Fire SafetyFire Safety
incorporating the Hazards, Risks and Controlincorporating the Hazards, Risks and Control
Prepared by Dr. Julian Jolly, PhD (UK)Prepared by Dr. Julian Jolly, PhD (UK)
SIIRSM, UK.SIIRSM, UK.
TTT (NIOSH)TTT (NIOSH)
Executive Diploma in OSHExecutive Diploma in OSH
Key Learning ElementsKey Learning Elements
►To explain the science of fire.To explain the science of fire.
►To illustrate fire protection goals.To illustrate fire protection goals.
►To describe the potential hazards and risksTo describe the potential hazards and risks
leading to a fire at the workplace.leading to a fire at the workplace.
►To highlight the control measures to preventTo highlight the control measures to prevent
►To identify the various Alarm and SprinklerTo identify the various Alarm and Sprinkler
systems in use.systems in use.
►To explain the evacuation plan in the event ofTo explain the evacuation plan in the event of
a fire.a fire.
Why do we need Fire Safety?Why do we need Fire Safety?
Fire Protection GoalsFire Protection Goals
►Life safety (human life).Life safety (human life).
►Property protection (buildings and assets).Property protection (buildings and assets).
►Continuity of operations (financial andContinuity of operations (financial and
economic loss).economic loss).
The ScienceThe Science
►A process or chemical reaction calledA process or chemical reaction called
►The process worksThe process works onlyonly when 3 elementswhen 3 elements
are present namely:are present namely:
FuelFuel ((not confined to petrol or gasnot confined to petrol or gas))
►The chain-reaction causes FLAME.The chain-reaction causes FLAME.
The FlameThe Flame
►Known as theKnown as the FIRE TRIANGLEFIRE TRIANGLE, the, the
chemical reaction producing the flamechemical reaction producing the flame
persistspersists when all 3 elements remain withoutwhen all 3 elements remain without
being stopped (extinguished) eitherbeing stopped (extinguished) either
voluntarily or otherwise.voluntarily or otherwise.
►Flame is energy released into theFlame is energy released into the
►It is dangerous and unpredictable (canIt is dangerous and unpredictable (can
reach 2000°F in a matter of seconds).reach 2000°F in a matter of seconds).
Fire ChemistryFire Chemistry
The temperature at which a materialThe temperature at which a material
produces a vapour, and the temperatureproduces a vapour, and the temperature
at which vapours will burn. (Vapours willat which vapours will burn. (Vapours will
self-ignite if the temperature is hotself-ignite if the temperature is hot
The fuel for a fire may be aThe fuel for a fire may be a solid, liquid,solid, liquid,
or gasor gas. The type and quantity of the fuel. The type and quantity of the fuel
will determine which method should bewill determine which method should be
used to extinguish the fire.used to extinguish the fire.
Fires will burn vigorously in any atmosphere ofFires will burn vigorously in any atmosphere of
at least 20 percent oxygen. Without oxygen, fuelat least 20 percent oxygen. Without oxygen, fuel
could be heated until entirely vapourized, and itcould be heated until entirely vapourized, and it
would not burn.would not burn.
Flammability CharacteristicsFlammability Characteristics
Fire PointFire Point
The temperature at which the fluid surfaceThe temperature at which the fluid surface
emits enough vapour to sustain a fire for fiveemits enough vapour to sustain a fire for five
seconds in the presence of a flame.seconds in the presence of a flame.
Flammability CharacteristicsFlammability Characteristics
Lower and Upper Explosive Limits (LEL &Lower and Upper Explosive Limits (LEL &
TheThe minimumminimum concentration of a particularconcentration of a particular
combustible gas or vapour necessary tocombustible gas or vapour necessary to
support its combustion in air is defined as thesupport its combustion in air is defined as the
Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) for that gas.Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) for that gas.
Below this level, the mixture is too “lean” toBelow this level, the mixture is too “lean” to
burn. Theburn. The maximummaximum concentration of a gasconcentration of a gas
or vapour that will burn in air is defined asor vapour that will burn in air is defined as
the Upper Explosivethe Upper Explosive Limit (UEL).Limit (UEL). 17
Ignition and Self IgnitionIgnition and Self Ignition
►Ignition occurs when the heat produced by aIgnition occurs when the heat produced by a
reaction becomes sufficient to sustain areaction becomes sufficient to sustain a
chemical reaction (heating a material to thechemical reaction (heating a material to the
point where it spontaneously combusts).point where it spontaneously combusts).
►The Self-Ignition Temperature is theThe Self-Ignition Temperature is the
minimumminimum temperature at which the self-temperature at which the self-
heating properties of a material lead toheating properties of a material lead to
IGNITION e.g. sparksIGNITION e.g. sparks
Other related definition of TermsOther related definition of Terms
► Apparent Ignition TemperatureApparent Ignition Temperature - the- the
temperature required to begin or cause burning.temperature required to begin or cause burning.
► Flash FireFlash Fire - sudden intense fire caused by- sudden intense fire caused by
ignition of flammable solids, liquids or gaseousignition of flammable solids, liquids or gaseous
(e.g. 9/11).(e.g. 9/11).
► Flash PointFlash Point - lowest temperature at which a- lowest temperature at which a
flammable liquid can form an ignitable mixture inflammable liquid can form an ignitable mixture in
air where the vapour may cease to burn when theair where the vapour may cease to burn when the
source of ignition is removed.source of ignition is removed.
► Spontaneous CombustionSpontaneous Combustion - the lowest- the lowest
temperature at which a substance will ignitetemperature at which a substance will ignite
without the introduction of a flame.without the introduction of a flame. 19
Fire Spread and Heat TransferFire Spread and Heat Transfer
The flame can spread and transferThe flame can spread and transfer
heat in 4 ways namely:heat in 4 ways namely:
ConvectionConvection (gas or liquids/expands(gas or liquids/expands
RadiationRadiation (materials can be ignited if(materials can be ignited if
placed too close to the source of energy orplaced too close to the source of energy or
reflected from hot objectsreflected from hot objects e.g. sun’s rayse.g. sun’s rays).).
Direct BurningDirect Burning (as a result of intentional(as a result of intentional
Sources of OxygenSources of Oxygen
►Oxygen suppliesOxygen supplies e.g. cylinders or pipede.g. cylinders or piped
►Ventilation systemsVentilation systems
►Chemicals e.g.Chemicals e.g. oxidising agentsoxidising agents
Classification of FiresClassification of Fires
1.1. Class A - involving solidsClass A - involving solids e.g. woode.g. wood
2.2. Class B - involving flammable liquidsClass B - involving flammable liquids e.g. petrole.g. petrol
3.3. Class C - involving gases like LPG or acetyleneClass C - involving gases like LPG or acetylene
4.4. Class D - involving metals and metal powdersClass D - involving metals and metal powders
e.g. aluminiume.g. aluminium
5.5. Class EClass E -- involving electrical firesinvolving electrical fires
6.6. Class F - involving cooking oils and fatsClass F - involving cooking oils and fats
Common Causes of FireCommon Causes of Fire
Fire starts when the heat is generated by aFire starts when the heat is generated by a
deliberate work process or by accident.deliberate work process or by accident.
Common Causes at workplace:Common Causes at workplace:
Electrical short circuitElectrical short circuit
Static Electricity DischargeStatic Electricity Discharge
Chemical ReactionChemical Reaction
Smoking - ManagementSmoking - Management
► The prevention aspect includes administrativeThe prevention aspect includes administrative
measuresmeasures e.g. awareness campaign focusing one.g. awareness campaign focusing on
the ill-effects of tobaccothe ill-effects of tobacco..
► Restricting the activity in the workplace.Restricting the activity in the workplace.
► Confining it to defined areas within the perimeterConfining it to defined areas within the perimeter
of the workplaceof the workplace e.g. smoking zones.e.g. smoking zones.
► Health programme to assist smokers to quit theHealth programme to assist smokers to quit the
Static electricity is dangerousStatic electricity is dangerous
Exothermic Reaction betweenExothermic Reaction between
Oxygen and Phosphorus.Oxygen and Phosphorus.
Removal of FireRemoval of Fire
This can be achieved by 3 processes:This can be achieved by 3 processes:
1.1. Cooling - removing the heatCooling - removing the heat e.g. usinge.g. using
2.2. Starving - moving fuels/materials awayStarving - moving fuels/materials away
from the area of fire or “closing off” anfrom the area of fire or “closing off” an areaarea
of combustible material.of combustible material.
3.3. Smothering - limiting the oxygenSmothering - limiting the oxygen e.g. bye.g. by
using a fire blanket on small fires.using a fire blanket on small fires.
Consequences of FireConsequences of Fire
►Human Loss – death from smoke inhalationHuman Loss – death from smoke inhalation
and burns.and burns.
►Financial Loss – assets lost in the fire.Financial Loss – assets lost in the fire.
►Overall Business Loss – disruption toOverall Business Loss – disruption to
normal operations.normal operations.
►Indirect costs (re. “Iceberg” Theory).Indirect costs (re. “Iceberg” Theory).
The Burning Process (Stages)The Burning Process (Stages)
► Can be viewed from either the MolecularCan be viewed from either the Molecular
oror Macro scale.Macro scale.
► Macro Scale:Macro Scale:
1.1. Initial Fire (smoldering/presence ofInitial Fire (smoldering/presence of
2.2. Fire Build-Up (flame accelerate).Fire Build-Up (flame accelerate).
3.3. Flashover/Fully Developed Fire (stableFlashover/Fully Developed Fire (stable
phase/fire propagation period).phase/fire propagation period).
4.4. Cooling Period (fire burns itself out).Cooling Period (fire burns itself out).
The 3Es to Fire SAFETYThe 3Es to Fire SAFETY
1.1. EngineeringEngineering (the UBBL or Uniform Building(the UBBL or Uniform Building
By Laws 1994).By Laws 1994).
2.2. EducationEducation (fire safety program, safety audits(fire safety program, safety audits
and fire drills).and fire drills).
3.3. EnforcementEnforcement (Fire Services Act 1988).(Fire Services Act 1988).
Standards and Codes (Malaysia)Standards and Codes (Malaysia)
► Malaysian Standard (MS) through SIRIMMalaysian Standard (MS) through SIRIM
regulated by the Industry Standards Committeeregulated by the Industry Standards Committee
or ISC with the following scope:or ISC with the following scope:
““Standardization in the Fire Safety andStandardization in the Fire Safety and
Fire Prevention Sectors”.Fire Prevention Sectors”.
a)a) Equipment for the prevention and suppressionEquipment for the prevention and suppression
of fire extinguishing equipment, fire detectingof fire extinguishing equipment, fire detecting
equipment and system and materials for fireequipment and system and materials for fire
b)b) Fire test on building materials, components andFire test on building materials, components and
Building SafetyBuilding Safety
►It is a component of Fire Safety.It is a component of Fire Safety.
►Building a facility in compliance withBuilding a facility in compliance with
approved local building codes.approved local building codes.
►Materials used for construction shallMaterials used for construction shall
comply with drawing specificationscomply with drawing specifications
stipulated by Engineering Architect e.g.stipulated by Engineering Architect e.g.
BRC, sizes of steel bars, Y-bars, RoundBRC, sizes of steel bars, Y-bars, Round
bars for footings, columns and beams.bars for footings, columns and beams.
Building SafetyBuilding Safety
The following possible failure modes toThe following possible failure modes to
achieve safety margins of the design areachieve safety margins of the design are
► Smoke leakage.Smoke leakage.
► Thermal Insulation.Thermal Insulation.
► Integrity (poor workmanship).Integrity (poor workmanship).
► Load bearing.Load bearing.
Rational Approach to accomplish BuildingRational Approach to accomplish Building
Safety (Design Recommendation)Safety (Design Recommendation)
►Building compartmentation and fire ratingsBuilding compartmentation and fire ratings
for fire and smoke containment.for fire and smoke containment.
►Probability analysis and risk assessments.Probability analysis and risk assessments.
►Occupant behaviour in fire situations.Occupant behaviour in fire situations.
►Fire detection and alarm systems for earlyFire detection and alarm systems for early
detection of smoke and activation ofdetection of smoke and activation of
►Assessment of anticipated fire loads.Assessment of anticipated fire loads.
Rational Approach to accomplish BuildingRational Approach to accomplish Building
Safety (Design Recommendation)Safety (Design Recommendation)
► Smoke hazard management systems for control ofSmoke hazard management systems for control of
smoke within the building.smoke within the building.
► Emergency warning systems for early warning toEmergency warning systems for early warning to
building occupants.building occupants.
► Active fire protection systems such as fireActive fire protection systems such as fire
sprinklers for control of fire spread and products ofsprinklers for control of fire spread and products of
► Egress provisions, egress times and travelEgress provisions, egress times and travel
► Fire Brigade access and fire fighting provisions.Fire Brigade access and fire fighting provisions.
Other Important Standards/CodesOther Important Standards/Codes
(used worldwide)(used worldwide)
►ASTM - International StandardASTM - International Standard
/American Society for Testing and/American Society for Testing and
►BS - British Standard.BS - British Standard.
►NBS - National Bureau of StandardNBS - National Bureau of Standard
►JIS - Japanese Industrial Standard.JIS - Japanese Industrial Standard.
Local Authority RegulationsLocal Authority Regulations
►By-Laws set by Municipal or City CouncilsBy-Laws set by Municipal or City Councils
(approval of architectural design/plan for(approval of architectural design/plan for
commercial or private dwellings).commercial or private dwellings).
►Technical Specifications set byTechnical Specifications set by
PETRONAS for the Oil and GasPETRONAS for the Oil and Gas
►Construction Industry Development BoardConstruction Industry Development Board
Education on Fire SafetyEducation on Fire Safety
► Jabatan Bomba Malaysia is tasked toJabatan Bomba Malaysia is tasked to
disseminate informationdisseminate information e.g. to rural areas.e.g. to rural areas.
► Pamphlets on Fire Safety distributed to schools.Pamphlets on Fire Safety distributed to schools.
► Corporate bodies are alerted on fire safetyCorporate bodies are alerted on fire safety
aspects in the workplace and mandatory foraspects in the workplace and mandatory for
factories to train personnel as fire fighters.factories to train personnel as fire fighters.
► Members of the public are informed by theMembers of the public are informed by the
Government on fire safety awarenessGovernment on fire safety awareness e.g. publice.g. public
forums, TV.forums, TV.
Fire ProtectionFire Protection
(achieving a balanced approach)(achieving a balanced approach)
1.Passive Fire Protection (PFP)1.Passive Fire Protection (PFP)
► Developed prior to the widespread use of ActiveDeveloped prior to the widespread use of Active
Fire Protection (AFP).Fire Protection (AFP).
► Considered at design stage of buildingConsidered at design stage of building
construction or facility (not limited to buildings)construction or facility (not limited to buildings)
and scope includes capabilities to control or limitand scope includes capabilities to control or limit
fire spread and structural fire protection.fire spread and structural fire protection.
► Compartmentalization, escape routes, number ofCompartmentalization, escape routes, number of
exit points for quick evacuation, interior finishingexit points for quick evacuation, interior finishing
of fire proof insulation materials, over sizing ofof fire proof insulation materials, over sizing of
walls, etc.walls, etc.
► More costly to install but less costly to maintain.More costly to install but less costly to maintain.
Passive Fire ProtectionPassive Fire Protection
PFP will establish 3 things:PFP will establish 3 things:
Integrity (should not allow smoke, flameIntegrity (should not allow smoke, flame
Stability (structural strength of what it isStability (structural strength of what it is
Insulation (prevent significant heatInsulation (prevent significant heat
Active Fire Protection (AFP)Active Fire Protection (AFP)
►AFP appears to be leading in fire safety forAFP appears to be leading in fire safety for
the 21the 21stst
►Main item used extensively is theMain item used extensively is the
“Sprinkler” system.“Sprinkler” system.
►Emergency Voice Alarm CommunicationEmergency Voice Alarm Communication
(EVAC) is widely used in large factories(EVAC) is widely used in large factories
and office facility (i.e. clear spokenand office facility (i.e. clear spoken
►Although lesser capital to install, it requiresAlthough lesser capital to install, it requires
significant operational resources.significant operational resources. 58
Sprinkler SystemSprinkler System
(refer separate module)(refer separate module)
Fire Risk ManagementFire Risk Management
► It involves the study of the behaviour,It involves the study of the behaviour,
compartmentalization, suppression andcompartmentalization, suppression and
investigation of fire.investigation of fire.
► It is fundamentally based on 2 principles:It is fundamentally based on 2 principles:
a) Controlling combustible materials (propera) Controlling combustible materials (proper
storage and labelling).storage and labelling).
b) Controlling ignition source (safe and goodb) Controlling ignition source (safe and good
housekeeping especially with electricalhousekeeping especially with electrical
equipment and system).equipment and system).
Control MeasuresControl Measures
1.1. Elimination of or reduction in the use andElimination of or reduction in the use and
storage of flammable and combustiblestorage of flammable and combustible
2.2. Control ignition sources.Control ignition sources.
3.3. Systems of work.Systems of work.
4.4. Good Housekeeping.Good Housekeeping.
5.5. Safe storage and use of flammable liquids.Safe storage and use of flammable liquids.
Structural Measure to preventStructural Measure to prevent
spread of Fire & Smokespread of Fire & Smoke
2.2. Properties of buildingsProperties of buildings
Steel framesSteel frames
Blocks and boardsBlocks and boards
Fire rated doorsFire rated doors
Alarm SystemAlarm System
► It is an Active Fire Protection System (AFP).It is an Active Fire Protection System (AFP).
► Either MANUALEither MANUAL oror AUTOMATIC.AUTOMATIC.
► Detects fireDetects fire oror the effects of fire.the effects of fire.
► Alert the occupants (Activation of lights, bells,Alert the occupants (Activation of lights, bells,
► Controls the fire alarm components in the facility.Controls the fire alarm components in the facility.
► Requires periodic testing and maintenance.Requires periodic testing and maintenance.
► Alert the Fire Services automatically.Alert the Fire Services automatically.
Detection SystemDetection System
Detection is a means to trace smoke in theDetection is a means to trace smoke in the
presence of a fire.presence of a fire.
► Manual systemsManual systems
► Manual / electricManual / electric
► Automatic detectorAutomatic detector
Manual Alarm SystemManual Alarm System
►Manual - suitable for small workplaceManual - suitable for small workplace e.g.e.g.
hand bells and whistleshand bells and whistles..
►Located on walls or staircases.Located on walls or staircases.
►Continuous alarm is not guaranteed.Continuous alarm is not guaranteed.
►Will not work if occupants are complacent.Will not work if occupants are complacent.
Automatic Detectors/AlarmAutomatic Detectors/Alarm
►Automatic Detectors - mounted on ceilingAutomatic Detectors - mounted on ceiling
air ducts, even outside of buildings.air ducts, even outside of buildings.
►Louder thus more effective.Louder thus more effective.
►Computerized to ensure efficiency.Computerized to ensure efficiency.
►Automatic shutdown featuresAutomatic shutdown features e.g. used ine.g. used in
the Oil and Gas facilities.the Oil and Gas facilities.
►Models vary - detect smoke and fumes orModels vary - detect smoke and fumes or
may incorporate sensors/cells.may incorporate sensors/cells.
Fire Alarm Shut-Down SystemFire Alarm Shut-Down System
►State-of-the-art detecting senses resultingState-of-the-art detecting senses resulting
in a signal being sent to the Control Panelin a signal being sent to the Control Panel
or Unit which can be located miles awayor Unit which can be located miles away
e.g. Offshore Platforms with the Panele.g. Offshore Platforms with the Panel
►Fire Alarm Control Unit which receive allFire Alarm Control Unit which receive all
the data (Control Unit is normally mannedthe data (Control Unit is normally manned
on a 24-hour basis).on a 24-hour basis).
Fire Break Glass AlarmFire Break Glass Alarm
Suppression of FireSuppression of Fire
The 3 main categories are:The 3 main categories are:
►Starvation - removing the fuel.Starvation - removing the fuel.
►Smothering - removing the oxygen.Smothering - removing the oxygen.
►Cooling - removing the heat.Cooling - removing the heat.
Important NoteImportant Note
WATER -WATER - not effective for Class C fire butnot effective for Class C fire but
excellent for Class A fire.excellent for Class A fire.
Portable Fire Fighting EquipmentsPortable Fire Fighting Equipments
1.1. Portable Fire ExtinguishersPortable Fire Extinguishers
1.1. Fire blanketsFire blankets
Other Fire Fighting EquipmentsOther Fire Fighting Equipments
►Hose ReelsHose Reels
►Foam SystemFoam System
►Automatic SprinklerAutomatic Sprinkler
Types of Fire ExtinguishersTypes of Fire Extinguishers
There are 5 types of Fire Extinguishers :There are 5 types of Fire Extinguishers :
► WaterWater (heat removal on Class A fires/marking(heat removal on Class A fires/marking
► Dry ChemicalDry Chemical (sodium bicarbonate base/Class(sodium bicarbonate base/Class
B and C fires/marking BLUE).B and C fires/marking BLUE).
► HalonHalon (Class B and C fires/marking BLUE).(Class B and C fires/marking BLUE).
► Carbon DioxideCarbon Dioxide (Class B and C fires/marking(Class B and C fires/marking
► FoamFoam (used for specific purpose/marking(used for specific purpose/marking
How to handle a FireHow to handle a Fire
A portable fire extinguisher includes theA portable fire extinguisher includes the
following components:following components:
Pressure gaugePressure gauge
Carrying handle and triggerCarrying handle and trigger
Pull, Aim, Squeeze, SweepPull, Aim, Squeeze, Sweep ..
►Always aim at the base of the fireAlways aim at the base of the fire
►Do not handle the extinguisher if in doubt.Do not handle the extinguisher if in doubt.
Emergency Evacuation ProceduresEmergency Evacuation Procedures oror
Egress SystemEgress System
1.1. Emergency Response PlanEmergency Response Plan
2.2. Emergency Response TeamsEmergency Response Teams
3.3. Fire Marshalls or WardensFire Marshalls or Wardens
4.4. Fire DrillsFire Drills
5.5. Roll CallRoll Call
6.6. Provision for the infirm and disabledProvision for the infirm and disabled
Establish the followingEstablish the following
1.1. Travel distanceTravel distance
5.5. Emergency lightingEmergency lighting
6.6. Exit and directional signsExit and directional signs
7.7. Assembly pointsAssembly points
8.8. Occupants check listOccupants check list
Roll Call (Head Count)Roll Call (Head Count)
Emergency Evacuation PlanEmergency Evacuation Plan
►Must be approved by management andMust be approved by management and
safety personnel.safety personnel.
►Objective is to evacuate occupants quickly inObjective is to evacuate occupants quickly in
an orderly manner to safety.an orderly manner to safety.
►Occupants must be familiar with all exitOccupants must be familiar with all exit
points and assembly area (designatedpoints and assembly area (designated
area/building compound or parking lot).area/building compound or parking lot).
►Appointment of a Marshall and Wardens toAppointment of a Marshall and Wardens to
assist in evacuation and do a roll call (headassist in evacuation and do a roll call (head
Emergency Evacuation PlanEmergency Evacuation Plan
►Safety fire drills should be carried out atSafety fire drills should be carried out at
least once annually.least once annually.
►Important to shut all doors and windowsImportant to shut all doors and windows
before leaving the office/room to preventbefore leaving the office/room to prevent
oxygen from getting in.oxygen from getting in.
►Keep low when moving out when there isKeep low when moving out when there is
Incident Command OrganisationIncident Command Organisation
(Based On Incident Command System)(Based On Incident Command System)
National Inter-Agency Incident Management System
Used by FEMA and included in NFPA 1600:2000
Train personnel to treat burnsTrain personnel to treat burns
(as part of the ERP)(as part of the ERP)
Brunei SHELL ERP TrainingBrunei SHELL ERP Training
NFPA (USA)NFPA (USA)
► The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)
designed NFPA 704 as a standard for thedesigned NFPA 704 as a standard for the
Identification of the Hazards of Materials forIdentification of the Hazards of Materials for
Emergency Response.Emergency Response.
► This is commonly known as theThis is commonly known as the NFPANFPA
DIAMONDDIAMOND. The four section multicolor diamond. The four section multicolor diamond
shape indicates the health, flammability, instabilityshape indicates the health, flammability, instability
and related hazards that are presented by short-and related hazards that are presented by short-
term, acute exposure to a material during a fire,term, acute exposure to a material during a fire,
spill or other emergency-related condition.spill or other emergency-related condition.
► These identifiers in sign form are found on theThese identifiers in sign form are found on the
outside doors or walls and the inside of manyoutside doors or walls and the inside of many
facilities that use chemicals in their dailyfacilities that use chemicals in their daily
4 Danger May be fatal on short exposure. Specialized protective equipment required
3 Warning Corrosive or toxic. Avoid skin contact or inhalation
2 Warning May be harmful if inhaled or absorbed
1 Caution May be irritating
0 No unusual hazard
4 Danger Flammable gas or extremely flammable liquid
3 Warning Flammable liquid flash point below 100° F
2 Caution Combustible liquid flash point of 100° to 200° F
1 Combustible if heated
0 Not combustible
4 Danger Explosive material at room temperature
3 Danger May be explosive if shocked, heated under confinement or mixed with water
2 Warning Unstable or may react violently if mixed with water
1 Caution May react if heated or mixed with water but not violently
0 Stable Not reactive when mixed with water
Special Notice Key (White)
W Water Reactive
Oxy Oxidizing Agent
The HAZARD – NOXIOUSThe HAZARD – NOXIOUS
Death from Noxious GasDeath from Noxious Gas
The most common cause of
death in fires is the inhalation
of noxious gases rather than
Respiratory failureRespiratory failure
►Toxic smoke can cause respiratory failureToxic smoke can cause respiratory failure
leading to unconsciousness/death and isleading to unconsciousness/death and is
therefore acute in nature.therefore acute in nature.
►The exchange of gases in the alveolus areThe exchange of gases in the alveolus are
affected and breathing becomes difficultaffected and breathing becomes difficult
when oxygenation is hampered (not enoughwhen oxygenation is hampered (not enough
oxygen in the cells).oxygen in the cells).
Exchange of Gases in lungsExchange of Gases in lungs
Hydrogen Cyanide GasHydrogen Cyanide Gas
►Hydrogen cyanide gas, the most toxicHydrogen cyanide gas, the most toxic
product of combustion, is seldomproduct of combustion, is seldom
recognized as a significant hazard in smokerecognized as a significant hazard in smoke
►Sources of cyanide toxicity include theSources of cyanide toxicity include the
increased use of synthetic polymers inincreased use of synthetic polymers in
building materials and furnishings.building materials and furnishings.
Therapy for cyanide intoxicationTherapy for cyanide intoxication
►Prompt recognition of and therapy forPrompt recognition of and therapy for
cyanide intoxication may reduce thecyanide intoxication may reduce the
morbidity and number of delayed deaths inmorbidity and number of delayed deaths in
fire victims.fire victims.
Handling and Storage ofHandling and Storage of
Hazardous MaterialsHazardous Materials
►CLASS Regulations in MalaysiaCLASS Regulations in Malaysia
The 5 basic rules:The 5 basic rules:
1. Handle with care1. Handle with care i.e. refer SDSi.e. refer SDS
2. Proper containers/packaging2. Proper containers/packaging
3. All containers to have a lid each3. All containers to have a lid each
4. Label all containers4. Label all containers
5. Store separately5. Store separately
CLASS Regulations 2013CLASS Regulations 2013
The CLASS Regulations, promulgated under theThe CLASS Regulations, promulgated under the
OSH Act 1994,OSH Act 1994, has replacedhas replaced the OSHthe OSH
(Classification, Packaging and Labelling of(Classification, Packaging and Labelling of
Hazardous Chemicals) Regulations 1997, knownHazardous Chemicals) Regulations 1997, known
as the CPL Regulations).as the CPL Regulations).
The main objective of the CLASS Regulations is toThe main objective of the CLASS Regulations is to
ensure chemicals supplied provide sufficientensure chemicals supplied provide sufficient
information on hazards of chemicals, so as toinformation on hazards of chemicals, so as to
mitigate the risk of accidents happening at themitigate the risk of accidents happening at the
INTENDED LEARNINGINTENDED LEARNING
Participants shall be able to:Participants shall be able to:
Identify basic fire hazards in the workplace.Identify basic fire hazards in the workplace.
Evaluate the main fire risks in a workplace.Evaluate the main fire risks in a workplace.
Advise on basic fire prevention and prevention ofAdvise on basic fire prevention and prevention of
fire spread in buildings.fire spread in buildings.
Identify appropriate fire alarm system and fire-Identify appropriate fire alarm system and fire-
fighting equipment for the workplace.fighting equipment for the workplace.
Assess the adequacy and maintenance ofAssess the adequacy and maintenance of
existing means of escape in a workplace.existing means of escape in a workplace.
Implement a successful evacuation of aImplement a successful evacuation of a
workplace in the event of a fire.workplace in the event of a fire.
Make Your Workplace SaferMake Your Workplace Safer
Fire Safety is everyFire Safety is every