30thBrussels Briefing on Agricultural Resilience- 2.Thierry Kesteloot: Promoting resilient livelihoods cta briefing

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Presentation hold by Thierry Kesteloot, Policy Advisor, Oxfam-Solidarité, as part of the first panel of the 30th edition of the Brussels Briefing on “Agricultural resilience in the face of crisis and shocks", organized by CTA in collaboration with the ACP Secretariat, the EC/DEVCO, Concord, and IFPRI on 4th March 2013.
More on: http://brusselsbriefings.net/

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30thBrussels Briefing on Agricultural Resilience- 2.Thierry Kesteloot: Promoting resilient livelihoods cta briefing

  1. 1. Brussels Briefing n. 30Agricultural Resilience in the Face of Crises and Shocks 4th March 2013 http://brusselsbriefings.net Promoting Resilient LivelihoodsThierry Kesteloot, Policy Advisor, Oxfam-Solidarité
  2. 2. Promoting resilient livelihoodsRadical change needed by addressing inequalityThierry Kesteloot CTA Policy Briefing, March 2013
  3. 3. RESILIENCE IN TIMES OF FAILINGFOOD SYSTEMS
  4. 4. Resilience in times of failing foodsystems• Persistent hunger• Depleting natural resources• Interwoven and mutually reinforcing crises• Failing to incorporate externalities• Markets failures and price volatility• Early warnings but failure of humanitarian and development responses• Failing institutional responses• INEQUALITIES in facing increasing RISKS Page 4
  5. 5. Inequality is cause for increasingvulnerability Page 5
  6. 6. Inequalities increase by crisis ofsupportContraction of public expenditures in 133 countries in 2012 (94developing countries)• Wage bill cuts or caps in 73 countries, reducing the salaries ofpublic-sector workers who provide essential services to thepopulation.• Phasing-out subsidies (food, fuel, others) in 73 countries,despite record-high food prices in many regions.• Cuts in social protection programs are under consideration in 55countries, at a time when governments should be looking to scaleup benefits• VAT increases on basic goods and services that are consumedby the poor – that may further contract economic activity – in 71countries(source : UNICEF, Ortiz & Cummins, 2013) Page 6
  7. 7. PEOPLE CENTERED RESILIENCE
  8. 8. Resilience-building based on equityand rightsPoorer hurt subsequently :- rights denied and left behind in the run-up to the crises- most severely affected by crises- more vulnerable towards increasing risks- a few use power to reduce their own risks at the expense of more vulnerable- suffer most from reduction in government expenditures=> equity and rights based resilience-building should focus on thestructural causes of inequality that underlie the vulnerability anddisproportionate risk and uncertainty faced by poor and marginalisedpeople (especially vulnerable groups and women) rather than merelyaddressing the symptoms caused by the impacts of stresses and shocks. Page 8
  9. 9. Resilience-building based on equityand rightsResilience as the ability of women, men and children to realise theirrights and improve their wellbeing despite shocks, stresses anduncertainty. • aspirational nature of ‘being resilient’ • enable the poor and marginalised to not only ‘cope’ and survive, but also empower to transform • challenges entrenched power and gender inequalities that perpetuate risks and vulnerabilities for certain people • support the right to resources and capacities that people need to cope and even thrive within contexts of long-term change, volatility and unexpected shocks • responsibility for governments and institutions to account for addressing both impacts and root causes=> Return to “normal” (pre-crisis) is not a the solution Page 9
  10. 10. INSTRUMENTS AND POLICIES FORRESILIENCE
  11. 11. Resilience strategies and Food SecuritySource : HLPE report on Social Protection and Food Security Page 11
  12. 12. Integrated approach for resilientlivelihoodsThree pillars of Oxfam integrated program in Turkana, Kenya• Livelihood promotion Poverty reduction by empowering pastoralists associations (bargaining power, enhancing skills, promote governments support)• Social protection Public support to allow pastoralists to take risks, absord shocks and cope with chronic food insecurity• Response to acute food insecurity in support of local economy Cash transfers to strengthen local market system, strengthen women’s role and status Page 12
  13. 13. Resilience policies addressing inequalityFailures to Food Security Resilience instrumentsEntitlementsProduction Input subsidies Sustainable production methods, Agro-ecology Livestock and crop insurances Climate adaptation production methods Seed banks Strengthening smallholders knowledge systems Water schemes Land reform and secure access to productive resourcesIncome and Public Work Programmes Social protection Floor policiesemployment Purchase for Progress Public Procurement Policies for Food SecurityTrade Food Subsidies Decreasing food dependancy Emergency reserves Integrated Food Reserves Policies Forward & Future Contracts Price Stabilisation PoliciesTransfers (un)conditional cash transfers Progressive tax system Supplementary feeding Public investments to strengthen domestic food systemsVoice Collective bargaining Equitable Value Chains and Decent Work Targeting most vulnerable Addressing causes of inequity through empowering Vulnerable people as beneficiaries Human Rights norms and standards and gender equityPublic Early warning systems Strengthening local knowledge systemsGoods Integrated development programmes Public policies for access to health, education, credit… Page 13
  14. 14. Page 14
  15. 15. Resilience leading to tranformation offood systemSource : Agricultural Transition, 2012 Page 15
  16. 16. Lessons learned Context sensitive (importance of good risk assessments) Convert uncertainties into risks (impact/probability) Manage the risks, not only the crises Essential role of public policies Twin-track strategies : essential assistance and protecting productive and natural resources Flexible mechanisms and quickly adaptable to shocks Rights-based approach non-discrimination and equality, participation, transparency and accountability Entails a transformation of food and agricultural systems by addressing root causes of risks and inequalities Inclusive and accountable governance Page 16
  17. 17. Policy Recommendations for Resilience
  18. 18. Funding Social Protection Floor for LDC Page 18
  19. 19. Key policy recommendationsNational governments : Increasing progressive tax revenues Strengthen inclusive participatory decision-making processes Invest in sectors that poor depend on for their livelihoods Upgrade Social Protection policies and access to essential services Address the specific gender vulnerability and inequalityInternational actors : Support social movements in addressing increasing risks and inequality Addressing global risks in an ambitious, fair and sustainable way Strengthen international governance and accountability based on HR Insitute flexible long-term programming, adaptable to changing needs Page 19
  20. 20. Thank you Page 20

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