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Dr Graeme Salter
Blended Learning Advisor &
Director Entrepreneurship, International &
Engagement
Before we start …
The slides and references will be available
for download on SlideShare / LinkedIn
I have a theory …
Those interested in teaching &
learning are more observant than
the general population
Test your observation skills
Test your observation skills
Dr Graeme Salter
I have a theory …
Those interested in teaching &
learning are more observant than
the general population
Make sure you count
It’s important to make an effort to count the
passes – there will be a prize for the first
correct ans...
To win a prize
Hands up if you think you know the answer
or even if you don’t
Did you see it?
Hands up if you saw the curtain change
colour and the player leave
Time to
get serious
Task for 24 expert radiologists
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wdVXco6YDgg
Search for signs of lung cancer in 239 frames ...
5 frames included something special …
The gorilla was 48x the size of the cancer nodules being searched for
83% of the expert radiologists didn’t see the gorilla …
even though eye tracking showed that
most of them looked straight at it
In the future, this type of research may help us reduce errors
in radiology, baggage screening and more
Attention is also essential
in education
2016 Professor Pulse Survey
> 21,000 university faculty
respondents worldwide
https://tophat.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/0...
2016 Professor Pulse Survey
2016 Professor Pulse Survey
2016 Professor Pulse Survey
Face to Face Lectures
The dream …
the reality?
Face to Face Lectures
and if we’re not
careful
we might end
up with …
Online Lectures
The dream …
the reality?
unfortunately …
Technology can be a distraction
Ancient Brains in a High-Tech World
“This is the first book of its
kind to explore the daily
challenges we face with
the h...
Quick Quiz
Who is on their phone right now?
The problem
How can we increase
attention & engagement?
particularly in a distracting, high-tech,
YouTube generation world
‘By Design’
Evidence-based
• Instructional design
• Learning design
• Motivational design
• Interaction design
• Multimedi...
References
• Encourage you to check the evidence for yourself
• Dig further to find new strategies
Engagement
Models
The AIDA Model
https://www.ttmginternet.com/sales-process/aida-model-sales/
ARCS Model of
Motivational Design
Attention
Relevance
Confidence
Satisfaction ARCS
The ARCS Model
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:ARCS_Model_Components_Table.jpg
For more info …
Motivational Design for Learning and Performance: John Keller
Whose Job Is It?
Motivational Design for Learning and Performance: John Keller
Whose Job Is It?
Motivational Design for Learning and Performance: John Keller
Who’s Job Is It?
Whose Job Is It?
All true!
“But it is also true that an educator or
other person of authority influences the
motivation of...
Attention
Part 1 – The hook
7 Ways To Get Attention
1. Set a challenge
2. Use a contrarian approach
3. Arouse curiosity
4. Use quotations differently
...
1. Set a Challenge
1. Set a challenge
Your choice …
1. Bottom falls first
2. Top falls first
3. Both ends fall together
4. Ends approach each
other
Let’s see a ...
Slinky Drop Answer
Slinky Drop Answer
Moodleposium Results
2. Contrarian Approach
You know the phrase ‘buy low and sell high’
Well, it’s WRONG
Let me show you why …
3. Arouse Curiosity
Dan Pink starts with …
I need to make a confession, at the outset. A little over 20
years ago, I did s...
3. Arouse Curiosity
4. Modified Quotes
An example from a recent presentation on
presentations …
…
Try this quick quiz
Complete the following quote
Try this quick quiz
Complete the following quote
5. Startling Assertion
Another example from the same
presentation …
Some statistics
from …
https://www.slideshare.net/Salesforce/datacom-connect-presents-tim-wackel-
the-six-worst-presentati...
6. What-If Scenario
What if you were
debt-free?
7. Start with a Story
“The human species
thinks in metaphors
and learns through
stories”
Mary Catherine Bateson
Case Study
Toni Salter
The Veggie Lady
Workshops on
• How to grow your own
organic vegetables
• Gardening therapy for the
...
An Example
An Example
Uses more than one technique
Arouses curiosity
What does it mean
to ‘teach like a pirate’?
Starts with a Story
Let me tell...
Stories can be short
Who remembers why this photo is famous?
1838
Change is happening - rapidly
Less than 200 years ago no human being
had ever been photographed!
The world didn’t know abo...
Top Tip
Keep a file of interesting anecdotes, images,
statistics etc to draw upon
Maintaining
Attention
Part 2 – Engagement
Quick Quiz
Have you seen a similar graph before?
What does it represent?
Attention span over the course of
a lecture or presentation
Quick Quiz
You are here
10- Minute Attention Span
Rule#4 from ‘Brain Rules’
The ‘Attention Reset’ Button
The ‘Attention Reset’ Button
Nothing magical about 10 minutes
Could be 5, 10 or 15 minutes
The time will vary depending on...
F2F Passive Attention Getters
• change something … anything
• the type of visual aid you are using
• your position on the ...
“The funny thing about humor is that you
don’t need to tell a joke to get a laugh”
Carmine Gallo
The Grandmother test
Would it be appropriate for a grandmother to read?
(Of course, this depends on the grandmother)
F2F Active Attention Getters
• Ask a question (can prompt with arm in air)
• Tell the person next to you ….
• Write down t...
Mix it up
Maintaining Attention Online
A Wise Man Once Said …
“it may be preferable to break material up into
smaller chunks such as...
Analysis of edX Videos
Online Lectures
• The average engagement time of any
video maxes out at 6 minutes,
regardless of its length
• Engagement t...
Passive vs Active
• The trend line crosses 50% at about 4
minutes (so after about 4 minutes of a
video, half the students ...
Other findings include …
Other findings include …
Lecture Pods
In context of
other activities
PlayPosit – Interactive Video
H5P.org
No plug-in for Blackboard yet
ThingLink
https://www.thinglink.com/scene/701477531336835072
Technology isn’t always the answer
Technology isn’t always the answer
Card Sorting Example
Card Sorting Example
Deeper learning - evaluate and justify
Can be done with or without technology –
the important aspect is the learning design
Some slides from …
We can learn a lot from games …
Relevance
What motivation principles valued most?
Bonk – in Smith Motivation (2008)
“finding your hook means
tapping in to what motivates
people. We’ve got to think like
marketing and sales people—
we are e...
Getting Attention
Have you heard
WiiFM?
What’s In It For Me
Highlight benefits NOT
features
Demonstrate relevance
Parents and prospective students
“When I worked
on the movie
the Matrix …”
Sam Brown
Graduated 2015
Civil Engineer
Barangaroo Project
Research Into Using Stories
A Familiar Story
A Strange Story
The least successful
Fak
e
new
s
Lessons Learned
• The story resonated with
personal experience
• The story was true
• The story featured a famous
person o...
Drawbacks?
• Preparation of effective stories students
will remember is important – but such
preparation takes time
• Gene...
Motivational Design for Learning and Performance: John Keller
Whose Job Is It?
Which is better?
Present but not engaged Less content but more engaged
Mind dump or engagement
“if educators view lectures as less of a mind dump of
academic information, and more of a storytel...
Example - Maths for Engineers
Who is responsible?
News report - 1 min 45 sec
Who is responsible?
• News report - 1 min 45 sec
Who is responsible?
• News report - 1 min 45 sec
Who did the construction company blame?
Who is responsible?
News report - 27 sec
Who is responsible?
• News report - 27 sec
Who is responsible?
• News report - 27 sec
What penalty does the engineer face?
Maths for Engineers
If you get things wrong there are consequences
–
• It can cost a lot of money to fix
• People can get ...
Scenario/Problem based learning
If you really want to get learners
engaged, give them a problem to
solve. Too often, we do...
Mathalicious Scenarios
(US-centric)
Tap into interests
Prompt Video
Activity 1
Simulation
Locate & use tools (and resources)
Free Class Activities
Free Class Activities
Shot 1 - Predict
Shot 2 - Predict
Shot 1 - Analyse
Analyse and Verify
Shot 1
Shot 2
Compare Results
Before I conclude …
You are invited to keep in touch -
g.salter@westernsydney.edu.au
• Collaborate on research
• Collabora...
I have a theory …
Those interested in teaching &
learning are more observant than
the general population
Thank you for your
attention!
Questio
References
2016 Professor Pulse Survey –
https://tophat.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/2016-Top-Hat-Professor-Pulse-Survey...
References
Kim, J., Guo, P., Seaton D., Mitros, P., Gajos, K. & Miller R. (2014). Understanding
in-video dropouts and inte...
Videos
IPad vs Paper
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UR4mlLiyjYo
Presentation - Professor James Arvanitakis, UWS: Educatio...
Edtechposium 2017 - Keynote
Edtechposium 2017 - Keynote
Edtechposium 2017 - Keynote
Edtechposium 2017 - Keynote
Edtechposium 2017 - Keynote
Edtechposium 2017 - Keynote
Edtechposium 2017 - Keynote
Edtechposium 2017 - Keynote
Edtechposium 2017 - Keynote
Edtechposium 2017 - Keynote
Edtechposium 2017 - Keynote
Edtechposium 2017 - Keynote
Edtechposium 2017 - Keynote
Edtechposium 2017 - Keynote
Edtechposium 2017 - Keynote
Edtechposium 2017 - Keynote
Edtechposium 2017 - Keynote
Edtechposium 2017 - Keynote
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Edtechposium 2017 - Keynote

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It is relatively easy to design learning activities that tick the boxes for quality standards. For example, the links all work; active learning elements are included and so on. However, one question that is often neglected is ‘Will the students actually find this learning activity engaging?’. In his book, ‘Brain Rules’, John Medina lists 12 principles for surviving and thriving at work, home, and school. Rule #4 states that ‘We don’t pay attention to boring things’. Unfortunately, there are many examples of online learning that would be considered boring. This presentation will look at tools and techniques for designing engaging and effective online learning experiences.

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Edtechposium 2017 - Keynote

  1. 1. Dr Graeme Salter Blended Learning Advisor & Director Entrepreneurship, International & Engagement
  2. 2. Before we start … The slides and references will be available for download on SlideShare / LinkedIn
  3. 3. I have a theory … Those interested in teaching & learning are more observant than the general population
  4. 4. Test your observation skills
  5. 5. Test your observation skills Dr Graeme Salter
  6. 6. I have a theory … Those interested in teaching & learning are more observant than the general population
  7. 7. Make sure you count It’s important to make an effort to count the passes – there will be a prize for the first correct answer
  8. 8. To win a prize Hands up if you think you know the answer or even if you don’t
  9. 9. Did you see it? Hands up if you saw the curtain change colour and the player leave
  10. 10. Time to get serious
  11. 11. Task for 24 expert radiologists https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wdVXco6YDgg Search for signs of lung cancer in 239 frames of a chest CT Scan
  12. 12. 5 frames included something special …
  13. 13. The gorilla was 48x the size of the cancer nodules being searched for
  14. 14. 83% of the expert radiologists didn’t see the gorilla …
  15. 15. even though eye tracking showed that most of them looked straight at it
  16. 16. In the future, this type of research may help us reduce errors in radiology, baggage screening and more
  17. 17. Attention is also essential in education
  18. 18. 2016 Professor Pulse Survey > 21,000 university faculty respondents worldwide https://tophat.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/2016-Top-Hat-Professor-Pulse-Survey.pdf
  19. 19. 2016 Professor Pulse Survey
  20. 20. 2016 Professor Pulse Survey
  21. 21. 2016 Professor Pulse Survey
  22. 22. Face to Face Lectures The dream … the reality?
  23. 23. Face to Face Lectures and if we’re not careful we might end up with …
  24. 24. Online Lectures The dream … the reality?
  25. 25. unfortunately …
  26. 26. Technology can be a distraction
  27. 27. Ancient Brains in a High-Tech World “This is the first book of its kind to explore the daily challenges we face with the highly engaging, but extremely distracting high- tech world we now inhabit”
  28. 28. Quick Quiz Who is on their phone right now?
  29. 29. The problem How can we increase attention & engagement? particularly in a distracting, high-tech, YouTube generation world
  30. 30. ‘By Design’ Evidence-based • Instructional design • Learning design • Motivational design • Interaction design • Multimedia design • Gameful design and more …
  31. 31. References • Encourage you to check the evidence for yourself • Dig further to find new strategies
  32. 32. Engagement Models
  33. 33. The AIDA Model https://www.ttmginternet.com/sales-process/aida-model-sales/
  34. 34. ARCS Model of Motivational Design Attention Relevance Confidence Satisfaction ARCS
  35. 35. The ARCS Model https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:ARCS_Model_Components_Table.jpg
  36. 36. For more info …
  37. 37. Motivational Design for Learning and Performance: John Keller Whose Job Is It?
  38. 38. Motivational Design for Learning and Performance: John Keller Whose Job Is It?
  39. 39. Motivational Design for Learning and Performance: John Keller Who’s Job Is It?
  40. 40. Whose Job Is It? All true! “But it is also true that an educator or other person of authority influences the motivation of others. You can stimulate your students to learn, or you can kill their motivation.”
  41. 41. Attention Part 1 – The hook
  42. 42. 7 Ways To Get Attention 1. Set a challenge 2. Use a contrarian approach 3. Arouse curiosity 4. Use quotations differently 5. Make a startling assertion 6. Take them through a "what if" scenario 7. Start with a story
  43. 43. 1. Set a Challenge
  44. 44. 1. Set a challenge
  45. 45. Your choice … 1. Bottom falls first 2. Top falls first 3. Both ends fall together 4. Ends approach each other Let’s see a show of hands
  46. 46. Slinky Drop Answer
  47. 47. Slinky Drop Answer
  48. 48. Moodleposium Results
  49. 49. 2. Contrarian Approach You know the phrase ‘buy low and sell high’ Well, it’s WRONG Let me show you why …
  50. 50. 3. Arouse Curiosity Dan Pink starts with … I need to make a confession, at the outset. A little over 20 years ago, I did something that I regret. Something that I am not particularly proud of, something that in many ways I wished no one would ever know, but that here I feel kind of obliged to reveal. In the late 1980s, in a moment of youthful indiscretion … I went to law school
  51. 51. 3. Arouse Curiosity
  52. 52. 4. Modified Quotes An example from a recent presentation on presentations …
  53. 53. … Try this quick quiz Complete the following quote
  54. 54. Try this quick quiz Complete the following quote
  55. 55. 5. Startling Assertion Another example from the same presentation …
  56. 56. Some statistics from … https://www.slideshare.net/Salesforce/datacom-connect-presents-tim-wackel- the-six-worst-presentation-habits-how-you-can-avoid-them
  57. 57. 6. What-If Scenario What if you were debt-free?
  58. 58. 7. Start with a Story “The human species thinks in metaphors and learns through stories” Mary Catherine Bateson
  59. 59. Case Study Toni Salter The Veggie Lady Workshops on • How to grow your own organic vegetables • Gardening therapy for the aged and disabled
  60. 60. An Example
  61. 61. An Example
  62. 62. Uses more than one technique Arouses curiosity What does it mean to ‘teach like a pirate’? Starts with a Story Let me tell you a story about lamb …
  63. 63. Stories can be short Who remembers why this photo is famous? 1838
  64. 64. Change is happening - rapidly Less than 200 years ago no human being had ever been photographed! The world didn’t know about ‘iPhones’ or ‘apps’ in 2006
  65. 65. Top Tip Keep a file of interesting anecdotes, images, statistics etc to draw upon
  66. 66. Maintaining Attention Part 2 – Engagement
  67. 67. Quick Quiz Have you seen a similar graph before? What does it represent?
  68. 68. Attention span over the course of a lecture or presentation Quick Quiz You are here
  69. 69. 10- Minute Attention Span Rule#4 from ‘Brain Rules’
  70. 70. The ‘Attention Reset’ Button
  71. 71. The ‘Attention Reset’ Button Nothing magical about 10 minutes Could be 5, 10 or 15 minutes The time will vary depending on circumstances – • audience • time of day • weather and more … Be perceptive to your audience’s attention levels
  72. 72. F2F Passive Attention Getters • change something … anything • the type of visual aid you are using • your position on the stage • what audience members are doing (eg. stand up) • play a short video • tell a story • make a transition (eg. in summary …) • make them laugh • be conceptually relevant • doesn’t need to be a joke
  73. 73. “The funny thing about humor is that you don’t need to tell a joke to get a laugh” Carmine Gallo
  74. 74. The Grandmother test Would it be appropriate for a grandmother to read? (Of course, this depends on the grandmother)
  75. 75. F2F Active Attention Getters • Ask a question (can prompt with arm in air) • Tell the person next to you …. • Write down the key message you learnt so far • Presentation question (eg. is this alright so far?)
  76. 76. Mix it up
  77. 77. Maintaining Attention Online A Wise Man Once Said … “it may be preferable to break material up into smaller chunks such as ‘courselets’ which can be completed in 10 – 15 minutes” Salter, 2004 Doctoral Thesis
  78. 78. Analysis of edX Videos
  79. 79. Online Lectures • The average engagement time of any video maxes out at 6 minutes, regardless of its length • Engagement times decrease as videos lengthen • The optimal video length is 6 minutes or shorter — students watched most of the way through these short videos.
  80. 80. Passive vs Active • The trend line crosses 50% at about 4 minutes (so after about 4 minutes of a video, half the students have dropped out • With passive video content, MOOC students have an attention span of 4 minutes. • With interactive personalized lessons, the trend line doesn’t cross 50% until about 22 minutes. • Attention span is 22 minutes, a 450% increase over passive video.
  81. 81. Other findings include …
  82. 82. Other findings include …
  83. 83. Lecture Pods
  84. 84. In context of other activities
  85. 85. PlayPosit – Interactive Video
  86. 86. H5P.org No plug-in for Blackboard yet
  87. 87. ThingLink https://www.thinglink.com/scene/701477531336835072
  88. 88. Technology isn’t always the answer
  89. 89. Technology isn’t always the answer
  90. 90. Card Sorting Example
  91. 91. Card Sorting Example
  92. 92. Deeper learning - evaluate and justify Can be done with or without technology – the important aspect is the learning design
  93. 93. Some slides from …
  94. 94. We can learn a lot from games …
  95. 95. Relevance
  96. 96. What motivation principles valued most? Bonk – in Smith Motivation (2008)
  97. 97. “finding your hook means tapping in to what motivates people. We’ve got to think like marketing and sales people— we are essentially selling content—and convince the learner that it really is going to be worth her precious time and attention” Cammy Bean Lessons from other disciplines
  98. 98. Getting Attention Have you heard WiiFM? What’s In It For Me Highlight benefits NOT features Demonstrate relevance
  99. 99. Parents and prospective students
  100. 100. “When I worked on the movie the Matrix …”
  101. 101. Sam Brown Graduated 2015 Civil Engineer Barangaroo Project
  102. 102. Research Into Using Stories
  103. 103. A Familiar Story
  104. 104. A Strange Story
  105. 105. The least successful Fak e new s
  106. 106. Lessons Learned • The story resonated with personal experience • The story was true • The story featured a famous person or received media attention • An emotional response was evoked • The story was reinforced
  107. 107. Drawbacks? • Preparation of effective stories students will remember is important – but such preparation takes time • Generally, the stories don’t add a lot to lecture time
  108. 108. Motivational Design for Learning and Performance: John Keller Whose Job Is It?
  109. 109. Which is better? Present but not engaged Less content but more engaged
  110. 110. Mind dump or engagement “if educators view lectures as less of a mind dump of academic information, and more of a storytelling activity, students will be more likely to remember the information and talk about it post-class” Jonah Berger
  111. 111. Example - Maths for Engineers
  112. 112. Who is responsible? News report - 1 min 45 sec
  113. 113. Who is responsible? • News report - 1 min 45 sec
  114. 114. Who is responsible? • News report - 1 min 45 sec Who did the construction company blame?
  115. 115. Who is responsible? News report - 27 sec
  116. 116. Who is responsible? • News report - 27 sec
  117. 117. Who is responsible? • News report - 27 sec What penalty does the engineer face?
  118. 118. Maths for Engineers If you get things wrong there are consequences – • It can cost a lot of money to fix • People can get hurt • People can die • You can lose your job • You can be sent to prison • You may even be sentenced to death in some countries So do you think it is important to get your maths right as an engineer?
  119. 119. Scenario/Problem based learning If you really want to get learners engaged, give them a problem to solve. Too often, we don't present problems to learners, we present content. A focus solely on content doesn't lead to deep thinking or learner engagement. Karl Kapp
  120. 120. Mathalicious Scenarios (US-centric)
  121. 121. Tap into interests
  122. 122. Prompt Video
  123. 123. Activity 1
  124. 124. Simulation
  125. 125. Locate & use tools (and resources)
  126. 126. Free Class Activities
  127. 127. Free Class Activities
  128. 128. Shot 1 - Predict
  129. 129. Shot 2 - Predict
  130. 130. Shot 1 - Analyse
  131. 131. Analyse and Verify Shot 1 Shot 2
  132. 132. Compare Results
  133. 133. Before I conclude … You are invited to keep in touch - g.salter@westernsydney.edu.au • Collaborate on research • Collaborate on development • Need a speaker • Share best practice
  134. 134. I have a theory … Those interested in teaching & learning are more observant than the general population
  135. 135. Thank you for your attention! Questio
  136. 136. References 2016 Professor Pulse Survey – https://tophat.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/2016-Top-Hat-Professor-Pulse-Survey.pdf Drew, T., Vo, M. L. H., & Wolfe, J. M. (2013). “The invisible gorilla strikes again: Sustained inattentional blindness in expert observers.” Psychological Science, 24(9), 1848–1853. http://doi.org/10.1177/0956797613479386 Gazzaley, A. & Rosen, L. (2016). The Distracted Mind: Ancient Brains in a High- Tech World. MIT Press. Guo, P. (2013). Optimal Video Length for Student Engagement. https://blog.edx.org/optimal-video-length-student-engagement Guo, P. (2014). How video production affects student engagement: an empirical study of MOOC videos. . Proceedings of the first ACM conference on Learning @ scale conference, 41-50 http://pgbovine.net/publications/edX-MOOC-video-production-and-engagement_LAS-2014.pdf Keller, J. (2010). Motivational Design for Learning and Performance. Springer
  137. 137. References Kim, J., Guo, P., Seaton D., Mitros, P., Gajos, K. & Miller R. (2014). Understanding in-video dropouts and interaction peaks inonline lecture videos. Proceedings of the first ACM conference on Learning @ scale conference, 31-40. http://pgbovine.net/publications/edX-MOOC-in-video-dropouts-peaks_LAS-2014.pdf Medina, J. (2008). Brain Rules: 12 Principles for Surviving and Thriving at Work, Home, and School, Pear Press Ophir, E., Nass, C. & Wagner, A. (2009). Cognitive control in media multitaskers. Proceedings of the National Science Academy of the United States of America. Vol 106 No 37. http://www.pnas.org/content/106/37/15583.full.pdf?sid=2ababed7-410e-4502-9303-ea057f72f086 Stewart, K. Using Stories in Human Science Lectures: Demonstrating Relevance https://akoaotearoa.ac.nz/download/ng/file/group-3300/using-stories-in-human-science-lectures-demonstrating- relevance.pdf
  138. 138. Videos IPad vs Paper https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UR4mlLiyjYo Presentation - Professor James Arvanitakis, UWS: Education & the Participatory Revolution https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N_wdDo3fH58 Slinky Drop https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wGIZKETKKdw Slinky Drop Answer https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eCMmmEEyOO0 Test Your Awareness : Whodunnit? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ubNF9QNEQLA The Invisible Gorilla Strikes Again: Inattentional Blindness in Expert Observers https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wdVXco6YDgg The Monkey Business Illusion https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IGQmdoK_ZfY

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