FIRE AWARENESS SEMINAR
Ayodeji Olubisi Ogunwuyi
WHAT IS FIRE AWARENESS ALL ABOUT?
It is an aspect of HEALTH AND SAFETY(HSE) that
This covers precautionary activities aiming at
stopping the outbreak of fire, early detection and
reducing losses of life and property should a fire
The activities included are;
Enforcement of safety regulations and
The reduction of fire hazards wherever possible.
FIRE HAZARDS (FIRE
The relative likelihood of the start and spread of a
fire or an explosion, which might endanger lives
It implies methods of prevention, early detection
and control of any fire incident to mitigate
damage or loss. There are two types of fire
Active fire protection which involves installation
of sprinklers and automatic detection and
extinguishing systems as well as training occupants
in fire skills etc
Passive fire protection which refers to structural
measures, fire retardant treatment, adequate and
To provide with an understanding of fire and actions
to be carried out in the events of a fire risk.
At the end of this seminar, the participants will be
Identify fire hazards
Be aware of the various causes of fire
Be aware of safety precautions and good
housekeeping required to minimize fire
Understand what fire is and how it spreads
Identify and select an appropriate fire extinguishers
Employ the correct techniques for its application.
WHAT IS FIRE?
Fire is a rapid combination of two or more
substances resulting in the production of heat and
It is produced by the process of combustion; a
chemical reaction process involving rapid oxidation
or burning of a fuel.
HOW FIRE STARTS
It needs three elements to occur:
FUEL - Fuel can be any combustible material – solid
(e.g. paper, wood fabrics), liquid (e.g. petrol,
diesel, adhesives) or gas (e.g. acetylene, butane,
propane). Most solids and liquids become a vapor or
gas before they will burn.
OXYGEN - The air we breathe is about 21 percent
oxygen. fire only needs an atmosphere with at least
16 percent oxygen.
HEAT - Heat is the energy necessary to increase the
temperature of the fuel to a point where sufficient
A chain reaction can occur when the three
elements of fire are present in the proper
conditions and proportions. Fire occurs when this
rapid oxidation, or burning takes place.
Take any one of these factors away, and the fire
cannot occur or will be extinguished if it was
HOW FIRE SPREADS
Fire spreads by four main processes
Movement of heat from regions of higher
temperature to regions of lower temperature
through the molecules of substances in contact
with the heat.
Metals are the best agents of conduction.
In fire situation, a steal beam passing through a
fireproof wall can be the cause of spread from
one compartment to another.
Heat is transferred from
places of higher
temperature to places o f
lower temperature with
visible movement of the
medium, usually liquids
In fire situations,
convectional currents can
convey hot gases, smoke
and fire brands produced
by fire upwards through
stair wells, open lift shafts
and other opening, thus
spreading fire to the upper
parts of the building.
Movement of heat from
the source to the other
objects without the
necessary being heated.
In fire situation, radiant
heat may be concentrated
by an object such as
magnifying glass on
resulting in further fire
CLASSIFICATION OF FIRE
Fire are classified according to the materials involved:
CLASS A: Involves free combustible materials e.g. wood, paper,
Best extinguishing medium is water.
CLASS B: Involves flammable liquids e.g. petrol, diesel,
adhesives etc or liquefiable solids e.g. wax, fats, coal tar etc
Best extinguishing medium is foam.
CLASS C: Involves gases e.g. methane, propane, butane etc
The best extinguishing media is vapourising liquids e.g. CO2
CLASS D: Involves metals e.g. Aluminium, Potassium,
The best extinguishing medium is Dry Chemical Powder
CLASS F: Involve cooking fats.
USES OF FIRE
Controlled fire can be used for the following;
Domestic uses- cooking, house heating
CAUSES OF FIRE
Fire accidents occurs when fire is not properly handled
or is allowed to get out of control.
It could be as a result of;
CARELESSNESS: Most common cause of fire and
could manifest as a result of;
overload electrical sockets
storing of flammable liquids in homes and offices without
careless handling of cooking gas
children playing with matches or naked fire
lighting of candles without adequate protection at the
careless smoking habits
CAUSES OF FIRE contd.
WILFUL ACTS: Better
known as arson and
could manifest as a
attempt to cover
crimes of a serious
workmen strike action