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  1. 1. The French in North America <ul><li>Brooke Soto </li></ul><ul><li>History 140 </li></ul>
  2. 2. American Colonies - Chapter 5 Canada & Iroquoia <ul><li>In 16th century, English, French, & Dutch mariners crossed the Atlantic to plunder Spanish shipping & conduct smuggling trades </li></ul><ul><li>The French needed to create their own colonies to compete against the Spanish, but the French & English explorers failed to find precious metals & a “Northwest Passage” around North America to the Pacific and trade riches of Asia. </li></ul><ul><li>The French continues to abandon further attempts at colonization due to previous attempts. </li></ul><ul><li>French discovered two profitable commodities that made northern colonization possible: fish & furs </li></ul><ul><li>Northern traders accepted Indian trade protocols, restrained their prices, and cultivated alliances </li></ul><ul><li>Iroquoians practiced mixed economy with hunting & gathering that sustained many villages. </li></ul><ul><li>French took a lead in the fur trade & had made dangerous enemies </li></ul>
  3. 3. American Colonies - Chapter 5 Canada & Iroquoia <ul><li>The Fur Trade </li></ul><ul><li>In the Gulf of St. Lawrence, fisheries & whale & seal hunts employed at least 400 vessels and 12,000 men </li></ul><ul><li>The shore camps would lure Indian hunters wearing attractive furs (beaver, fox, otter, lynx) and trade manufactured goods (beads, kettles, knives) for their fur </li></ul><ul><li>Mariners started using Indians as commodities, but they started acquiring diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Indians killed animals at a rapid rate for themselves & an external market, which caused conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Canada </li></ul><ul><li>Reclaiming the St. Lawrence Valley (Canada) became the French’s number one priority </li></ul><ul><li>While they maintained their allies with some Indians, other Indians became their enemies as they hunted and depleted supplies. </li></ul><ul><li>Canada was a place for rich & valuable furs </li></ul><ul><li>Weaponry was introduced and the Indians would pay high prices for guns </li></ul><ul><li>This lead into numerous battles </li></ul>
  4. 4. American Colonies - Chapter 5 Canada & Iroquoia <ul><li>The Five Nations </li></ul><ul><li>Five Nation Iroquois were formidable enemies with productive fields of crops & surplus </li></ul><ul><li>To appease grief, restore power, and build their status, Iroquois warriors conducted “mourning wars” where they sought prisoners from their enemies to torture and cannibalize </li></ul><ul><li>The Great League was a religious group that practiced peace and eventually broke the cycle of revenge killings </li></ul><ul><li>The Dutch Trade </li></ul><ul><li>French realized they could not compete with the quality, quantity, or price of the Dutch trade goods </li></ul><ul><li>French needed the Iroquois as enemies, but they were interested in the survival of the other </li></ul>
  5. 5. American Colonies - Chapter 5 Canada & Iroquoia <ul><li>Jesuits </li></ul><ul><li>Conversion of Indians to Catholicism, French hoped to make the natives more dependable as allies </li></ul><ul><li>French missionaries manifested the Counter-Reformation, the reform movement meant to step and reverse the growth of Protestantism </li></ul><ul><li>In an effort to evangelize the Indians, the missionary cause needed some critical reinforcements, so eight priests of the Jesuit order came </li></ul><ul><li>Jesuits became known to the Indians as the Black Robes </li></ul><ul><li>Jesuits settled in Huron & established five satellite missions </li></ul><ul><li>Jesuits believed that the salvation of their souls for an eternal afterlife was all that mattered </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1630’s epidemics killed half of the Huron & complicated missions </li></ul><ul><li>Jesuits persuaded as many people as possible to convert </li></ul><ul><li>Jesuits denounced torture, cannibalism, premarital sex, divorce, & polygamy </li></ul><ul><li>Destruction </li></ul><ul><li>Mid-17th century, Iroquois warfare escalated to genocidal proportions </li></ul><ul><li>Attacked Huron villages and damaged everything </li></ul><ul><li>New France proved far move violent & much less profitable than Champlain had hoped </li></ul><ul><li>Command & control was never fulfilled, but there were the powerful forces of disease, trade, and war </li></ul>
  6. 6. American Colonies - Chapter 16 French America French America <ul><li>French founded new colony called Louisiana, in the Mississippi Valley </li></ul><ul><li>Emigrants </li></ul><ul><li>With only 85 French colonists, they realized they needed more to defend Quebec from their English rivals </li></ul><ul><li>“ Seigneurs” could obtain colonial estates and titles of nobility </li></ul><ul><li>In 1660, English had 58,000 colonists in New England </li></ul><ul><li>Families migrated to Canada and served as soldiers & servants </li></ul><ul><li>Canada’s reputation was known as cold, immoral and unprofitable land </li></ul><ul><li>Large military group expanded from 20,000-300,000 men with the help of Louis XIV </li></ul>
  7. 7. American Colonies - Chapter 16 French America French America <ul><li>Opportunity </li></ul><ul><li>The French were able to escape their former poverty as landless laborers when they came to Canada & improved their standard of living </li></ul><ul><li>Like Dutch law, French law saw wives as equal economic partners with husbands </li></ul><ul><li>Catholic women could enter into a convent and become a nun with a life of celibacy & religious commitment, but because of the entry cost and the sacrificial life of a nun, few entered </li></ul><ul><li>Authority </li></ul><ul><li>The crown appointed three officials: a military governor general, a civil administrator, & a Catholic bishop </li></ul><ul><li>St. Lawrence valley was divided into parishes: a church, priest, and militia </li></ul><ul><li>Chronic warfare called for all males ages 16-60 serve </li></ul><ul><li>Social rank was immutable & law discouraged social mobility </li></ul>
  8. 8. American Colonies - Chapter 16 French America French America <ul><li>The Upper Country </li></ul><ul><li>Consisted of the St. Lawrence Valley & the Upper Country </li></ul><ul><li>Indians & French gradually developed an effective alliance called “the middle ground” </li></ul><ul><li>Life was hard in refugee villages: disputes over fishing & hunting, and accusations of witchcraft led to murders & revenge killing </li></ul><ul><li>To persuade villages, the French had to reward multiple chiefs with presents to satisfy their several lineages </li></ul><ul><li>French were able to exercise a limited empire only by expensively providing trade, mediation, and presents </li></ul><ul><li>The middle ground required constant attention and generosity from the French </li></ul><ul><li>Louisiana </li></ul><ul><li>Named after King Louis XIV </li></ul><ul><li>In 1708 it consisted of 122 soldiers and sailors, 80 slaves, & 77 inhabitants </li></ul><ul><li>After the war of the Spanish Succession, the crown entrusted Louisiana to a private corporation, the Company of the Indies, which promoted plantation to cultivate tobacco & indigo </li></ul><ul><li>In 1718, the company shifted to New Orleans & it became the colony’s largest town, principal seaport, & government headquarters </li></ul><ul><li>Louisiana wasn’t able to create a profitable export staple & suffered from a corrupt government </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1731, the Company of the Indians surrendered to the colony of the French crown </li></ul><ul><li>As English colonists grew even more numerous, prosperous, and confident, they developed their popular government, which compounded the insecurity of the French officials </li></ul>
  9. 9. American Colonies - Chapter 16 French America French America <ul><li>Rebels & Allies & Dependence </li></ul><ul><li>French America was an economic disappointment </li></ul><ul><li>Indians became dependent on French trade, & the French empire became captive to Indian demand </li></ul><ul><li>The crown withdrew from upper-country posts because of the financial drain </li></ul><ul><li>French became entangled in complex relationships with the Indians, & one couldn’t be without the other </li></ul>