• Dangers of Fire & Smoke• 575,000 in 12 months• Only 1 in 5 fires are reported.• An estimated 2.8 million fires per year in UK.
• UK 804,000 fire and false alarms 2007 (8%)• Total fires down 12% to 385,000• Deaths down 10% to 443, 267 accidental dwelling fires• Attendances to UK false alarms down 4% to 419,000• Malicious false alarms down 12% to 30,000• Faulty apparatus false alarms down 1% to 271,000
People often don’t take fire seriouslyReflected in response to alarmsAssume it’s a test, drill or false alarm8 May 1979 Woolworths (Manchester) 10 dead, dozens injured New legislation for: Furniture, sprinklers in shopping centres, and compulsory training for staff.11 May 1985 Bradford Football Club 56 dead, hundreds injured New legislation for: Fire Safety and Safety of Places of sports Act 1987, revision of Green Guide by Home Office
1. How Fires are started2. How Fires are classified3. Action on discovering a fire4. Action on hearing a fire alarm and procedures this sets in motion5. “Baton System” + “Fire Boxes”6. The location, different types and use of fire extinguishers7. Alerting members of the public/parents – “Cascade System”8. Evacuation procedures and assembly points9. Importance of Fire doors10. Escape doors and escape routes11. General fire precautions and good housekeeping12. Dealing with the Emergency Services
Fire is a chemical reaction involving rapid oxidation or burning of a fuel. It needs three elements to occur: OXYGEN - The air we breathe is about 21 percent oxygen. fire only needs an atmosphere with at least 16 percent oxygen. FUEL - Fuel can be any combustible material - solid, liquid or gas. Most solids and liquids become a vapor or gas before they will burn. HEAT - Heat is the energy necessary to increase the temperature of the fuel to a point where sufficient vapors are given off for ignition to occur. CHEMICAL REACTION - A chain reaction can occur when the three elements of fire are present in the proper conditions and proportions. Fire occurs when this rapid oxidation, or burning takes place.Take any one of these factors away, and the fire cannot occur or will be extinguished ifit was already burning.
Flammable orOrdinary combustible liquidscombustibles or such asfibrous material, such gasoline, kerosene, paias wood, paper, cloth, nt, paint thinners andrubber and some propane.plastics.Energized electrical Certain combustibleequipment, such as metals, such asappliances, switches, magnesium, titanium,panel boxes and potassium and sodium.power tools. These metals burn at high temperatures and give off sufficient oxygen to support combustion. They may react violently with water or other chemicals, and must be handled with care.
Sound the alarmUse an appropriate fire extinguisher if: – it is safe to do so – you have been trained to use itFire extinguishers should be tested ina safe place, before using it on a fire
• Sound the alarm • Ensure Fire services are called• Close the door (Although it should be closed) • Report to person in charge for roll call• Leave immediately • Do not return to building until told• Proceed to assembly point
When you sound the alarm, or hear the alarm, take control of the “Baton”You are now the person responsible for that particular “Fire Zone”Make sure that: 1)Somebody call the Fire Brigade. 2)All pupils, staff and members of the public evacuate immediately. 3)Fire doors are closed. (Where possible the windows as well) 4)Take contents of the “Fire Box”, when you leave. 5)Find the Fire Marshall/Fire Brigade Officer in charge and report. 6)Assist where needed.
• The “Fire Box” is an emergency information aid.• Inside the box you will find a red plastic folder containing the following: 1) A copy of the main gate key 2) A copy of the school “Crisis Management Policy” (This contains all the emergency services’ numbers.) 3) Contact numbers for every parent of every pupil in school. 4) Evacuation procedures
1. React immediately / take possession of “Baton” and “Fire Box” contents2. Visually inspect escape route for smoke or flames3. Prepare everybody in your care for evacuation4. Escort all persons in your charge out of the building as listed on the “Evacuation Procedure”.5. Both sides of the staircase should be used during the evacuation procedure.6. Please make sure all doors and windows are closed when leaving your classrooms.Persons in possession of “Fire Batons”/School Secretary/Fire Marshall ► Bring playground gate key & open gate. Bring registers and distribute them to all teachers. Take mobile Fire Log book Pupil details register Take contents of the “Fire Box” located on every floorPerson in possession of “Fire Baton” is the last to leave their “Fire Zone” and report to person in charge at the assembly point.
Pre-appointed Fire Officers for each floor (“Fire Baton” system in effect)► Ground Floor - Ronael Forbes First Floor - Henk Weyers Second Floor - Jenna Ryan Third Floor - Juliette MacDonald Duties of Fire Marshall / Fire Officers Use fire extinguishers to clear exit routes IF NO OTHER OPTIONS ARE AVAILABLE. Ensure complete evacuation of your “Fire Zone” To ensure that fire procedures are carried out correctly and safely. Report / hand over “Fire Baton” to person in charge Assist Fire Marshall and Fire Officers
• Extinguishers should be tested each year by a competent person. (Chubb)• Extinguishers should be visually examined by a competent person on a monthly basis to ensure they are still serviceable.• They should be on a wall bracket or in a stand.• Extinguishers should not be used to hold open a fire door. To do so is a criminal offenceStaff do not have to tackle any fire if they do not wish to do so, but should know the location of their nearest extinguisher and the type of extinguisher, to assist fellow members of staff.
Water Foam Dry CO2 Wet Powder ChemicalA Wood,paper, textilesB Flammable LiquidsC Flammable GasesD Metal Special Dry agentsE ElectricalF Cooking oils Best Extinguisher: Suitable alternative: ●
Colour CodingA change to the British Standard BS 7863 has meant a change to the style of colour coding on extinguishers. A block of colour has now been placed above the operating instructions to cover between 3-5% of the extinguisher area. For use on Class A fires only Most have 13A test rating App 6m throw for jet nozzle App 2m throw for spray type Aim at base of fire 9L has 45sec minimum duration Never use on electrical equipment or flammable liquids!!!
Colour CodingA change to the British Standard BS 7863 has meant a change to the style of colour coding on extinguishers. A block of colour has now been placed above the operating instructions to cover between 3-5% of the extinguisher area. For use on Class A & B fires Most have AFFF solution (Aqueous Film Forming Foam) App 4m throw for jet nozzle App 2m throw for spray type Apply with caution/do not disturb liquid 9L has 30sec minimum duration Never use on electrical equipment !!!
Colour CodingA change to the British Standard BS 7863 has meant a change to the style of colour coding on extinguishers. A block of colour has now been placed above the operating instructions to cover between 3-5% of the extinguisher area. Use on Class A, B & C fires, LPG’s and electrical hazards Can be very messy App 2-4m throw, depending on environment Short bursts until in range, then continuous operation 9L has 16sec minimum duration No cooling effect, so re-ignition is possible, particularly with Class A materials
Colour CodingA change to the British Standard BS 7863 has meant a change to the style of colour coding on extinguishers. A block of colour has now been placed above the operating instructions to cover between 3-5% of the extinguisher area. Use on Class B & C fires and electrical hazards Contents under pressure, do not use on loose paper as this might spread Check instructions, before holding discharge horn Extremely noisy Use caution in confined spaces due to asphyxiating effects of CO2 Hold upright at arm’s length, app 1,5m from fire
Before tackling the fire, raise the alarmWork in pairs, where possibleTake a second extinguisher (of the appropriate type) if readilyavailableAlways test the extinguisher away from the fire before useKeep lowAlways have a way out (keep your back to the exit door)Leave immediately if the fire begins to get out of controlIf any amount is used or safety pin is missing, consider it emptyand get it serviced ASAP.
To prevent/delay the spread of smoke and fireFire doors should have the following features: A sign – “Fire Door Keep Shut” Door usually solid Self-closing Glazing fitted should be fire-resisting Intumescent strip along the edges Gap between the frame and door never exceed 3-4mm Good condition with no holes Cupboard doors should be fitted with a sign “Keep Locked Shut When Not In Use” Up to £5000 fine for a fire door left open, leading to an injury or death! (Criminal negligence)
• Fire exit doors should have the following features: A single, simple fastening At least 750mm wide Should not be obstructed at any time Should open outwardsCheck these doors on a regular basis to make sure they are in a good working order.
• Fire Risk Assessments need to be carried out every year• All visitors need to be made aware of evacuation procedures and escape routes• All staff are responsible for pupils and visitors in their care and should therefore rectify or report any potential fire hazards.• Potential fire hazards would be: A blocked or obstructed escape route A used or damaged fire extinguisher Inappropriate use of electrical appliances Fire doors held open
Twice a termSimulate an obstructed exitInform all staff and pupils reduce accidents quick response during real emergenciesKey staff may remain in position, but need to practice at another opportunityAlso evacuate the public (Parents, visitors, contractors etc)Use observers to highlight any problems during the fire drillFire Marshall should have a deputy (In case of absence)
When Emergency Services arrive: Fire Marshall / Head teacher / SMT (In that order) co-ordinates with Fire Brigade officerHave the following information at hand: Roll-call and list of unaccounted persons Location of: Possible origin of fire Power supply Floor Plan Water Hydrants Shut-off valves
SMT Val N R 1 2 Rep Rep Rep RepA B C A B A B A B
In the event of an evacuation:Ground FloorReception & ICT/Music Room Leave the building through the front door and turn right. Line up on the corner of Burnaby Gardens and Harvard Hill.Gym Leave the building through the Gym “Fire Door” and line up against the far wall in the playground.First FloorNursery Leave the Nursery using the left-hand side of the stairs. Out the front door and line up on the pavement near the double gates.
Year 1 Come down the main stairs on the right-hand side. At the bottom of the stairs turn right and exit the building via the Gym doors. Continue out the playground gates and line up against the outside of the playground wall.Second and Third Floor Leave via fire escape doors on the second floor and proceed to line up against the far wall in the playground. Both sides of the staircase to be used during this procedure. Follow instructions of Fire Brigade/Fire Marshall/Principal/Head/Deputy Head/SMT Do not re-enter the school until instructed to do so by the person in charge.If any of the allocated points of egress are obstructed, please proceed to the nearest alternative exit point!