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Fire Safety Dip. OSH

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Fire Safety Dip. OSH

  1. 1. Fire SafetyFire Safety incorporating the Hazards, Risks and Controlincorporating the Hazards, Risks and Control MeasuresMeasures Prepared by Dr. Julian Jolly, PhD (UK)Prepared by Dr. Julian Jolly, PhD (UK) SIIRSM, UK.SIIRSM, UK. TTT (NIOSH)TTT (NIOSH) Executive Diploma in OSHExecutive Diploma in OSH 1
  2. 2. FIREFIRE 2
  3. 3. 3
  4. 4. Key Learning ElementsKey Learning Elements ►To explain the science of fire.To explain the science of fire. ►To illustrate fire protection goals.To illustrate fire protection goals. ►To describe the potential hazards and risksTo describe the potential hazards and risks leading to a fire at the workplace.leading to a fire at the workplace. ►To highlight the control measures to preventTo highlight the control measures to prevent fires.fires. ►To identify the various Alarm and SprinklerTo identify the various Alarm and Sprinkler systems in use.systems in use. ►To explain the evacuation plan in the event ofTo explain the evacuation plan in the event of a fire.a fire. 4
  5. 5. ManagementManagement Why do we need Fire Safety?Why do we need Fire Safety? 5
  6. 6. Fire Protection GoalsFire Protection Goals ►Life safety (human life).Life safety (human life). ►Property protection (buildings and assets).Property protection (buildings and assets). ►Continuity of operations (financial andContinuity of operations (financial and economic loss).economic loss). 6
  7. 7. Fires are costlyFires are costly 7
  8. 8. Explosion from firesExplosion from fires 8
  9. 9. People die in trying to save othersPeople die in trying to save others 9
  10. 10. ScienceScience What is Fire?What is Fire? 10
  11. 11. The ScienceThe Science ►A process or chemical reaction calledA process or chemical reaction called COMBUSTIONCOMBUSTION ►The process worksThe process works onlyonly when 3 elementswhen 3 elements are present namely:are present namely: OxygenOxygen FuelFuel ((not confined to petrol or gasnot confined to petrol or gas)) HeatHeat ►The chain-reaction causes FLAME.The chain-reaction causes FLAME. 11
  12. 12. The Fire TriangleThe Fire Triangle 12
  13. 13. The FlameThe Flame ►Known as theKnown as the FIRE TRIANGLEFIRE TRIANGLE, the, the chemical reaction producing the flamechemical reaction producing the flame persistspersists when all 3 elements remain withoutwhen all 3 elements remain without being stopped (extinguished) eitherbeing stopped (extinguished) either voluntarily or otherwise.voluntarily or otherwise. ►Flame is energy released into theFlame is energy released into the atmosphere.atmosphere. ►It is dangerous and unpredictable (canIt is dangerous and unpredictable (can reach 2000°F in a matter of seconds).reach 2000°F in a matter of seconds). 13
  14. 14. Fire ChemistryFire Chemistry 1.1. HeatHeat The temperature at which a materialThe temperature at which a material produces a vapour, and the temperatureproduces a vapour, and the temperature at which vapours will burn. (Vapours willat which vapours will burn. (Vapours will self-ignite if the temperature is hotself-ignite if the temperature is hot enough.)enough.) 2.2. FuelFuel The fuel for a fire may be aThe fuel for a fire may be a solid, liquid,solid, liquid, or gasor gas. The type and quantity of the fuel. The type and quantity of the fuel will determine which method should bewill determine which method should be used to extinguish the fire.used to extinguish the fire. 14
  15. 15. 3.3. OxygenOxygen Fires will burn vigorously in any atmosphere ofFires will burn vigorously in any atmosphere of at least 20 percent oxygen. Without oxygen, fuelat least 20 percent oxygen. Without oxygen, fuel could be heated until entirely vapourized, and itcould be heated until entirely vapourized, and it would not burn.would not burn. 15
  16. 16. Flammability CharacteristicsFlammability Characteristics Fire PointFire Point The temperature at which the fluid surfaceThe temperature at which the fluid surface emits enough vapour to sustain a fire for fiveemits enough vapour to sustain a fire for five seconds in the presence of a flame.seconds in the presence of a flame. 16
  17. 17. Flammability CharacteristicsFlammability Characteristics Lower and Upper Explosive Limits (LEL &Lower and Upper Explosive Limits (LEL & UEL)UEL) TheThe minimumminimum concentration of a particularconcentration of a particular combustible gas or vapour necessary tocombustible gas or vapour necessary to support its combustion in air is defined as thesupport its combustion in air is defined as the Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) for that gas.Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) for that gas. Below this level, the mixture is too “lean” toBelow this level, the mixture is too “lean” to burn. Theburn. The maximummaximum concentration of a gasconcentration of a gas or vapour that will burn in air is defined asor vapour that will burn in air is defined as the Upper Explosivethe Upper Explosive Limit (UEL).Limit (UEL). 17
  18. 18. Ignition and Self IgnitionIgnition and Self Ignition TemperatureTemperature ►Ignition occurs when the heat produced by aIgnition occurs when the heat produced by a reaction becomes sufficient to sustain areaction becomes sufficient to sustain a chemical reaction (heating a material to thechemical reaction (heating a material to the point where it spontaneously combusts).point where it spontaneously combusts). ►The Self-Ignition Temperature is theThe Self-Ignition Temperature is the minimumminimum temperature at which the self-temperature at which the self- heating properties of a material lead toheating properties of a material lead to IGNITION e.g. sparksIGNITION e.g. sparks 18
  19. 19. Other related definition of TermsOther related definition of Terms ► Apparent Ignition TemperatureApparent Ignition Temperature - the- the temperature required to begin or cause burning.temperature required to begin or cause burning. ► Flash FireFlash Fire - sudden intense fire caused by- sudden intense fire caused by ignition of flammable solids, liquids or gaseousignition of flammable solids, liquids or gaseous (e.g. 9/11).(e.g. 9/11). ► Flash PointFlash Point - lowest temperature at which a- lowest temperature at which a flammable liquid can form an ignitable mixture inflammable liquid can form an ignitable mixture in air where the vapour may cease to burn when theair where the vapour may cease to burn when the source of ignition is removed.source of ignition is removed. ► Spontaneous CombustionSpontaneous Combustion - the lowest- the lowest temperature at which a substance will ignitetemperature at which a substance will ignite without the introduction of a flame.without the introduction of a flame. 19
  20. 20. Fuels & their Flash PointsFuels & their Flash Points ►EthanolEthanol 12.8°C (55°F)12.8°C (55°F) ►GasolineGasoline (petrol)<−40°C (−40°F)(petrol)<−40°C (−40°F) ►DieselDiesel >62°C (143°F)>62°C (143°F) ►Jet fuelJet fuel >38°C (100°F)>38°C (100°F) ►KeroseneKerosene (paraffin oil)>38–72°C (100–(paraffin oil)>38–72°C (100– 162°F)162°F) ►Vegetable oilVegetable oil (canola)327°C (620°F)(canola)327°C (620°F) ►BiodieselBiodiesel >130°C (266°F)>130°C (266°F) 20
  21. 21. 21
  22. 22. Fire Spread and Heat TransferFire Spread and Heat Transfer The flame can spread and transferThe flame can spread and transfer heat in 4 ways namely:heat in 4 ways namely: ConductionConduction (solids/materials).(solids/materials). ConvectionConvection (gas or liquids/expands(gas or liquids/expands whenwhen heated).heated). RadiationRadiation (materials can be ignited if(materials can be ignited if placed too close to the source of energy orplaced too close to the source of energy or reflected from hot objectsreflected from hot objects e.g. sun’s rayse.g. sun’s rays).). Direct BurningDirect Burning (as a result of intentional(as a result of intentional ignition).ignition). 22
  23. 23. Heat TransferHeat Transfer
  24. 24. Heat Transfer and Thermal EnergyHeat Transfer and Thermal Energy 25
  25. 25. Sources of Ignition (Heat)Sources of Ignition (Heat) ►Smoker's materialsSmoker's materials ►Naked flamesNaked flames ►Fixed or portable heatersFixed or portable heaters ►Hot processesHot processes e.g. welding, heating elemente.g. welding, heating element ►Electrical equipment or machineryElectrical equipment or machinery ►Static ElectricityStatic Electricity ►CookingCooking 26
  26. 26. FrictionFriction
  27. 27. Sources of OxygenSources of Oxygen ►Oxygen suppliesOxygen supplies e.g. cylinders or pipede.g. cylinders or piped supplysupply ►Ventilation systemsVentilation systems ►Chemicals e.g.Chemicals e.g. oxidising agentsoxidising agents 28
  28. 28. Classification of FiresClassification of Fires 1.1. Class A - involving solidsClass A - involving solids e.g. woode.g. wood 2.2. Class B - involving flammable liquidsClass B - involving flammable liquids e.g. petrole.g. petrol 3.3. Class C - involving gases like LPG or acetyleneClass C - involving gases like LPG or acetylene 4.4. Class D - involving metals and metal powdersClass D - involving metals and metal powders e.g. aluminiume.g. aluminium 5.5. Class EClass E -- involving electrical firesinvolving electrical fires 6.6. Class F - involving cooking oils and fatsClass F - involving cooking oils and fats 29
  29. 29. Convection over landConvection over land 30
  30. 30. ConvectionConvection 31
  31. 31. Solar RadiationSolar Radiation 32
  32. 32. Direct BurningDirect Burning 33
  33. 33. Common Causes of FireCommon Causes of Fire Fire starts when the heat is generated by aFire starts when the heat is generated by a deliberate work process or by accident.deliberate work process or by accident. Common Causes at workplace:Common Causes at workplace: SmokingSmoking Electrical short circuitElectrical short circuit FrictionFriction HeatersHeaters SparksSparks RadiationRadiation Static Electricity DischargeStatic Electricity Discharge Chemical ReactionChemical Reaction ArsonArson 34
  34. 34. Smoking - ManagementSmoking - Management ► The prevention aspect includes administrativeThe prevention aspect includes administrative measuresmeasures e.g. awareness campaign focusing one.g. awareness campaign focusing on the ill-effects of tobaccothe ill-effects of tobacco.. ► Restricting the activity in the workplace.Restricting the activity in the workplace. ► Confining it to defined areas within the perimeterConfining it to defined areas within the perimeter of the workplaceof the workplace e.g. smoking zones.e.g. smoking zones. ► Health programme to assist smokers to quit theHealth programme to assist smokers to quit the habit.habit.
  35. 35. Short CircuitShort Circuit
  36. 36. Electrical SparksElectrical Sparks 37
  37. 37. RadiationRadiation
  38. 38. Static Electricity DischargeStatic Electricity Discharge 39
  39. 39. Static electricity is dangerousStatic electricity is dangerous
  40. 40. Exothermic Reaction betweenExothermic Reaction between Oxygen and Phosphorus.Oxygen and Phosphorus. 41
  41. 41. Removal of FireRemoval of Fire This can be achieved by 3 processes:This can be achieved by 3 processes: 1.1. Cooling - removing the heatCooling - removing the heat e.g. usinge.g. using water.water. 2.2. Starving - moving fuels/materials awayStarving - moving fuels/materials away from the area of fire or “closing off” anfrom the area of fire or “closing off” an areaarea of combustible material.of combustible material. 3.3. Smothering - limiting the oxygenSmothering - limiting the oxygen e.g. bye.g. by using a fire blanket on small fires.using a fire blanket on small fires. 42
  42. 42. Consequences of FireConsequences of Fire ►Human Loss – death from smoke inhalationHuman Loss – death from smoke inhalation and burns.and burns. ►Financial Loss – assets lost in the fire.Financial Loss – assets lost in the fire. ►Overall Business Loss – disruption toOverall Business Loss – disruption to normal operations.normal operations. ►Indirect costs (re. “Iceberg” Theory).Indirect costs (re. “Iceberg” Theory). 43
  43. 43. The Burning Process (Stages)The Burning Process (Stages) ► Can be viewed from either the MolecularCan be viewed from either the Molecular oror Macro scale.Macro scale. ► Macro Scale:Macro Scale: 1.1. Initial Fire (smoldering/presence ofInitial Fire (smoldering/presence of smoke).smoke). 2.2. Fire Build-Up (flame accelerate).Fire Build-Up (flame accelerate). 3.3. Flashover/Fully Developed Fire (stableFlashover/Fully Developed Fire (stable phase/fire propagation period).phase/fire propagation period). 4.4. Cooling Period (fire burns itself out).Cooling Period (fire burns itself out). 44
  44. 44. The 3Es to Fire SAFETYThe 3Es to Fire SAFETY 1.1. EngineeringEngineering (the UBBL or Uniform Building(the UBBL or Uniform Building By Laws 1994).By Laws 1994). 2.2. EducationEducation (fire safety program, safety audits(fire safety program, safety audits and fire drills).and fire drills). 3.3. EnforcementEnforcement (Fire Services Act 1988).(Fire Services Act 1988). 45
  45. 45. Standards and Codes (Malaysia)Standards and Codes (Malaysia) ► Malaysian Standard (MS) through SIRIMMalaysian Standard (MS) through SIRIM regulated by the Industry Standards Committeeregulated by the Industry Standards Committee or ISC with the following scope:or ISC with the following scope: ““Standardization in the Fire Safety andStandardization in the Fire Safety and Fire Prevention Sectors”.Fire Prevention Sectors”. a)a) Equipment for the prevention and suppressionEquipment for the prevention and suppression of fire extinguishing equipment, fire detectingof fire extinguishing equipment, fire detecting equipment and system and materials for fireequipment and system and materials for fire control.control. b)b) Fire test on building materials, components andFire test on building materials, components and structures.structures. 46
  46. 46. Building SafetyBuilding Safety ►It is a component of Fire Safety.It is a component of Fire Safety. ►Building a facility in compliance withBuilding a facility in compliance with approved local building codes.approved local building codes. ►Materials used for construction shallMaterials used for construction shall comply with drawing specificationscomply with drawing specifications stipulated by Engineering Architect e.g.stipulated by Engineering Architect e.g. BRC, sizes of steel bars, Y-bars, RoundBRC, sizes of steel bars, Y-bars, Round bars for footings, columns and beams.bars for footings, columns and beams. 47
  47. 47. Building SafetyBuilding Safety The following possible failure modes toThe following possible failure modes to achieve safety margins of the design areachieve safety margins of the design are considered:considered: ► Smoke leakage.Smoke leakage. ► Thermal Insulation.Thermal Insulation. ► Integrity (poor workmanship).Integrity (poor workmanship). ► Load bearing.Load bearing. 48
  48. 48. Rational Approach to accomplish BuildingRational Approach to accomplish Building Safety (Design Recommendation)Safety (Design Recommendation) ►Building compartmentation and fire ratingsBuilding compartmentation and fire ratings for fire and smoke containment.for fire and smoke containment. ►Probability analysis and risk assessments.Probability analysis and risk assessments. ►Occupant behaviour in fire situations.Occupant behaviour in fire situations. ►Fire detection and alarm systems for earlyFire detection and alarm systems for early detection of smoke and activation ofdetection of smoke and activation of alarms.alarms. ►Assessment of anticipated fire loads.Assessment of anticipated fire loads. 49
  49. 49. Rational Approach to accomplish BuildingRational Approach to accomplish Building Safety (Design Recommendation)Safety (Design Recommendation) ► Smoke hazard management systems for control ofSmoke hazard management systems for control of smoke within the building.smoke within the building. ► Emergency warning systems for early warning toEmergency warning systems for early warning to building occupants.building occupants. ► Active fire protection systems such as fireActive fire protection systems such as fire sprinklers for control of fire spread and products ofsprinklers for control of fire spread and products of combustion.combustion. ► Egress provisions, egress times and travelEgress provisions, egress times and travel distances.distances. ► Fire Brigade access and fire fighting provisions.Fire Brigade access and fire fighting provisions. 50
  50. 50. Load BearingLoad Bearing 51
  51. 51. Ultimate ObjectiveUltimate Objective 52
  52. 52. Other Important Standards/CodesOther Important Standards/Codes (used worldwide)(used worldwide) ►ASTM - International StandardASTM - International Standard /American Society for Testing and/American Society for Testing and Materials.Materials. ►BS - British Standard.BS - British Standard. ►NBS - National Bureau of StandardNBS - National Bureau of Standard (US).(US). ►JIS - Japanese Industrial Standard.JIS - Japanese Industrial Standard. 53
  53. 53. Local Authority RegulationsLocal Authority Regulations ►By-Laws set by Municipal or City CouncilsBy-Laws set by Municipal or City Councils (approval of architectural design/plan for(approval of architectural design/plan for commercial or private dwellings).commercial or private dwellings). ►Technical Specifications set byTechnical Specifications set by PETRONAS for the Oil and GasPETRONAS for the Oil and Gas industries.industries. ►Construction Industry Development BoardConstruction Industry Development Board (CIDB).(CIDB). 54
  54. 54. Education on Fire SafetyEducation on Fire Safety ► Jabatan Bomba Malaysia is tasked toJabatan Bomba Malaysia is tasked to disseminate informationdisseminate information e.g. to rural areas.e.g. to rural areas. ► Pamphlets on Fire Safety distributed to schools.Pamphlets on Fire Safety distributed to schools. ► Corporate bodies are alerted on fire safetyCorporate bodies are alerted on fire safety aspects in the workplace and mandatory foraspects in the workplace and mandatory for factories to train personnel as fire fighters.factories to train personnel as fire fighters. ► Members of the public are informed by theMembers of the public are informed by the Government on fire safety awarenessGovernment on fire safety awareness e.g. publice.g. public forums, TV.forums, TV. 55
  55. 55. Fire ProtectionFire Protection (achieving a balanced approach)(achieving a balanced approach) 1.Passive Fire Protection (PFP)1.Passive Fire Protection (PFP) ► Developed prior to the widespread use of ActiveDeveloped prior to the widespread use of Active Fire Protection (AFP).Fire Protection (AFP). ► Considered at design stage of buildingConsidered at design stage of building construction or facility (not limited to buildings)construction or facility (not limited to buildings) and scope includes capabilities to control or limitand scope includes capabilities to control or limit fire spread and structural fire protection.fire spread and structural fire protection. ► Compartmentalization, escape routes, number ofCompartmentalization, escape routes, number of exit points for quick evacuation, interior finishingexit points for quick evacuation, interior finishing of fire proof insulation materials, over sizing ofof fire proof insulation materials, over sizing of walls, etc.walls, etc. ► More costly to install but less costly to maintain.More costly to install but less costly to maintain. 56
  56. 56. Passive Fire ProtectionPassive Fire Protection PFP will establish 3 things:PFP will establish 3 things:  Integrity (should not allow smoke, flameIntegrity (should not allow smoke, flame through)through)  Stability (structural strength of what it isStability (structural strength of what it is protecting)protecting)  Insulation (prevent significant heatInsulation (prevent significant heat transmission).transmission). 57
  57. 57. Active Fire Protection (AFP)Active Fire Protection (AFP) ►AFP appears to be leading in fire safety forAFP appears to be leading in fire safety for the 21the 21stst century.century. ►Main item used extensively is theMain item used extensively is the “Sprinkler” system.“Sprinkler” system. ►Emergency Voice Alarm CommunicationEmergency Voice Alarm Communication (EVAC) is widely used in large factories(EVAC) is widely used in large factories and office facility (i.e. clear spokenand office facility (i.e. clear spoken instruction).instruction). ►Although lesser capital to install, it requiresAlthough lesser capital to install, it requires significant operational resources.significant operational resources. 58
  58. 58. Sprinkler SystemSprinkler System (refer separate module)(refer separate module) 59
  59. 59. Fire Risk ManagementFire Risk Management ► It involves the study of the behaviour,It involves the study of the behaviour, compartmentalization, suppression andcompartmentalization, suppression and investigation of fire.investigation of fire. ► It is fundamentally based on 2 principles:It is fundamentally based on 2 principles: a) Controlling combustible materials (propera) Controlling combustible materials (proper storage and labelling).storage and labelling). b) Controlling ignition source (safe and goodb) Controlling ignition source (safe and good housekeeping especially with electricalhousekeeping especially with electrical equipment and system).equipment and system). 60
  60. 60. Control MeasuresControl Measures 1.1. Elimination of or reduction in the use andElimination of or reduction in the use and storage of flammable and combustiblestorage of flammable and combustible materials.materials. 2.2. Control ignition sources.Control ignition sources. 3.3. Systems of work.Systems of work. 4.4. Good Housekeeping.Good Housekeeping. 5.5. Safe storage and use of flammable liquids.Safe storage and use of flammable liquids. 61
  61. 61. CompartmentalizationCompartmentalization 62
  62. 62. Structural Measure to preventStructural Measure to prevent spread of Fire & Smokespread of Fire & Smoke 1.1. CompartmentsCompartments 2.2. Properties of buildingsProperties of buildings  Steel framesSteel frames  ConcreteConcrete  TimberTimber  BricksBricks  Blocks and boardsBlocks and boards  Fire rated doorsFire rated doors 63
  63. 63. Alarm SystemAlarm System ► It is an Active Fire Protection System (AFP).It is an Active Fire Protection System (AFP). ► Either MANUALEither MANUAL oror AUTOMATIC.AUTOMATIC. ► Detects fireDetects fire oror the effects of fire.the effects of fire. ► Alert the occupants (Activation of lights, bells,Alert the occupants (Activation of lights, bells, sirens/PA).sirens/PA). ► Controls the fire alarm components in the facility.Controls the fire alarm components in the facility. ► Requires periodic testing and maintenance.Requires periodic testing and maintenance. ► Alert the Fire Services automatically.Alert the Fire Services automatically. 64
  64. 64. Detection SystemDetection System Detection is a means to trace smoke in theDetection is a means to trace smoke in the presence of a fire.presence of a fire. ► Manual systemsManual systems ► Manual / electricManual / electric ► Automatic detectorAutomatic detector 65
  65. 65. Manual Alarm SystemManual Alarm System ►Manual - suitable for small workplaceManual - suitable for small workplace e.g.e.g. hand bells and whistleshand bells and whistles.. ►Located on walls or staircases.Located on walls or staircases. ►Continuous alarm is not guaranteed.Continuous alarm is not guaranteed. ►Will not work if occupants are complacent.Will not work if occupants are complacent. 66
  66. 66. Automatic Detectors/AlarmAutomatic Detectors/Alarm SystemSystem ►Automatic Detectors - mounted on ceilingAutomatic Detectors - mounted on ceiling air ducts, even outside of buildings.air ducts, even outside of buildings. ►Louder thus more effective.Louder thus more effective. ►Computerized to ensure efficiency.Computerized to ensure efficiency. ►Automatic shutdown featuresAutomatic shutdown features e.g. used ine.g. used in the Oil and Gas facilities.the Oil and Gas facilities. ►Models vary - detect smoke and fumes orModels vary - detect smoke and fumes or may incorporate sensors/cells.may incorporate sensors/cells. 67
  67. 67. Fire Alarm Shut-Down SystemFire Alarm Shut-Down System ►State-of-the-art detecting senses resultingState-of-the-art detecting senses resulting in a signal being sent to the Control Panelin a signal being sent to the Control Panel or Unit which can be located miles awayor Unit which can be located miles away e.g. Offshore Platforms with the Panele.g. Offshore Platforms with the Panel Onshore.Onshore. ►Fire Alarm Control Unit which receive allFire Alarm Control Unit which receive all the data (Control Unit is normally mannedthe data (Control Unit is normally manned on a 24-hour basis).on a 24-hour basis). 68
  68. 68. Fire Break Glass AlarmFire Break Glass Alarm 69
  69. 69. Smoke DetectorsSmoke Detectors 70
  70. 70. Sprinkler headSprinkler head 71
  71. 71. Suppression of FireSuppression of Fire The 3 main categories are:The 3 main categories are: ►Starvation - removing the fuel.Starvation - removing the fuel. ►Smothering - removing the oxygen.Smothering - removing the oxygen. ►Cooling - removing the heat.Cooling - removing the heat. Important NoteImportant Note WATER -WATER - not effective for Class C fire butnot effective for Class C fire but excellent for Class A fire.excellent for Class A fire. 72
  72. 72. 73 Portable Fire Fighting EquipmentsPortable Fire Fighting Equipments 1.1. Portable Fire ExtinguishersPortable Fire Extinguishers  MarkingMarking  SitingSiting  MaintenanceMaintenance  TrainingTraining 1.1. Fire blanketsFire blankets
  73. 73. 74 Other Fire Fighting EquipmentsOther Fire Fighting Equipments ►Hose ReelsHose Reels ►HydrantsHydrants ►Foam SystemFoam System ►Automatic SprinklerAutomatic Sprinkler
  74. 74. Fire Hose ReelFire Hose Reel 75
  75. 75. Types of Fire ExtinguishersTypes of Fire Extinguishers There are 5 types of Fire Extinguishers :There are 5 types of Fire Extinguishers : ► WaterWater (heat removal on Class A fires/marking(heat removal on Class A fires/marking RED).RED). ► Dry ChemicalDry Chemical (sodium bicarbonate base/Class(sodium bicarbonate base/Class B and C fires/marking BLUE).B and C fires/marking BLUE). ► HalonHalon (Class B and C fires/marking BLUE).(Class B and C fires/marking BLUE). ► Carbon DioxideCarbon Dioxide (Class B and C fires/marking(Class B and C fires/marking BLACK).BLACK). ► FoamFoam (used for specific purpose/marking(used for specific purpose/marking CREAM).CREAM). 76
  76. 76. Extinguishing MediaExtinguishing Media 1.1. WaterWater 2.2. FoamFoam 3.3. Dry powderDry powder 4.4. Carbon dioxideCarbon dioxide 5.5. Vaporising liquidsVaporising liquids FM 200FM 200 ArgoniteArgonite PyrogenPyrogen NitrogenNitrogen 77
  77. 77. Portable Fire ExtinguishersPortable Fire Extinguishers
  78. 78. Real pictures of FEReal pictures of FE 79
  79. 79. How to handle a FireHow to handle a Fire ExtinguisherExtinguisher A portable fire extinguisher includes theA portable fire extinguisher includes the following components:following components:  Pressure gaugePressure gauge  HoseHose  CylinderCylinder  Carrying handle and triggerCarrying handle and trigger RememberRemember PASSPASS.. Pull, Aim, Squeeze, SweepPull, Aim, Squeeze, Sweep .. ►Always aim at the base of the fireAlways aim at the base of the fire ►Do not handle the extinguisher if in doubt.Do not handle the extinguisher if in doubt. 80
  80. 80. Emergency Evacuation ProceduresEmergency Evacuation Procedures oror Egress SystemEgress System 1.1. Emergency Response PlanEmergency Response Plan 2.2. Emergency Response TeamsEmergency Response Teams 3.3. Fire Marshalls or WardensFire Marshalls or Wardens 4.4. Fire DrillsFire Drills 5.5. Roll CallRoll Call 6.6. Provision for the infirm and disabledProvision for the infirm and disabled 81
  81. 81. Establish the followingEstablish the following 1.1. Travel distanceTravel distance 2.2. StairsStairs 3.3. PassagewaysPassageways 4.4. DoorsDoors 5.5. Emergency lightingEmergency lighting 6.6. Exit and directional signsExit and directional signs 7.7. Assembly pointsAssembly points 8.8. Occupants check listOccupants check list 82
  82. 82. Roll Call (Head Count)Roll Call (Head Count) 83
  83. 83. Assembly PointAssembly Point 84
  84. 84. Emergency Evacuation PlanEmergency Evacuation Plan ►Must be approved by management andMust be approved by management and safety personnel.safety personnel. ►Objective is to evacuate occupants quickly inObjective is to evacuate occupants quickly in an orderly manner to safety.an orderly manner to safety. ►Occupants must be familiar with all exitOccupants must be familiar with all exit points and assembly area (designatedpoints and assembly area (designated area/building compound or parking lot).area/building compound or parking lot). ►Appointment of a Marshall and Wardens toAppointment of a Marshall and Wardens to assist in evacuation and do a roll call (headassist in evacuation and do a roll call (head count).count). 85
  85. 85. Emergency Evacuation PlanEmergency Evacuation Plan ►Safety fire drills should be carried out atSafety fire drills should be carried out at least once annually.least once annually. ►Important to shut all doors and windowsImportant to shut all doors and windows before leaving the office/room to preventbefore leaving the office/room to prevent oxygen from getting in.oxygen from getting in. ►Keep low when moving out when there isKeep low when moving out when there is smoke.smoke. 86
  86. 86. Incident Command OrganisationIncident Command Organisation (Based On Incident Command System)(Based On Incident Command System) Operations •Damage Control (Fire Fighting, etc.) •Rescue •Evacuation •Traffic Control Planning •Situation Analysis •Records •Documents •Strategy Logistics •Communications •HR •ECC •First Aid •Transport •IT Administration •Legal •Procurement •Recovery Incident Commander National Inter-Agency Incident Management System Used by FEMA and included in NFPA 1600:2000
  87. 87. Train personnel to treat burnsTrain personnel to treat burns (as part of the ERP)(as part of the ERP)
  88. 88. Brunei SHELL ERP TrainingBrunei SHELL ERP Training 89
  89. 89. 90 NFPA CHEMICAL LABELNFPA CHEMICAL LABEL
  90. 90. NFPA (USA)NFPA (USA) ► The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) designed NFPA 704 as a standard for thedesigned NFPA 704 as a standard for the Identification of the Hazards of Materials forIdentification of the Hazards of Materials for Emergency Response.Emergency Response. ► This is commonly known as theThis is commonly known as the NFPANFPA DIAMONDDIAMOND. The four section multicolor diamond. The four section multicolor diamond shape indicates the health, flammability, instabilityshape indicates the health, flammability, instability and related hazards that are presented by short-and related hazards that are presented by short- term, acute exposure to a material during a fire,term, acute exposure to a material during a fire, spill or other emergency-related condition.spill or other emergency-related condition. ► These identifiers in sign form are found on theThese identifiers in sign form are found on the outside doors or walls and the inside of manyoutside doors or walls and the inside of many facilities that use chemicals in their dailyfacilities that use chemicals in their daily processes.processes. 91
  91. 91. Health (Blue) 4 Danger May be fatal on short exposure. Specialized protective equipment required 3 Warning Corrosive or toxic. Avoid skin contact or inhalation 2 Warning May be harmful if inhaled or absorbed 1 Caution May be irritating 0 No unusual hazard Flammability (Red) 4 Danger Flammable gas or extremely flammable liquid 3 Warning Flammable liquid flash point below 100° F 2 Caution Combustible liquid flash point of 100° to 200° F 1 Combustible if heated 0 Not combustible Reactivity (Yellow) 4 Danger Explosive material at room temperature 3 Danger May be explosive if shocked, heated under confinement or mixed with water 2 Warning Unstable or may react violently if mixed with water 1 Caution May react if heated or mixed with water but not violently 0 Stable Not reactive when mixed with water Special Notice Key (White) W Water Reactive Oxy Oxidizing Agent
  92. 92. The HAZARD – NOXIOUSThe HAZARD – NOXIOUS SMOKESMOKE 93
  93. 93. 94
  94. 94. Death from Noxious GasDeath from Noxious Gas The most common cause of death in fires is the inhalation of noxious gases rather than thermal injury. 95
  95. 95. Respiratory failureRespiratory failure ►Toxic smoke can cause respiratory failureToxic smoke can cause respiratory failure leading to unconsciousness/death and isleading to unconsciousness/death and is therefore acute in nature.therefore acute in nature. ►The exchange of gases in the alveolus areThe exchange of gases in the alveolus are affected and breathing becomes difficultaffected and breathing becomes difficult when oxygenation is hampered (not enoughwhen oxygenation is hampered (not enough oxygen in the cells).oxygen in the cells).
  96. 96. Exchange of Gases in lungsExchange of Gases in lungs
  97. 97. Hydrogen Cyanide GasHydrogen Cyanide Gas ►Hydrogen cyanide gas, the most toxicHydrogen cyanide gas, the most toxic product of combustion, is seldomproduct of combustion, is seldom recognized as a significant hazard in smokerecognized as a significant hazard in smoke inhalation.inhalation. ►Sources of cyanide toxicity include theSources of cyanide toxicity include the increased use of synthetic polymers inincreased use of synthetic polymers in building materials and furnishings.building materials and furnishings. 98
  98. 98. Therapy for cyanide intoxicationTherapy for cyanide intoxication ►Prompt recognition of and therapy forPrompt recognition of and therapy for cyanide intoxication may reduce thecyanide intoxication may reduce the morbidity and number of delayed deaths inmorbidity and number of delayed deaths in fire victims.fire victims. 99
  99. 99. RISK MANAGEMENTRISK MANAGEMENT 100
  100. 100. Management of RisksManagement of Risks 101
  101. 101. Handling and Storage ofHandling and Storage of Hazardous MaterialsHazardous Materials ►CLASS Regulations in MalaysiaCLASS Regulations in Malaysia The 5 basic rules:The 5 basic rules: 1. Handle with care1. Handle with care i.e. refer SDSi.e. refer SDS 2. Proper containers/packaging2. Proper containers/packaging 3. All containers to have a lid each3. All containers to have a lid each 4. Label all containers4. Label all containers 5. Store separately5. Store separately 102
  102. 102. CLASS Regulations 2013CLASS Regulations 2013  The CLASS Regulations, promulgated under theThe CLASS Regulations, promulgated under the OSH Act 1994,OSH Act 1994, has replacedhas replaced the OSHthe OSH (Classification, Packaging and Labelling of(Classification, Packaging and Labelling of Hazardous Chemicals) Regulations 1997, knownHazardous Chemicals) Regulations 1997, known as the CPL Regulations).as the CPL Regulations).  The main objective of the CLASS Regulations is toThe main objective of the CLASS Regulations is to ensure chemicals supplied provide sufficientensure chemicals supplied provide sufficient information on hazards of chemicals, so as toinformation on hazards of chemicals, so as to mitigate the risk of accidents happening at themitigate the risk of accidents happening at the workplace.workplace. 103
  103. 103. INTENDED LEARNINGINTENDED LEARNING OUTCOMESOUTCOMES Participants shall be able to:Participants shall be able to:  Identify basic fire hazards in the workplace.Identify basic fire hazards in the workplace.  Evaluate the main fire risks in a workplace.Evaluate the main fire risks in a workplace.  Advise on basic fire prevention and prevention ofAdvise on basic fire prevention and prevention of fire spread in buildings.fire spread in buildings.  Identify appropriate fire alarm system and fire-Identify appropriate fire alarm system and fire- fighting equipment for the workplace.fighting equipment for the workplace.  Assess the adequacy and maintenance ofAssess the adequacy and maintenance of existing means of escape in a workplace.existing means of escape in a workplace.  Implement a successful evacuation of aImplement a successful evacuation of a workplace in the event of a fire.workplace in the event of a fire. 104
  104. 104. Make Your Workplace SaferMake Your Workplace Safer Fire Safety is everyFire Safety is every worker’sworker’s responsibility!responsibility! 105

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