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  • 1. The French in North America
    • Brooke Soto
    • History 140
  • 2. American Colonies - Chapter 5 Canada & Iroquoia
    • In 16th century, English, French, & Dutch mariners crossed the Atlantic to plunder Spanish shipping & conduct smuggling trades
    • The French needed to create their own colonies to compete against the Spanish, but the French & English explorers failed to find precious metals & a “Northwest Passage” around North America to the Pacific and trade riches of Asia.
    • The French continues to abandon further attempts at colonization due to previous attempts.
    • French discovered two profitable commodities that made northern colonization possible: fish & furs
    • Northern traders accepted Indian trade protocols, restrained their prices, and cultivated alliances
    • Iroquoians practiced mixed economy with hunting & gathering that sustained many villages.
    • French took a lead in the fur trade & had made dangerous enemies
  • 3. American Colonies - Chapter 5 Canada & Iroquoia
    • The Fur Trade
    • In the Gulf of St. Lawrence, fisheries & whale & seal hunts employed at least 400 vessels and 12,000 men
    • The shore camps would lure Indian hunters wearing attractive furs (beaver, fox, otter, lynx) and trade manufactured goods (beads, kettles, knives) for their fur
    • Mariners started using Indians as commodities, but they started acquiring diseases
    • Indians killed animals at a rapid rate for themselves & an external market, which caused conflict
    • Canada
    • Reclaiming the St. Lawrence Valley (Canada) became the French’s number one priority
    • While they maintained their allies with some Indians, other Indians became their enemies as they hunted and depleted supplies.
    • Canada was a place for rich & valuable furs
    • Weaponry was introduced and the Indians would pay high prices for guns
    • This lead into numerous battles
  • 4. American Colonies - Chapter 5 Canada & Iroquoia
    • The Five Nations
    • Five Nation Iroquois were formidable enemies with productive fields of crops & surplus
    • To appease grief, restore power, and build their status, Iroquois warriors conducted “mourning wars” where they sought prisoners from their enemies to torture and cannibalize
    • The Great League was a religious group that practiced peace and eventually broke the cycle of revenge killings
    • The Dutch Trade
    • French realized they could not compete with the quality, quantity, or price of the Dutch trade goods
    • French needed the Iroquois as enemies, but they were interested in the survival of the other
  • 5. American Colonies - Chapter 5 Canada & Iroquoia
    • Jesuits
    • Conversion of Indians to Catholicism, French hoped to make the natives more dependable as allies
    • French missionaries manifested the Counter-Reformation, the reform movement meant to step and reverse the growth of Protestantism
    • In an effort to evangelize the Indians, the missionary cause needed some critical reinforcements, so eight priests of the Jesuit order came
    • Jesuits became known to the Indians as the Black Robes
    • Jesuits settled in Huron & established five satellite missions
    • Jesuits believed that the salvation of their souls for an eternal afterlife was all that mattered
    • In the 1630’s epidemics killed half of the Huron & complicated missions
    • Jesuits persuaded as many people as possible to convert
    • Jesuits denounced torture, cannibalism, premarital sex, divorce, & polygamy
    • Destruction
    • Mid-17th century, Iroquois warfare escalated to genocidal proportions
    • Attacked Huron villages and damaged everything
    • New France proved far move violent & much less profitable than Champlain had hoped
    • Command & control was never fulfilled, but there were the powerful forces of disease, trade, and war
  • 6. American Colonies - Chapter 16 French America French America
    • French founded new colony called Louisiana, in the Mississippi Valley
    • Emigrants
    • With only 85 French colonists, they realized they needed more to defend Quebec from their English rivals
    • “ Seigneurs” could obtain colonial estates and titles of nobility
    • In 1660, English had 58,000 colonists in New England
    • Families migrated to Canada and served as soldiers & servants
    • Canada’s reputation was known as cold, immoral and unprofitable land
    • Large military group expanded from 20,000-300,000 men with the help of Louis XIV
  • 7. American Colonies - Chapter 16 French America French America
    • Opportunity
    • The French were able to escape their former poverty as landless laborers when they came to Canada & improved their standard of living
    • Like Dutch law, French law saw wives as equal economic partners with husbands
    • Catholic women could enter into a convent and become a nun with a life of celibacy & religious commitment, but because of the entry cost and the sacrificial life of a nun, few entered
    • Authority
    • The crown appointed three officials: a military governor general, a civil administrator, & a Catholic bishop
    • St. Lawrence valley was divided into parishes: a church, priest, and militia
    • Chronic warfare called for all males ages 16-60 serve
    • Social rank was immutable & law discouraged social mobility
  • 8. American Colonies - Chapter 16 French America French America
    • The Upper Country
    • Consisted of the St. Lawrence Valley & the Upper Country
    • Indians & French gradually developed an effective alliance called “the middle ground”
    • Life was hard in refugee villages: disputes over fishing & hunting, and accusations of witchcraft led to murders & revenge killing
    • To persuade villages, the French had to reward multiple chiefs with presents to satisfy their several lineages
    • French were able to exercise a limited empire only by expensively providing trade, mediation, and presents
    • The middle ground required constant attention and generosity from the French
    • Louisiana
    • Named after King Louis XIV
    • In 1708 it consisted of 122 soldiers and sailors, 80 slaves, & 77 inhabitants
    • After the war of the Spanish Succession, the crown entrusted Louisiana to a private corporation, the Company of the Indies, which promoted plantation to cultivate tobacco & indigo
    • In 1718, the company shifted to New Orleans & it became the colony’s largest town, principal seaport, & government headquarters
    • Louisiana wasn’t able to create a profitable export staple & suffered from a corrupt government
    • In the 1731, the Company of the Indians surrendered to the colony of the French crown
    • As English colonists grew even more numerous, prosperous, and confident, they developed their popular government, which compounded the insecurity of the French officials
  • 9. American Colonies - Chapter 16 French America French America
    • Rebels & Allies & Dependence
    • French America was an economic disappointment
    • Indians became dependent on French trade, & the French empire became captive to Indian demand
    • The crown withdrew from upper-country posts because of the financial drain
    • French became entangled in complex relationships with the Indians, & one couldn’t be without the other