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FIRE MARSHAL
TRAINING
For all Fire Marshalls of Lambeth
Housing
Written by: James Vetch – Health & Safety Advisor
Class Exercise
5 minute warm up
Write down what you think cause fires,
and what Fire is made up from?
What causes a Fire
Arson – this is a deliberate act of actually setting fire to
something.
Electrical fault – this can occur when there is a faulty piece of
electrical equipment, and therefore shorts out and causes a fire,
one of the main causes of this is due to electrical extension leads
being overloaded, or even a plug socket being overloaded,
shorting out and eventually catching fire.
Process Fires – this is a fire which has actually been planned and
basicaly rages out of control,
Causes of fire
Causes of fire - cont
Fires caused by smoking materials - including cigarettes, roll-ups,
cigars and pipe tobacco - result in more deaths than any other type of
fire.
 Last year around three fires a day in London were linked to smoking
and half of accidental fire deaths were related to
careless disposal of cigarettes.
 See the next four slides of smoking in bed and what can happen in
the four stages before fire is out of control and full flame
Fire Training
(what is covered in the Presentation)
 What is Fire & the Fire Triangle and what is it made up from?
 Statistics
 Regulatory Reform Fire (Safety Order) 2005
 How to prevent Fires
 How Fires Spread
 Different types of fire and how they are Categorised
 Causes of fire: Arson / Electrical / Process Fires / Smoking Materials
Fire Training
(what is covered in the Presentation cont)
 Typical Fire Safety Signs
 Fire Action Notices and what do you do upon hearing the fire alarm
 What is the Role of a Fire Marshal & Fire Marshals Fighting Fires
 The Fire Risk Assessment?
 5 Categories of fire
 Fire Extinguisher chart
 How to use a fire extinguisher correctly, and Identifying the right
one
Fire Training
(what is covered in the Presentation cont)
 Means of escape
 Fire Drill?
 Short film on Focus On Fire 11 Minutes
 Fire Safety Quiz
 Finish – Fill out Training Evaluation
What is a Fire and the Fire Triangle
Fire is the following:
 Heat
 Fuel
 Oxygen
 To start a fire you need these
three elements, this is known
as the Fire Triangle shown
below.
FuelHeat
Oxygen
Sources of fuel
 Gas cylinders.
 Oil and fuel containers.
 Piles of waste materials, such as paper, cardboard, etc.
 Stacks of timber.
 Furniture and fittings.
 Soft furnishings such as curtains, carpets, etc.
The Fire Triangle
The Fire Triangle - cont
Sources of heat
 Matches and smoking materials.
 Sparks from faulty electrical equipment.
 Overheated machinery and equipment.
 Hot surfaces.
 Sparks from abrasive wheels.
 Welding and cutting torches.
 Electric heaters.
 Tungsten light bulbs.
 Catering equipment.
The Fire Triangle - cont
Sources of oxygen
 The air around us is 21% oxygen.
 Oxygen cylinders.
 Some chemical substances are oxidising by their nature, e.g. nitric
acid, hydrogen peroxide, etc.
The Fire Triangle - cont
Sources of oxygen
 The air around us is 21% oxygen.
 Oxygen cylinders.
 Some chemical substances are oxidising by their nature, e.g. nitric
acid, hydrogen peroxide, etc.
Fire Rescue Statistics in UK
• Arson: On average 43% of all fires are
caused by arson.
• The other 57% are caused by
accidents. This category includes fires
caused by cooking and cooking
appliances, hot work such as cutting
and welding, smoking, faulty electrical
circuits and appliances etc.
• The Fire & Rescue Service receives 1.2
million calls of reported fires per
annum.
Fire Rescue Statistics in UK - cont
• On average, 550 people are killed and
over 15,000 are injured as a result of
fires.
• Losses due to fires is about £1.5 billion
per annum.
• 80% businesses that suffer a fire never
recover.
Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005
What does the regulation state:
 The Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005 ("the Order") came
into force on 1 October 2006. It applies to all non-domestic
premises in England and Wales.
 The Order sets out the duties of the person responsible for premises
(known in the Order as the "responsible person"). Other persons in
control of premises are under duties parallel to those of a
responsible person.
 The responsible person is required to carry out a suitable and
sufficient fire risk assessment and then implement the necessary fire
precautions and management
Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005
 The main requirement of the (Fire Safety) Order 2005 is to have a
responsible trained person to carry out Fire Risk assessment, and
identify Risks and hazards., this is carried out by our Fire Risk
Assessors for Lambeth Housing, there duties will consist of:
 Consider who may be especially at risk from Fire within the
workplace?
 So far as reasonably practicable to eliminate the risk from fire.
(make sure the place is clean and tidy and free from materials
which could start a fire).
 Review the findings of the Risk Assessment as necessary.
 To be responsible for all aspects of Fire Safety within the workplace.
Class Exercise
5 minutes
Write down how you think how
we can prevent fires from
happening.
How do we prevent fires from
happening
How to prevent Fires
• Keep the workplace tidy - remove waste materials regularly.
• Keep electrical equipment well maintained.
• Obey smoking rules.
• Don’t overload electrical sockets and check appliance cables for
wear.
• Prevent sparks from reaching flammable materials.
How to prevent Fires - cont
• Not allow the accumulation of large amounts of combustible materials
around workplaces, escape routes or in lift lobbies.
• Not obstruct fire escapes, fire exits or any fire-related equipment.
• Familiarize themselves with their nearest means of escape in the
event of a fire.
• Not obstruct ventilation grills on electrical equipment.
• Ensure that self-closing fire/smoke doors are not wedged in the open
position.
• Observe the smoking policy for the building.
Class Exercise
On your Exercise 1 Hand Out
Write down the six ways in which
you think fires might spread
How do Fires Spread
How Fires spread
1. Radiation – Radiated heat may be sufficient to cause some
materials to ignite from quite a distance.
2. Direct Burning – Quite simply the act of setting fire to
something.
3. Flashover – combination of all four methods as stated, fire starts
in a small area with good supply of oxygen, causing high temps.
The hot gases given off the materials will then ignite causing a
fireball effect.
4. Conduction – transmitting of heat through certain materials.
5. Convection – this is where the temp of the gases which have
been unable to escape will collect at the highest level and cause
ignition of surrounding materials to burn.
How Fires spread - cont
6) Back Draft – When a fire starts in enclosed space, with little or
know oxygen as fire gets hold it starts to go out, however the fire
is at Such a high temp that if more oxygen is allowed to enter into
room then this will cause re-ignition, and cause the flames to
spread at the point where oxygen has entered the room.
Note:
Escape from flashover is nearly impossible. Recognizing the
warning signs and knowing how to prevent them will do more to
ensure your safety. We know the warning signs, but you must be
able to react to them. A flashover can occur in 10 seconds. This will
allow the average firefighter the time to travel approximately five
feet to an exit. If operating a hoseline is not an option, then go out
a window or move to another room and close the door if possible.
This will give you some protection.
This building is an example
as to what happens when
you get a Back draft, as you
can see by the picture the
fire has got hold of the
building, and where the
oxygen has entered the
room the fire has raged to a
point of no return, and the
fire has spread very quickly
up into the roof and really
got a hold, and basically
burnt this building in
minutes.
Example of a backdraft
Class Exercise
On your Exercise 2 Hand Out
10 minutes
Write down what control
measures you would introduce on
the fire prevention exercise
Identifying and Controlling Risks
Exercise
Fire Prevention Exercise
Fire Prevention At Work Exercise 1
Identifying and controlling risks
The purpose of this exercise is to raise awareness of particular risks and how
they can be controlled. What is the particular hazard in the case scenario and
how can the risk be reduced.
There is an emergency light which does not appear to have an LED light on
it, also the smoke alarm up above appears to be covered with a piece of
plastic. What are the risks and how might they be reduced.

Fire Prevention Exercise - Answers
 This could be a faulty unit or it might have just gone out, whatever the case
this unit would need investigating and replaced if necessary.
 The unit could hinder an evacuation should there be a density of smoke.
 The fact the light does not work could potentially put lives at risk.
 Make sure the units are inspected at regular intervals so not to put lives in
danger or risk.
 The smoke alarm would be useless in the event of a fire as by the time the
smoke had eventually penetrated the alarm, there would be a severe build
up of smoke or even fire.
 Dangerous to lives and as a result could put lives at risk.
 Make sure that smoke detectors are regularly inspected and that if there has
been some building work going on, that the cover is removed at the end of
the working day.
 Regular testing of the alarm system will help to reduce this type of
problem, and identify potential problems with the alarm system.
Typical Fire Safety Signs
Fire door sign – when you see
this sign you will know it is a
fire door and will have 30
minutes before the door lets
the fire through.
Fire alarm call point sign
Typical Fire Safety Signs - cont
Fire escape route sign
(Arrow indicates direction of exit)
Position of fire assembly point
Fire Alarm System
Manual fire alarm break glass call point
• On discovering a fire - break the glass.
Manual door release point (if
applicable)
Emergency door release - break the
glass.
Operating the fire alarm
system
Fire Action Notice
The Fire Action Notice will
tell you what to do in the
event of discovering a fire,
and where to assemble,
there should be several of
these dotted around the
Lambeth Housing offices.
Make sure you know what
to do in an emergency.
What do you do when hearing the Fire
Alarm
 When hearing the alarm if it goes on for longer than a minute you
need to stop what you are doing and leave the office building you
are in by the nearest fire exit as quickly and safely as possible,
switch off any electrical equipment that might be a danger if left, do
not collect any personal belongings, close doors and windows
behind you, and assemble at the designated assembly point, for
your particular building.
 If you have visitors you need to make sure they know where to
assemble, likewise if you have persons with special needs or in a
wheelchair then special arrangements will need to be made to make
sure they leave the building safely. This will be coordinated by you
as Fire Marshals for the Housing office’s.
The Role Of A Fire Marshal
 A Fire Marshal is very important to the Housing Office as they are
very important when it come to fire evacuation, they are responsible
for evacuating persons out of the building safely and calmly.
 A Fire Marshal knows the appropriate action in the event of fire,
such as closing doors and windows, making a thorough search of
their area to make sure no one is still in the office, and making
arrangements for persons who might be disabled or have special
needs, to be evacuated safely.
 A Fire Marshal is a trained person who can tackle small fires and use
the correct fire extinguishers without endangering themselves or
others.
 The Fire Marshal regardless of Job Status overalls everyone else in
an emergency situation unless they themselves are trained, e.g. The
office manager or your line manager.
Fire Marshal Fighting Fires
How to remove the fire using the elements from the Fire
Triangle
As stated in the Fire Triangle, Heat, Fuel and oxygen are needed for
a fire to start, and one ore more of these elements must be
removed to extinguish it.
Heat: can be removed by COOLING such as applying water.
Oxygen: can be removed by SMOTHERING the fire, like applying
foam or carbon dioxide.
Fuel: removing the source means turning of the supply STARVING
e.g turning off the gas or other fuel supply or switching the
electricity off.
Fire Marshal Fighting Fires
(cont)
Safety Procedures when using fire fighting equipment
Personal safety is of paramount importance in any fire situation,
only suitably trained persons should attempt to extinguish a fire,
this is where you as fire marshals have an important role.
When dealing with a fire however small the fire is as Fire Marshals it
is important that you must observe the following:
 Remain between the fire and the exit
 Use the correct extinguisher for the fire, or the substance which is
on fire
 Keep low and out of the heat and smoke.
 Call the fire service to check the fire is completely extinguished and
has not spread.
 If in doubt GET OUT
Class Exercise
On your Exercise 3 Hand Out
Write down the Five stages of Fire
Risk Assessment
Name the Five stages of Fire Risk
Assessment
Fire Risk Assessment
There are five stages of Fire Risk Assessment and they are:
 To identify all potential fire hazards, and consider how Fire could
start.
 To identify everyone at risk, employers, employees, contractors,
people who are vulnerable such as a disabled person.
 Evaluation & Action consider the hazards and people identified in 1
and 2 and act to remove and reduce risk to protect people and
premises.
 To record, plan and train keep a record of the risks and action
taken. Make a clear plan for fire safety and ensure that people
understand what they need to do in the event of a fire.
 To review the assessment regularly, or when new hazards
identified.
Categories of Fire
There are 5 categories of Fire and these are the following:
Class A: Fires involving solid materials usually organic nature such as
wood, paper, natural fibres in clothing or furniture.
Class B: Fires involving flammable liquids, such as petrol ,oil, grease,
fat and paint.
Class C: Fires involving gases or liquefies gases, such as mains gas,
propane, butane or methane.
Class D: Fires involving metals such as aluminium, sodium and
magnesium.
Class F: Fires involving cooking fats, such as chip pan fires.
Class Exercise
On your Exercise 4 Hand Out Fire
Extinguisher Chart
Write down what you think are
the correct Fire Extinguishers to
use on the 5 different categories
of fire
Based on the Five Categories of Fire
Fire Extinguisher Chart – Exercise 4 Hand-Out
Water Foam Dry
Powder
Carbon
Dioxide
Fire
Blanket
Wood
Paper
Textiles
Flammable
Liquids
Gaseous
Substances
Live
Electrical
Hot Fat
Confined
Space
Fire Extinguisher Chart
Water Foam Dry
Powder
Carbon
Dioxide
Fire
Blanket
Wood Yes Yes Yes No No
Paper Yes Yes Yes No No
Textiles Yes Yes Yes No No
Flammable
Liquids
No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Gaseous
Substances
No No Yes No No
Live
Electrical
No No Yes Yes No
Hot Fat No No No No Yes
Confined
Space
Yes Yes Yes No Yes
HOW TO USE A FIRE EXTINGUISHER
SAFELY
Mr Flame Guy
What Is A Fire Extinguisher And Which
One Do I Use
 A Fire Extinguisher is Fire Fighting equipment to extinguish fires
safely, and if used properly will save lives.
 All Extinguishers are red in colour as per EU Directive and identified
by colour band no more than 5% of extinguisher. For example Blue
band = ABC Powder.
 There are Five main types of extinguisher and they are the
following:
– Water – (paper, wood, textiles) – Solid Materials
– Carbon Dioxide – (flammable liquids, live electrical)
– Foam – (wood, paper, textiles, flammable liquids)
– Powder – (textiles, paper, wood, gaseous substances, flammable
liquids, live electrical)
– Wet Chemical – (flammable Liquids & Cooking Oils)
Lambeth Housing uses two types of Fire
Extinguisher as shown
6Ltr Water Extinguisher 2Kg CO2 Extinguisher
Class Exercise
Would Anybody like to
demonstrate at handling a fire
extinguisher to see if they can
adopt the correct method
Practical Demonstration on Fire
Extinguishers
There is a special acronym known as PASS (shown below) when
referring to Fire Extinguishers. This should always be adopted when
using Extinguishers to fight any fire.
• Pull – Pull out the pin
• Aim – Aim at the fire
• Squeeze – Squeeze the trigger
• Sweep – use a sweeping method of extinguishing the fire.
Note: Golden rule when fighting fires always phone the Fire Brigade 999
first before attempting to put out any fire.
How To Use A Fire Extinguisher
Safely
How To Use A Fire Extinguisher Safely with PASS
Means Of Escape
This is the identified escape route from any part of the Housing office
premises to a place of safety, where they are free from obstruction and
all exits are clear at all times.
Points to consider would be the following:
 Corridors and main stairway
 Fire self closing Auto doors
 Fire Exit Doors
 Fire Exit Door Signage
 Emergency lighting
 Safe evacuation procedures and assembly point
Means Of Escape - Cont
Emergency Lighting 
 Emergency Exit Break
Glass 
The Fire Drill
The fire drill is a very important part of Lambeth Housing Office
duty as an employer to ensure that all you as staff know how to
react in the event of a fire. At least one drill every 6 months which
is law. This can either be pre-planned and letting everyone know
there is going to be a drill, at a certain time and a certain place, or
the more effective way would be to have a completely unannounced
drill.
The purpose of the fire drill is to:
 Ensure that you as staff know the correct procedure to follow in
case of fire.
 To ensure persons nominated as Fire Marshals carry out their duties
effectively.
 To underpin staff training.
 To help identify any problems with the emergency plan.
The Emergency Plan
As the Fire Risk Assessment has now been carried out and
implemented all the findings, it is a requirement of the Fire
Regulations and the Management of Health and Safety at Work
Regulations, that Lambeth Housing Office prepares an emergency
plan.
This should cover the following:
 The Fire Risk Assessment
 On going hazard identification
 Inspection and maintenance of fire precaution equipment
 Designation and duties of the fire marshals.
 Action employees should take in discovering a fire
 How people will be warned if there is a fire
 How the evacuation of the buildings will be carried out
 Where people should assemble once they have left the building and
the procedures for checking whether the building has been
evacuated
The Emergency Plan (cont)
 Identification of key escape routes, and how people can gain access
to them and escape from them to a place of safety.
 Fire fighting equipment provided.
 Arrangements for safe evacuation of people identified as being
especially at risk, such as visitors , contractors, or any person with a
disability.
 Arrangements for power supplies which made need to be stopped.
 Arrangements for high risk work areas
 Who will be responsible for calling the fire rescue services
 Procedures for liaising with the fire rescue services on their arrival
and notifying them of any special risks e.g location of flammable
materials.
 What training that employees need, and arrangements to make sure
that it is given, like todays training which you are receiving.
Focus On Fire
Sit back and relax and watch 11 minute
Video and recap on all we have spoken
about this morning, before you launch
into the Fire Safety Quiz.
The Fire Safety Quiz
Test your knowledge and understanding of what you have learnt
today in this presentation
Good luck! 15 Minutes
Can you then please fill out your Training Evaluation Sheets in
front of you when you have finished and make sure you put
your name clearly at the top and where you are from and any
comments you would like to make, so that well there are parts
of training which could be better this can be looked at for
further training, or particular parts you enjoyed more.
The Answers
1) a) Water & b)Foam
2) c) When the person in charge or the fire officer says so.
3) c) Regularly clearing rubbish and waste.
4) a) Ensure the precautions identified in the risk assessment
are maintained.
b) Taking the appropriate action in the event of fire.
c) Ongoing fire Hazards Identification and reporting to
Health & Safety Team so that immediate remedial action can
be taken.
d) Ensure so far as possible the safe evacuation of
everyone from the premises.
The Answers - cont
5) c) Green
6) c) Flammable Liquids
7) c) Operate the nearest Fire Alarm Call Point
8) Heat , Fuel , Oxygen
9) a) Fire Action notices
10) d) Evacuate immediately
11) b) Radiation, Convection, Conduction
d) Direct Burning, Flashover, Backdraft
12) a) To Identify potential Fire Hazards
b) To Identify everyone at risk
c) To Eliminate, control or avoid the Hazard
d) To consider whether the existing fire arrangements in
place are adequate or need improving
The Answers - cont
13) c) CO2
14) d) 30 minutes
15) c) The Regulatory (Fire Safety) Order 2005
16) a) Paper and waste in general
b) Furniture
Chairs & Fabrics
17) a) Flashover
18) a) Pull , Aim , Squeeze , Sweep
19) C) if the the fire is going out, close the door and
evacuate the building.
d) Always keep an exit behind you so that you can
escape quickly if need be.
THE END
 Thank you for attending this training session today, I
hope it has been helpful and will make you more aware
of how important you are as staff, and now Fire
Marshalls for Lambeth Housing, and more importantly
know what you have to do do in an emergency situation,
and that you could leave this session with a better
understanding of Fire Awareness.

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Fire Marshall Training for all Fire Marshalls in Lambeth Housing Offices

  • 1. FIRE MARSHAL TRAINING For all Fire Marshalls of Lambeth Housing Written by: James Vetch – Health & Safety Advisor
  • 2. Class Exercise 5 minute warm up Write down what you think cause fires, and what Fire is made up from? What causes a Fire
  • 3. Arson – this is a deliberate act of actually setting fire to something. Electrical fault – this can occur when there is a faulty piece of electrical equipment, and therefore shorts out and causes a fire, one of the main causes of this is due to electrical extension leads being overloaded, or even a plug socket being overloaded, shorting out and eventually catching fire. Process Fires – this is a fire which has actually been planned and basicaly rages out of control, Causes of fire
  • 4. Causes of fire - cont Fires caused by smoking materials - including cigarettes, roll-ups, cigars and pipe tobacco - result in more deaths than any other type of fire.  Last year around three fires a day in London were linked to smoking and half of accidental fire deaths were related to careless disposal of cigarettes.  See the next four slides of smoking in bed and what can happen in the four stages before fire is out of control and full flame
  • 5. Fire Training (what is covered in the Presentation)  What is Fire & the Fire Triangle and what is it made up from?  Statistics  Regulatory Reform Fire (Safety Order) 2005  How to prevent Fires  How Fires Spread  Different types of fire and how they are Categorised  Causes of fire: Arson / Electrical / Process Fires / Smoking Materials
  • 6. Fire Training (what is covered in the Presentation cont)  Typical Fire Safety Signs  Fire Action Notices and what do you do upon hearing the fire alarm  What is the Role of a Fire Marshal & Fire Marshals Fighting Fires  The Fire Risk Assessment?  5 Categories of fire  Fire Extinguisher chart  How to use a fire extinguisher correctly, and Identifying the right one
  • 7. Fire Training (what is covered in the Presentation cont)  Means of escape  Fire Drill?  Short film on Focus On Fire 11 Minutes  Fire Safety Quiz  Finish – Fill out Training Evaluation
  • 8. What is a Fire and the Fire Triangle Fire is the following:  Heat  Fuel  Oxygen  To start a fire you need these three elements, this is known as the Fire Triangle shown below. FuelHeat Oxygen
  • 9. Sources of fuel  Gas cylinders.  Oil and fuel containers.  Piles of waste materials, such as paper, cardboard, etc.  Stacks of timber.  Furniture and fittings.  Soft furnishings such as curtains, carpets, etc. The Fire Triangle
  • 10. The Fire Triangle - cont Sources of heat  Matches and smoking materials.  Sparks from faulty electrical equipment.  Overheated machinery and equipment.  Hot surfaces.  Sparks from abrasive wheels.  Welding and cutting torches.  Electric heaters.  Tungsten light bulbs.  Catering equipment.
  • 11. The Fire Triangle - cont Sources of oxygen  The air around us is 21% oxygen.  Oxygen cylinders.  Some chemical substances are oxidising by their nature, e.g. nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide, etc.
  • 12. The Fire Triangle - cont Sources of oxygen  The air around us is 21% oxygen.  Oxygen cylinders.  Some chemical substances are oxidising by their nature, e.g. nitric acid, hydrogen peroxide, etc.
  • 13. Fire Rescue Statistics in UK • Arson: On average 43% of all fires are caused by arson. • The other 57% are caused by accidents. This category includes fires caused by cooking and cooking appliances, hot work such as cutting and welding, smoking, faulty electrical circuits and appliances etc. • The Fire & Rescue Service receives 1.2 million calls of reported fires per annum.
  • 14. Fire Rescue Statistics in UK - cont • On average, 550 people are killed and over 15,000 are injured as a result of fires. • Losses due to fires is about £1.5 billion per annum. • 80% businesses that suffer a fire never recover.
  • 15. Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005 What does the regulation state:  The Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005 ("the Order") came into force on 1 October 2006. It applies to all non-domestic premises in England and Wales.  The Order sets out the duties of the person responsible for premises (known in the Order as the "responsible person"). Other persons in control of premises are under duties parallel to those of a responsible person.  The responsible person is required to carry out a suitable and sufficient fire risk assessment and then implement the necessary fire precautions and management
  • 16. Regulatory Reform (Fire Safety) Order 2005  The main requirement of the (Fire Safety) Order 2005 is to have a responsible trained person to carry out Fire Risk assessment, and identify Risks and hazards., this is carried out by our Fire Risk Assessors for Lambeth Housing, there duties will consist of:  Consider who may be especially at risk from Fire within the workplace?  So far as reasonably practicable to eliminate the risk from fire. (make sure the place is clean and tidy and free from materials which could start a fire).  Review the findings of the Risk Assessment as necessary.  To be responsible for all aspects of Fire Safety within the workplace.
  • 17. Class Exercise 5 minutes Write down how you think how we can prevent fires from happening. How do we prevent fires from happening
  • 18. How to prevent Fires • Keep the workplace tidy - remove waste materials regularly. • Keep electrical equipment well maintained. • Obey smoking rules. • Don’t overload electrical sockets and check appliance cables for wear. • Prevent sparks from reaching flammable materials.
  • 19. How to prevent Fires - cont • Not allow the accumulation of large amounts of combustible materials around workplaces, escape routes or in lift lobbies. • Not obstruct fire escapes, fire exits or any fire-related equipment. • Familiarize themselves with their nearest means of escape in the event of a fire. • Not obstruct ventilation grills on electrical equipment. • Ensure that self-closing fire/smoke doors are not wedged in the open position. • Observe the smoking policy for the building.
  • 20. Class Exercise On your Exercise 1 Hand Out Write down the six ways in which you think fires might spread How do Fires Spread
  • 21. How Fires spread 1. Radiation – Radiated heat may be sufficient to cause some materials to ignite from quite a distance. 2. Direct Burning – Quite simply the act of setting fire to something. 3. Flashover – combination of all four methods as stated, fire starts in a small area with good supply of oxygen, causing high temps. The hot gases given off the materials will then ignite causing a fireball effect. 4. Conduction – transmitting of heat through certain materials. 5. Convection – this is where the temp of the gases which have been unable to escape will collect at the highest level and cause ignition of surrounding materials to burn.
  • 22. How Fires spread - cont 6) Back Draft – When a fire starts in enclosed space, with little or know oxygen as fire gets hold it starts to go out, however the fire is at Such a high temp that if more oxygen is allowed to enter into room then this will cause re-ignition, and cause the flames to spread at the point where oxygen has entered the room. Note: Escape from flashover is nearly impossible. Recognizing the warning signs and knowing how to prevent them will do more to ensure your safety. We know the warning signs, but you must be able to react to them. A flashover can occur in 10 seconds. This will allow the average firefighter the time to travel approximately five feet to an exit. If operating a hoseline is not an option, then go out a window or move to another room and close the door if possible. This will give you some protection.
  • 23. This building is an example as to what happens when you get a Back draft, as you can see by the picture the fire has got hold of the building, and where the oxygen has entered the room the fire has raged to a point of no return, and the fire has spread very quickly up into the roof and really got a hold, and basically burnt this building in minutes. Example of a backdraft
  • 24. Class Exercise On your Exercise 2 Hand Out 10 minutes Write down what control measures you would introduce on the fire prevention exercise Identifying and Controlling Risks Exercise
  • 25. Fire Prevention Exercise Fire Prevention At Work Exercise 1 Identifying and controlling risks The purpose of this exercise is to raise awareness of particular risks and how they can be controlled. What is the particular hazard in the case scenario and how can the risk be reduced. There is an emergency light which does not appear to have an LED light on it, also the smoke alarm up above appears to be covered with a piece of plastic. What are the risks and how might they be reduced. 
  • 26. Fire Prevention Exercise - Answers  This could be a faulty unit or it might have just gone out, whatever the case this unit would need investigating and replaced if necessary.  The unit could hinder an evacuation should there be a density of smoke.  The fact the light does not work could potentially put lives at risk.  Make sure the units are inspected at regular intervals so not to put lives in danger or risk.  The smoke alarm would be useless in the event of a fire as by the time the smoke had eventually penetrated the alarm, there would be a severe build up of smoke or even fire.  Dangerous to lives and as a result could put lives at risk.  Make sure that smoke detectors are regularly inspected and that if there has been some building work going on, that the cover is removed at the end of the working day.  Regular testing of the alarm system will help to reduce this type of problem, and identify potential problems with the alarm system.
  • 27. Typical Fire Safety Signs Fire door sign – when you see this sign you will know it is a fire door and will have 30 minutes before the door lets the fire through. Fire alarm call point sign
  • 28. Typical Fire Safety Signs - cont Fire escape route sign (Arrow indicates direction of exit) Position of fire assembly point
  • 29. Fire Alarm System Manual fire alarm break glass call point • On discovering a fire - break the glass. Manual door release point (if applicable) Emergency door release - break the glass. Operating the fire alarm system
  • 30. Fire Action Notice The Fire Action Notice will tell you what to do in the event of discovering a fire, and where to assemble, there should be several of these dotted around the Lambeth Housing offices. Make sure you know what to do in an emergency.
  • 31. What do you do when hearing the Fire Alarm  When hearing the alarm if it goes on for longer than a minute you need to stop what you are doing and leave the office building you are in by the nearest fire exit as quickly and safely as possible, switch off any electrical equipment that might be a danger if left, do not collect any personal belongings, close doors and windows behind you, and assemble at the designated assembly point, for your particular building.  If you have visitors you need to make sure they know where to assemble, likewise if you have persons with special needs or in a wheelchair then special arrangements will need to be made to make sure they leave the building safely. This will be coordinated by you as Fire Marshals for the Housing office’s.
  • 32. The Role Of A Fire Marshal  A Fire Marshal is very important to the Housing Office as they are very important when it come to fire evacuation, they are responsible for evacuating persons out of the building safely and calmly.  A Fire Marshal knows the appropriate action in the event of fire, such as closing doors and windows, making a thorough search of their area to make sure no one is still in the office, and making arrangements for persons who might be disabled or have special needs, to be evacuated safely.  A Fire Marshal is a trained person who can tackle small fires and use the correct fire extinguishers without endangering themselves or others.  The Fire Marshal regardless of Job Status overalls everyone else in an emergency situation unless they themselves are trained, e.g. The office manager or your line manager.
  • 33. Fire Marshal Fighting Fires How to remove the fire using the elements from the Fire Triangle As stated in the Fire Triangle, Heat, Fuel and oxygen are needed for a fire to start, and one ore more of these elements must be removed to extinguish it. Heat: can be removed by COOLING such as applying water. Oxygen: can be removed by SMOTHERING the fire, like applying foam or carbon dioxide. Fuel: removing the source means turning of the supply STARVING e.g turning off the gas or other fuel supply or switching the electricity off.
  • 34. Fire Marshal Fighting Fires (cont) Safety Procedures when using fire fighting equipment Personal safety is of paramount importance in any fire situation, only suitably trained persons should attempt to extinguish a fire, this is where you as fire marshals have an important role. When dealing with a fire however small the fire is as Fire Marshals it is important that you must observe the following:  Remain between the fire and the exit  Use the correct extinguisher for the fire, or the substance which is on fire  Keep low and out of the heat and smoke.  Call the fire service to check the fire is completely extinguished and has not spread.  If in doubt GET OUT
  • 35. Class Exercise On your Exercise 3 Hand Out Write down the Five stages of Fire Risk Assessment Name the Five stages of Fire Risk Assessment
  • 36. Fire Risk Assessment There are five stages of Fire Risk Assessment and they are:  To identify all potential fire hazards, and consider how Fire could start.  To identify everyone at risk, employers, employees, contractors, people who are vulnerable such as a disabled person.  Evaluation & Action consider the hazards and people identified in 1 and 2 and act to remove and reduce risk to protect people and premises.  To record, plan and train keep a record of the risks and action taken. Make a clear plan for fire safety and ensure that people understand what they need to do in the event of a fire.  To review the assessment regularly, or when new hazards identified.
  • 37. Categories of Fire There are 5 categories of Fire and these are the following: Class A: Fires involving solid materials usually organic nature such as wood, paper, natural fibres in clothing or furniture. Class B: Fires involving flammable liquids, such as petrol ,oil, grease, fat and paint. Class C: Fires involving gases or liquefies gases, such as mains gas, propane, butane or methane. Class D: Fires involving metals such as aluminium, sodium and magnesium. Class F: Fires involving cooking fats, such as chip pan fires.
  • 38. Class Exercise On your Exercise 4 Hand Out Fire Extinguisher Chart Write down what you think are the correct Fire Extinguishers to use on the 5 different categories of fire Based on the Five Categories of Fire
  • 39. Fire Extinguisher Chart – Exercise 4 Hand-Out Water Foam Dry Powder Carbon Dioxide Fire Blanket Wood Paper Textiles Flammable Liquids Gaseous Substances Live Electrical Hot Fat Confined Space
  • 40. Fire Extinguisher Chart Water Foam Dry Powder Carbon Dioxide Fire Blanket Wood Yes Yes Yes No No Paper Yes Yes Yes No No Textiles Yes Yes Yes No No Flammable Liquids No Yes Yes Yes Yes Gaseous Substances No No Yes No No Live Electrical No No Yes Yes No Hot Fat No No No No Yes Confined Space Yes Yes Yes No Yes
  • 41. HOW TO USE A FIRE EXTINGUISHER SAFELY Mr Flame Guy
  • 42. What Is A Fire Extinguisher And Which One Do I Use  A Fire Extinguisher is Fire Fighting equipment to extinguish fires safely, and if used properly will save lives.  All Extinguishers are red in colour as per EU Directive and identified by colour band no more than 5% of extinguisher. For example Blue band = ABC Powder.  There are Five main types of extinguisher and they are the following: – Water – (paper, wood, textiles) – Solid Materials – Carbon Dioxide – (flammable liquids, live electrical) – Foam – (wood, paper, textiles, flammable liquids) – Powder – (textiles, paper, wood, gaseous substances, flammable liquids, live electrical) – Wet Chemical – (flammable Liquids & Cooking Oils)
  • 43. Lambeth Housing uses two types of Fire Extinguisher as shown 6Ltr Water Extinguisher 2Kg CO2 Extinguisher
  • 44. Class Exercise Would Anybody like to demonstrate at handling a fire extinguisher to see if they can adopt the correct method Practical Demonstration on Fire Extinguishers
  • 45. There is a special acronym known as PASS (shown below) when referring to Fire Extinguishers. This should always be adopted when using Extinguishers to fight any fire. • Pull – Pull out the pin • Aim – Aim at the fire • Squeeze – Squeeze the trigger • Sweep – use a sweeping method of extinguishing the fire. Note: Golden rule when fighting fires always phone the Fire Brigade 999 first before attempting to put out any fire. How To Use A Fire Extinguisher Safely
  • 46. How To Use A Fire Extinguisher Safely with PASS
  • 47. Means Of Escape This is the identified escape route from any part of the Housing office premises to a place of safety, where they are free from obstruction and all exits are clear at all times. Points to consider would be the following:  Corridors and main stairway  Fire self closing Auto doors  Fire Exit Doors  Fire Exit Door Signage  Emergency lighting  Safe evacuation procedures and assembly point
  • 48. Means Of Escape - Cont Emergency Lighting   Emergency Exit Break Glass 
  • 49. The Fire Drill The fire drill is a very important part of Lambeth Housing Office duty as an employer to ensure that all you as staff know how to react in the event of a fire. At least one drill every 6 months which is law. This can either be pre-planned and letting everyone know there is going to be a drill, at a certain time and a certain place, or the more effective way would be to have a completely unannounced drill. The purpose of the fire drill is to:  Ensure that you as staff know the correct procedure to follow in case of fire.  To ensure persons nominated as Fire Marshals carry out their duties effectively.  To underpin staff training.  To help identify any problems with the emergency plan.
  • 50. The Emergency Plan As the Fire Risk Assessment has now been carried out and implemented all the findings, it is a requirement of the Fire Regulations and the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations, that Lambeth Housing Office prepares an emergency plan. This should cover the following:  The Fire Risk Assessment  On going hazard identification  Inspection and maintenance of fire precaution equipment  Designation and duties of the fire marshals.  Action employees should take in discovering a fire  How people will be warned if there is a fire  How the evacuation of the buildings will be carried out  Where people should assemble once they have left the building and the procedures for checking whether the building has been evacuated
  • 51. The Emergency Plan (cont)  Identification of key escape routes, and how people can gain access to them and escape from them to a place of safety.  Fire fighting equipment provided.  Arrangements for safe evacuation of people identified as being especially at risk, such as visitors , contractors, or any person with a disability.  Arrangements for power supplies which made need to be stopped.  Arrangements for high risk work areas  Who will be responsible for calling the fire rescue services  Procedures for liaising with the fire rescue services on their arrival and notifying them of any special risks e.g location of flammable materials.  What training that employees need, and arrangements to make sure that it is given, like todays training which you are receiving.
  • 52. Focus On Fire Sit back and relax and watch 11 minute Video and recap on all we have spoken about this morning, before you launch into the Fire Safety Quiz.
  • 53. The Fire Safety Quiz Test your knowledge and understanding of what you have learnt today in this presentation Good luck! 15 Minutes Can you then please fill out your Training Evaluation Sheets in front of you when you have finished and make sure you put your name clearly at the top and where you are from and any comments you would like to make, so that well there are parts of training which could be better this can be looked at for further training, or particular parts you enjoyed more.
  • 54. The Answers 1) a) Water & b)Foam 2) c) When the person in charge or the fire officer says so. 3) c) Regularly clearing rubbish and waste. 4) a) Ensure the precautions identified in the risk assessment are maintained. b) Taking the appropriate action in the event of fire. c) Ongoing fire Hazards Identification and reporting to Health & Safety Team so that immediate remedial action can be taken. d) Ensure so far as possible the safe evacuation of everyone from the premises.
  • 55. The Answers - cont 5) c) Green 6) c) Flammable Liquids 7) c) Operate the nearest Fire Alarm Call Point 8) Heat , Fuel , Oxygen 9) a) Fire Action notices 10) d) Evacuate immediately 11) b) Radiation, Convection, Conduction d) Direct Burning, Flashover, Backdraft 12) a) To Identify potential Fire Hazards b) To Identify everyone at risk c) To Eliminate, control or avoid the Hazard d) To consider whether the existing fire arrangements in place are adequate or need improving
  • 56. The Answers - cont 13) c) CO2 14) d) 30 minutes 15) c) The Regulatory (Fire Safety) Order 2005 16) a) Paper and waste in general b) Furniture Chairs & Fabrics 17) a) Flashover 18) a) Pull , Aim , Squeeze , Sweep 19) C) if the the fire is going out, close the door and evacuate the building. d) Always keep an exit behind you so that you can escape quickly if need be.
  • 57. THE END  Thank you for attending this training session today, I hope it has been helpful and will make you more aware of how important you are as staff, and now Fire Marshalls for Lambeth Housing, and more importantly know what you have to do do in an emergency situation, and that you could leave this session with a better understanding of Fire Awareness.