The french in north america


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The french in north america

  1. 1. The French in North America<br />Victoria Herrera<br />History 140<br />Online<br />
  2. 2. American Colonies- Chapter 5Canada and IroquoiaSlide #1<br />In the 16th century the English, French, and Dutch mariners crossed the Atlantic to plunder Spanish shipping and colonial towns<br />The French discovered fish and furs, two profitable commodities that made northern colonization possible<br />Indians became dependent on European metals, cloth, and alcohol<br />Traders and their empires had to met the Indians demands for commodities because to be cut off would mean a act of war<br />THE FUR TRADE<br /> By 1580 in Newfoundland the fisheries, whale and seal hunters employed 400 vessels and up to 12,000 men<br />Indians thought that all objects possessed spiritual power. (Manitou)<br />Mariners started to kidnap Indians to use as a commodities, but most died even before they reached shore<br />The fur trade pitted the Indians against each other in destructive competition <br />
  3. 3. American Colonies- Chapter 5Canada and IroquoiaSlide # 2<br />CANADA<br />The French shifted their focus northward to reclaim the St. Lawrence Valley, known as Canada<br />Canada was a poor location for farming but was excellent for fur trade. The location meant thick and valuable furs.<br />Huron’s population was so huge it over hunted its location which meant that they couldn’t contribute to the fur trade as hunters.<br />The introduction of firearms revolutionized Indian warfare<br />THE FIVE NATIONS<br />Iroquois warriors conducted “mourning wars” in which they sought prisoners from their enemies<br />The Great League was a ceremonial and religious forum for promoting calm and peaceful thinking <br />Iroquois thought of themselves as especially devoted to peace but others knew them as fearsome in war<br />
  4. 4. American Colonies- Chapter 5Canada and IroquoiaSlide #3<br />THE DUTCH TRADE<br />The Dutch could supply better quality metal goods at a lower cost than the French could<br />Most of the 17th century the Iroquois and the French needed one another as enemies<br />JESUITS<br />By converting the Indians to Catholicism, the French leaders hoped to make the natives more dependent and dependable as allies and trading partners <br />Europeans perceived peoples in terms of social rank rather than skin color<br />In 1615 the French launched their first effort to evangelize the Indians of Canada<br />It was strenuous hard work for the priests to convert the Indians so 8 priests of the Jesuit order were called in to take over<br />Natives were impressed by the Jesuits by their lack of interest in the land, furs, and women that other Europeans coveted<br />The natives didn’t believe in a heaven and hell they believed that they passed on to a dream world <br />The Huron were drawn to the apparent magical prowess of the Jesuits then their Christian message<br />The Jesuits denounced torture and ritual cannibalism, premarital sex, divorce, polygamy, and the traditional games, feasts, and dances.<br />
  5. 5. American Colonies- Chapter 5Canada and IroquoiaSlide #4<br />DESTRUCTION<br />Never before had native peoples attacked and killed each other on the scale and with the ferocity of the Iroquois during the 1640’s and 1650’s<br />The Iroquois assault on the Huron was primarily a mourning war<br />In 1648-49 Iroquois warriors stormed the Huron villages, killing and capturing hundreds<br />
  6. 6. American Colonies- Chapter 16French AmericaSlide #1<br />At the end of the 17th century the Drench founded a new colony named Louisiana<br />EMIGRANTS<br />The French learned that they needed more colonists to defend Quebec from their English rivals<br />Seigneurs brought the first farm families to Canada<br />By 1660 the English had 58,000 colonists in New England and the Chesapeake<br />During the 17th century, fewer than 250 families emigrated to Canada<br />Most male emigrants arrived in servitude, either soldiers or indentured servants<br />Louis XIV built the largest military in Europe-20,000 men in 1661 to 300,000 in 1710<br />Canada suffered from a bad reputation as a immoral, cold, and unprofitable land<br />Because of the short growing season Canadians couldn’t produce the warm-climate staples<br />OPPORTUNITY<br />Most of the French who did emigrate to Canada significantly improved their status and standard of living<br />In Canada there was no direct tax on either people or lands<br />French law treated wives as equal economic partners with their husbands<br />Because of entry cost and the demanding life of a nun, fewer than 4% of Canadian women entered a convent <br />
  7. 7. American Colonies-Chapter 16French AmericanSlide #2<br />AUTHORITY<br />To govern New France the crown appointed 3 officials: a military governor-general, a civil administrator known as the intendant, and a Catholic bishop<br />The French established no elective assembly to represent the colonists <br />Noble birth and aristocratic honor were the primary criteria of status and authority in New France<br />
  8. 8. American Colonies- Chapter 16French AmericaSlide #3<br />THE UPPER COUNTRY<br />In the 18th century New France consisted of two sectors: St. Lawrence Valley and the upper country<br />Canadian Indians were sovereign peoples rather than French subjects<br />The Indians and the French developed “the middle ground”<br />French traders married native women<br />In order to sway an entire village the French had to reward multiple chiefs with presents to satisfy their lineages<br />Without mediation by the French revenge killings accelerated among the Indians<br />The French could exercise a limited empire only by providing trade, mediation, and presents <br />
  9. 9. American Colonies- Chapter 16French AmericaSlide #4<br />LOUISIANA<br />Louisiana was named after King Louis XIV<br />The French hoped to dominate the interior of North America by linking Canada with Louisiana<br />The French in Louisiana wooded the Indians with trade goods, especially firearms<br />The French tried to reconcile the Choctaw and Chickasaw <br />The crown entrusted Louisiana to a private corporation, the company of the Indians, which promoted plantations to cultivate tobacco and indigo<br />Louisiana failed to develop a profitable export staple<br />Louisiana also suffered from an arbitrary government<br />The Louisiana officials were notoriously corrupt <br />The bankrupt Company of the Indians surrendered the colony to the French crown in 1731<br />The settlers and soldiers of Louisiana found that a white skin brought them far less privilege than it did the common people of Carolina <br />