoid using extension cords whenever possible • Do not exceed specified amperage • Do not run extension cords across doorways or anywhere they can be stepped on • DO not plug one extension cord into another and never plug more than one extension cord into an outlet14/01/2008 Capt Rajeshwar Singh 9
    10. 10. GENERAL FIRE SAFETY Keep combustibles away from heat producing devices. Prevent sparks in areas where oxygen is used. Cap and store combustible liquids properly. 14/01/2008 Capt Rajeshwar Singh 10
    11. 11. GENERAL FIRE SAFETY Keep maintenance and storage areas clean and free of trash, sawdust, oily rags, etc. Keep halls and stairways clear. Be sure that EXIT signs are always lighted and that emergency lighting is in working order. 14/01/2008 Capt Rajeshwar Singh 11
    12. 12. GENERAL FIRE SAFETY Never prop open emergency doors. Fire doors not only let people out, they keep fire from spreading. 14/01/2008 Capt Rajeshwar Singh 12 • Read the instruction of use if You are new to fire system. • Get regular Training
    13. 13. In the event of a fire, stay calm and RACE… • R-rescue any patient in immediate danger • A-pull the alarm and notify other employees of the location and type of fire • C-contain the fire by closing doors and windows • E-extinguish the fire or evacuate the area14/01/2008 Capt Rajeshwar Singh 13
    14. 14. TYPES OF FIRE EXTINGUISHERS • Pressurized water extinguishers (Class A fires only) • Dry Chemical extinguishers (ABC or BC) • Carbon dioxide extinguishers (Class B and C) • Foam (or AFFF and FFFP) extinguishers • Class D extinguishers 14/01/2008 Capt Rajeshwar Singh 14
    15. 15. Using a portable fire extinguisher: PASS • Keep your back to the exit and stand 10-20 feet away from the fire • P-Pull the pin • A-Aim low • S-Squeeze • S-Sweep from side to side 14/01/2008 Capt Rajeshwar Singh 15
    16. 16. Exit DoorsExit Doors  Must be able to open from theMust be able to open from the inside at all times without keys,inside at all times without keys, toolstools  Device such as a panic bar thatDevice such as a panic bar that locks only from the outside islocks only from the outside is permittedpermitted  Must be free of any device orMust be free of any device or alarm that could restrictalarm that could restrict emergency use if the device oremergency use if the device or alarm failsalarm fails 14/01/2008 Capt Rajeshwar Singh 16
    17. 17. Exit MarkingExit Marking  Each exit must be clearlyEach exit must be clearly visible and marked withvisible and marked with an “Exit” signan “Exit” sign  Each exit route door mustEach exit route door must be free of decorations orbe free of decorations or signs that obscure thesigns that obscure the visibility of the doorvisibility of the door 14/01/2008 Capt Rajeshwar Singh 17
    18. 18. Fire Evacuation Plan 14/01/2008 Capt Rajeshwar Singh 18
    19. 19. Fire Extinguisher Inspection • Inspect monthly to ensure • Proper location and it is accessible • Discharge nozzle or horn is not obstructed, cracked or dirty • Operating instructions on the nameplate are legible • Lock pins and tamper seals are in place • Full and ready for use • Has an inspection tag 14/01/2008 Capt Rajeshwar Singh 19
    20. 20. In Case of Fire or Smoke • Call 100,101 first • Activate the fire alarm • Alert others • Evacuate the building • Meet at Assembly point site • Practice Onsite Emergency Plan. 14/01/2008 Capt Rajeshwar Singh 20
    21. 21. Remember theRemember the PASS word:PASS word: ** Keep your back toKeep your back to a clear escape routea clear escape route,, ** Stand back 6 to 8Stand back 6 to 8 feet from the fire,feet from the fire, ** PASSPASS P.A.S.S. PULL AIM SQUEEZE SWEEP Using a Fire Extinguisher 14/01/2008 Capt Rajeshwar Singh 21
    22. 22. After the Fire is Out • Once the fire is extinguished, exit the building • Recharge or replace any used extinguishers • Maintain your fire Extinguisher As Per IS 2190 14/01/2008 Capt Rajeshwar Singh 22
    23. 23. Be Ready for known • Get Trained and be fire safety ready. • Get your office/society/organization employees be trained to handle emergencies. • Capt. Rajeshwar Singh • • 14/01/2008 Capt Rajeshwar Singh 23