The Panama Canal &Los Angeles Aqueduct Brooke Soto M. Arguello
Panama Canal• 50 mile shortcut to Paciﬁc Ocean• One of the largest civil engineering projects in history• The canal was constructed in two stages: 1st 1881-1888 by French, 2nd 1904-1914 by America.• America ended up taking over the project, thanks to President Roosevelt, who paid French $40 million for rights to the project.• The canal was completed in 1914.
Panama Canal• Unfortunately, due to working conditions, many attracted diseases such as yellow fever & malaria.• Ridding the canals of these diseases took three years.• After 300 tons of sulphur, 120 tons of insecticide, and 700,000 gallons of kerosene, the infected mosquitos were defeated.• The French had lost around 20,000 people due to disease, while Americans lost around 7,000.
Panama Canal • The chief engineer for the project was John Frank Stevens. • He improved the working conditions & persuaded Roosevelt to build a lock canal instead of a sea-level canal. • Americans seemed to have done a better job than the French, for the canal was built ahead of schedule, it was cheaper than expected, working conditions were improved, and the morale was higher. • The canal cost about $639 million to construct. • Unfortunately, with each entry or exit, 26 million tons of fresh water is lost into the ocean.
Panama Canal• The canal has three sets of locks: Miraﬂores (steps), Pedrio Miguel (1 step), & Gatun (3 steps).• The hollow gates are 7 feet thick and 82 feet high.• Each gate weighs about 730 tons.• The master wheel weighs 34,000 pounds.• Water moves by gravity, there are no pumps to help it.• By use of the canal, it saves about 8,000 miles around the tip of South America.
Los Angeles Aqueduct• L.A. started out at as a place of earthquakes & droughts.• The water wheels that supplied water was disintegrating.• William Mulholland began working for the L.A. water supply in 1878.• 1886 he became superintendent of L.A. water.• 1903 L.A. managed to such dry the last of the L.A. river, which was the only source of water.• Water was such a precious resource, people took baths once a week.• The water was never pure or clean, just simply all they could get.
Los Angeles Aqueduct• Mulholland built the L.A. aqueduct, which went from the Owens river through the San Fernando Valley.• Thousands of people worked on the building of the aqueduct with no air conditioning, no hard hats, and no water.• They were able to make it across in 5 years.• November 5, 1913-celebration of completion of L.A. aqueduct• Mulholland’s famous speech: “There it is, take it.”• Water was abundant and started the building and construction of what it now L.A. today.• From desert to the land of Eden!
Los Angeles Aqueduct• Mulholland changed history, and L.A. named a school, dam, reservoir, & highway after him.• L.A. ended up growing at such a fast rate of speed that water was already running low after just 10 years of building the aqueduct.• Drought happened to occur again, and people were so outraged they ended up blowing up the aqueduct.• Mulholland came up with the idea for construction of the St. Francis Dam in San Franciscito Canyon.• The dam ended up collapsing, sending a huge tidal wave of concrete over the surrounding communities.• The dam had killed as many people as the San Francisco earthquake.• Mulholland’s reputation was crushed and he resigned after 50 years.
Los Angeles Aqueduct• L.A. kept having to ﬁnd new resources for water because of how fast it continued to grow.• A new aqueduct was built connected to the Colorado River, then to the Mono lake.• People constantly worried about supply instead of conservation.• 1976 Mono lake had fallen 40 feet, but was able to have water restored to it thanks to activists in 1988.• Today, L.A. uses the water that is provided, & if there is a shortage, oh well!