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CCBB - elearning with lots of sparkle and no substance. What do the experts say? Does it help learning? And what can you do to avoid it?

CCBB - elearning with lots of sparkle and no substance. What do the experts say? Does it help learning? And what can you do to avoid it?

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  • http://www.learnnuggets.com/nuggetheadClicky-clickybling-bling is fun and seductive. It’s fantastic graphics and interesting but convolutedinterfaces. It might look like a “fun learning game”—perhaps a multiple choice quiz dressed up like agame show. It might have a lot interaction, in the name of making for an interesting experienceImagine. A screen with a flashing Next button. So pretty and so blinky, your eye immediatelylands on this lovely Next button. You scan the onscreen text and listen briefly to the audio, butthen the twitch sets in and you do what you’ve been yearning to do: you click Next.Imagine. A graphical representation of a doctor’s office. Every item in the office is a clickablehot spot. To learn more, you need to explore the room and click on all of the items. So youstart randomly clicking. Here and there you discover a few fun tidbits. The tissue box tells youabout airborne viruses; the light switch tells you about the dangers of reading in a poorly lit room.Imagine now that there are twenty objects in the room that you have to click on. It’s interactive! It’sintriguing! But it’s exhausting and face it – there’s no point. Fatigue sets in and you move on.Imagine. An exciting game show interface. Multiple choice questions with background musicand scores. It’s glitzy. It’s exciting. You’re beating the clock! You’re winning./NH_christmasCard.html
  • Clickyclicky blah blah? 49 slides of narrated text bullets.
  • “The arousal effect”Clark and Mayer provide some insight into why clicky-clickybling-bling happens:“...consumers may feel that a “jazzier” product will hold the learner’s interest better. This is the premise underlying thearousal theory, the idea that entertaining and interesting embedded effects cause learners to become moreemotionally aroused and therefore they work harder to learn the material.”Photo: “red lips isolated in white” http://www.flickr.com/photos/taniasaiz/4546732837/sizes/m/in/photostream/
  • There’s this notion out there that we should make all of our learning “fun”…is this what they mean?Photo: Kiddie Roller Coaster by SeeMidTN.comhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/brent_nashville/220829072/
  • "seductive details, interesting but irrelevant material added to a multimedia presentation in an effort to spice it up (Garner, Gillingham, and White, 1989).” e-Learning and the Science of Instruction p. 115“There is little evidence that emotion-grabbing adjuncts--which have been called seductive details--promote deep learning (Garner, Gillingham, and While, 1989; REnninger, Hidi, and Krapp, 1992).” Ruth Clark, Richard Mayer e-Learning and the Science of Instructionp. 128.
  • So, should we blame our tools?
  • The same argument could be made about the flamboyant classroom instructor who inspires andexcites the classroom, earning rave reviews, but failing to effect any lasting behavioral change in thelearners or impart any lasting knowledge.
  • Will Thalheimer:  However, the research does provide us with a warning against willy-nilly adding “decorative” (Levie & Lentz, 1982) bells, whistles, neon, or purple prose to our learning material. Specifically, we should add only elements that (1) directly help our learners understand the content and (2) avoid overtaxing learners’ limited capacity to process visual and auditory information. In adding interesting elements to our learning material, we ought to create job relevant content and challenge learners with realistic exercises that prompt them to make decisions just as the might do so on the job.
  • "make a difference between emotional interest and cognitive interest.  Emotional interest occurs when a multimedia experience evokes an emotional response in a learner, such as reading a story about a life-threatening event or seeing a graphic video.  There is little evidence that emotion-grabbing adjuncts--which have been called seductive details--promote deep learning (Garner, Gillingham, and While, 1989; Renninger, Hidi, and Krapp, 1992). In short, attempts to force excitement do not guarantee that students will work hard to understand the presentation.  In contrast, cognitive interest occurs when a learner is able to mentally construct a model that makes sense.”
  • Clark Quinn points us to research on extrinsic vs. instrinsic motivation, stating that simple learning games can help with perseverance. That is, by creating a simple game out of a quiz, learners may be more likely to stick with it. This is great if the game is being used for declarative knowledge—facts and information that you want the learner to memorize.
  • http://elearningbrothers.com/samples/games/xgolf/demo/demo.htm
  • Drill and kill is one way to get learners to practice your content. And practice, is good, right? Well, not always. When we force learners to practice without context, they’ve memorized facts but may not be able to apply them correctly in context. This is why Jeopardy Games are for the most part useless as learning tools. Unless you’re a noted game show host, you’re day job isn’t working at a Jeopardy Board. We need to provide more contextual opportunities for drill exercises that will help the learner both retain and apply the knowledge they are practicing.Screen shot from:  http://www.c3softworks.com/products/classroom/bravo-classroom/index.html#4
  • http://www.raptivity.com
  • From wikipedia: intrinsic motivation = driven by interest/enjoyment in the task itself. It exists within the individual rather than resulting from external pressure. “Interested in mastering a topic, rather than just rote-learning to achieve good grades.”Extrinsic motivation comes from outside (money, grades, threat of punishment). Competition is extrinsic – the goal is to win, not to enjoy the intrinsic rewards of the activity.Social psychological research has indicated that extrinsic rewards can lead to over justification and a subsequent reduction in intrinsic motivation. In one study demonstrating this effect, children who expected to be (and were) rewarded with a ribbon and a gold star for drawing pictures spent less time playing with the drawing materials in subsequent observations than children who were assigned to an unexpected reward condition.
  • Karl Kapp: “Reward and Achievements: Research indicates that in some cases extrinsic rewards actually foster intrinsic motivation. In a study by Harackiewicz et al. (1984) it was found that performance contingent rewards (found in many games) produced greater intrinsic motivation than the same performance objective and favorable performance feedback without reward. “http://www.kaplaneduneering.com/kappnotes/index.php/2011/10/in-defense-of-the-term-gamification-as-used-by-learning-professionals/
  • “This game not only increases the learner's concentration and interest levels but also aids in the stimulation of the learner's sensory channels.”http://www.raptivity.com/elearning-interactivity-samples/elearning-turbopack/games-turbopack?tmpl=component
  • http://www.raptivity.com/elearning-interactivity-samples/elearning-turbopack/games-turbopack?tmpl=component
  • http://www.raptivity.com/elearning-interactivity-samples/elearning-turbopack/games-turbopack?tmpl=component
  • “So I have actually used a lot of those types of games (The skiing example) for kill and drill type things. Memorization, vocabulary retention that kind of thing. That is pretty much the limit of their applicability. The types of games that have the most beneficial performance based impacts are experiential games, where the player is allowed to actually participate in the content and make some decisions on their own.” ~ Dr. Alicia Sanchez
  • Clark Quinn points us to research on extrinsic vs. instrinsic motivation, stating that simple learning games can help with perseverance. That is, by creating a simple game out of a quiz, learners may be more likely to stick with it. This is great if the game is being used for declarative knowledge—facts and information that you want the learner to memorize.Photo credit:smiling_pig by rikkis_refugehttp://www.flickr.com/photos/rikkis_refuge/191814550/sizes/m/in/photostream/
  • Screen shot: http://us.battle.net/wow/en/media/screenshots/screenshot-of-the-day/cataclysm?view#/cataclysm-ss1310Cognitive Fidelity: A representation of a complex system that helps users to understand the system. This representation does not necessarily give an exact description of the system's actual working . Cognitive fidelity should enhance a user's capability to construct a mental model of a system. http://l3d.cs.colorado.edu/jargon.htmlCognitive Fidelity – does it map to the problem-solving process?Contextual Fidelity – does it map to the on-the job performance environment?Potentially novice learners might require more contextual fidelity…Games – exposure games for contextual or cognitive fidelity…create a fantasy game that provides cognitive fidelity (e.g., make a   “I have a few theories about cognitive fidelity (the process by which a game represents the content in high fidelity, but not necessarily the context - and that those might be just as good for transfer...and example might be using the lean six sigma process to build a weapons system that will defend the earth from the impending alien attack...same process that you would follow and therefore high cognitive fidelity, but low contextual fidelity because its not a realistic situation...however in my area where we teach so many multidisciplinary fields (navy, air force, marines) who have their own weapons systems process its hard to build a game that doesn't violate at least one of their rules, so by creating a fantasy environment I bypass their context, and hopefully lead to learning that is more readily transferrable because its context agnostic.) “ ~ Alicia Sanchez
  • In this example, what the learner needed to be able to DO at the end of the day – was to answer other hair stylists questions. So we created a classroom scenario where they could work through challenging questions posed by their soon-to-be-students. By keeping the focus on what the learner needs to be able to DO…you make it relevant…which brings us to our next point:
  • "make a difference between emotional interest and cognitive interest.  Emotional interest occurs when a multimedia experience evokes an emotional response in a learner, such as reading a story about a life-threatening event or seeing a graphic video.  There is little evidence that emotion-grabbing adjuncts--which have been called seductive details--promote deep learning (Garner, Gillingham, and While, 1989; Renninger, Hidi, and Krapp, 1992). In short, attempts to force excitement do not guarantee that students will work hard to understand the presentation.  In contrast, cognitive interest occurs when a learner is able to mentally construct a model that makes sense.”
  • Here the learner is practicing how to quickly get their customers through the line while providing the best service. They run through the experience of servicing these four customers.
  • Through creating mini-scenarios like this you’re helping the learner populate their “experience portfolio.” This is the pool of experiences that we pull from when confronted with our own situations in the real world. Simple scenarios or more complex situations provide that contextual fidelity that helps the learner transfer to the real world – so they can problem solve on their own.
  • This hotgraphic screen creates a bit of context – it’s in your workspace, these are work related activities.
  • Interactive and clicky – yes. But relevant.
  • Make it challenging Karl Kapp in Gadgets, Games and Gizmos for Learning (2007), make an argument for casual games as a keystone of learning, but reminds us that we need to write good questions first:“Well-written multiple choice-questions teach and assess knowledge within the context of a game. Poor questions simply allow the gamer to play the game without learning. Work to develop effective questions to force learning and require learners to think as they play the game.
  • Are these the types of questions your courses include?
  • Are these the types of questions your courses include?
  • Are these the types of questions your courses include?
  • Go for a scenario based approach – this adds that important contextual element (or at least cognitive fidelity). And make it challenging, exposing all the gray areas.
  • In this goal-based scenario the focus is on what you need to do – resources, job aids, and tutorials are off to the side for optional exploration. If you make the scenario challenging enough, then learners will need to make use of ‘em!There’s INTRINSIC reward in figuring something out on your own.Create COGNITIVE interest.
  • Maybe instead of that kiddie roller coaster fun we should be going for this kind of fun…challenging fun…
  • Give graphics a purpose. And please, no bean people.By all means, don’t take this to mean that we don’t think eLearning should look good. Au contraire!In fact, we believe firmly in the value of good graphics and strong visual identity to your elearningprogram. Attractive design and visuals do indeed draw the learner in. Learners may judge abook by its cover and dismiss your program in the first few moments if they don’t think it looksprofessional or polished.
  • For example, is the aim of your visuals to grab attention? Or perhaps you want to use the visuals to tip a common idea on its head by using a recognizable image and altering it in some way or using it out of context.
  • Extending your corporate brand identity into your elearning is one simple way you can do this. Doesyour elearning represent your company? Are you incorporating the color scheme and logo in astrong enough way – one that sends the message that this is our program and we’re proud of it?
  • Keep it relevant. Remember – use graphics that support the instructional objectives.
  • Think about the interaction –  Relevant clicking should enhance the instruction and helped the learner make real connections
  • Make it cognitive! Reflection counts. Let the learner think about the purpose of the interaction. And remember that interaction happens IN THE BRAIN and not just on the screen.file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/Cammy%20Bean/My%20Documents/Demos/Scenarios%20ASTD%20TK11/HSBC%20Communication/main.html
  • Why does gossip work? Why do we tell stories on each other?A study at Northeastern University in Boston showed that participants focus more on images of people about whom they’ve heard a negative or emotional story – and that this is an unconscious connection people make. “A gossip-schooled eye for bad eggs provides social protection, the researchers propose, by extending opportunities to scrutinize potential liars and cheats.”* So how can that inform your elearning content and design? Well, we think techniques that create stronger emotional connections between the learner and the content make for a more memorable experience – and thus more effective knowledge transfer.
  • file:///C:/Documents%20and%20Settings/Cammy%20Bean/My%20Documents/Demos/Barclays%20Behavior%20in%20the%20Workplace/main.html
  • Step back and look at the screen? What stands out. What do you remember?Flickr photo credit: http://www.flickr.com/photos/helgabj/1074000287/sizes/m/in/photostream/
  • Pilot. Ask the learners - Find out what stuck with them at the end of the program – check in with them immediately afterwards, one week, three weeks. See what they remember and what they can actually apply.
  • Get the gossip reference – Kineo top tips.

Avoiding the Trap of Clicky-Clicky Bling-Bling Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Avoiding Clicky-Clicky Bling-Bling Top Tips for Making eLearning that Shines from the Inside
  • 2. What is CCBB?
  • 3. As opposed to clicky- clicky blah-blah
  • 4. “As café staff, it‟s compulsory thatyou maintain quality of produce andserve it as specified by the QualityFood Manual. By the end of thistraining you will understand how toserve every food type according tothe standards.”
  • 5. As a result of attending this session you will be able to:• Identify three case studies of Fortune 1000 companies who are successfully using social learning models• Define the three models of social learning and how these map to specific strategies and tools• Evaluate the pros and cons of different social interventions as solutions to specific kinds of learning challenges• Describe their own personal experience in using social media as a practitioner
  • 6. Why, oh, why do we create it?
  • 7. “Seductive Details”
  • 8. Discuss. So what areseductive details (in elearning)?
  • 9. What do the smarty pants say about CCBB?
  • 10. Dr. Will Thalheimer“the addition of interestingyet unimportantaugmentations can divertlearners from learning themain points that are beingmade.”
  • 11. Dr. Will Thalheimer“Add only elements that(1)directly help our learners understand the content and(2)avoid overtaxing learners‟ limited capacity to process visual and auditory information.”
  • 12. Ruth Clark & Richard Mayer “…attempts to force excitement do not guarantee that students will work hard to understand the presentation.”
  • 13. Tom Kuhlmann“Guess what? If the course isboring, adding audio will onlymake it boring and danceable.”
  • 14. Conclusions•leads to learner fatigue•distracting•doesn‟t promote deeperunderstanding
  • 15. What about games?
  • 16. Dr. Clark Quinn“Simple learning games canhelp with perseverance.”
  • 17. http://elearningbrothers.com/samples/games/xgolf/demo/demo.htm
  • 18. http://www.c3softworks.com/products/classroom/bravo-classroom/index.html#4
  • 19. http://www.raptivity.com
  • 20. Extrinsic vs.Intrinsic Rewards
  • 21. Dr. Karl Kapp“…in some cases extrinsicrewards actually fosterintrinsic motivation.”
  • 22. http://www.raptivity.com
  • 23. http://www.raptivity.com
  • 24. http://www.raptivity.com
  • 25. Dr. Alicia SanchezUse kill and drill formemorization, vocabulary,facts…
  • 26. Dr. Clark Quinn“Tarted-up drill and kill isstill lipstick on a pig.”
  • 27. Cognitive vs. Contextual Fidelity
  • 28. Top tips!
  • 29. Start with the end in mind.
  • 30. Cathy Moorehttp://blog.cathy-moore.com/2008/05/be-an-elearning-action-hero/
  • 31. Cathy Moorehttp://blog.cathy-moore.com/2011/10/how-to-create-a-memorable-mini-scenario/
  • 32. Make it relevant.
  • 33. Ruth Clark & Richard Mayer “In contrast, cognitive interest occurs when a learner is able to mentally construct a model that makes sense.”
  • 34. Dr. Will ThalheimerPopulate the “experienceportfolio”
  • 35. Make it challenging.
  • 36. Question 1 of 524:1.There are ___ Customers types serviced by ACME.
  • 37. Question 2 of 524:These customer types are i. ________ ____ ______; ii. _____ ________ _____ ; iii. ________ ____ _____; iv. ______ _______ ________ (___) ____________; and v. ______ __________ ____ _______ ____ _____.
  • 38. Question 3 of 524:True or False? Small Business Owners would benefit from the service ACME offers of managing money and good accounting records.
  • 39. Give graphics a purpose.
  • 40. Make „em cogitate.
  • 41. Dish out the gossip.
  • 42. How do we tell if there‟s too much bling?
  • 43. Discuss.What‟s your sniff test for too much bling?
  • 44. Take a step back.
  • 45. Pilot.
  • 46. Measure.
  • 47. ReferencesKineo Guide: Avoiding the trap of clicky-clicky bling-bling.Clark, R. & Mayer, R. (2007). Elearning and the Science of Instruction: San Francisco: Pfeiffer.Ely, K. and Sitzmann, T. A Meta-Analytic Examination of the Effectiveness of Computer- BasedSimulation Games.Kapp, Karl M. (2007). Gadgets, Games, and Gizmos for Learning. San Francisco: Pfeiffer.Kuhlman, Tom. (2009, December). Should you add background audio to your e-learning courses?Moore, Cathy (2008, May). Be an elearning action hero!Thalheimer, W. (2004, April). Bells, whistles, neon, and purple prose: Wheninteresting words, sounds, and visuals hurt learning and performance—a review of the seductive-augmentation research. http://www.work-learning.com/Quinn, Clark. Kineo Audio Interview: Clark Quinn on ID Malpractice.Stewart, Michelle. http://www.innerbling.com/Science News (2011, September). Take Gossip to Heart. http://www.sciencenews.org/view/generic/id/74498/title/Eyes_take_gossip_to_heart
  • 48. Cammy BeanVP of Learning Design, Kineowww.cammybean.kineo.com@cammybean
  • 49. Flickr Photo CreditsKiddie Roller Coaster by SeeMidTN.com http://www.flickr.com/photos/brent_nashville/220829072/smiling_pig by rikkis_refuge http://www.flickr.com/photos/rikkis_refuge/191814550/siz es/m/in/photostream/World of Warcraft: http://us.battle.net/wow/en/media/screenshots/screenshot -of-the-day/cataclysm?view#/cataclysm-ss1310Eye by helgabj http://www.flickr.com/photos/helgabj/1074000287/sizes/m/ in/photostream/(All other screen shots from iStock, Kineo course examples or websites as noted)