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Theme 4 Part 1


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Theme 4 Part 1

  1. 1. French in North America<br />Lindsey Miller<br />History 140<br />
  2. 2. American Colonies: Ch 5 – Canada and Iroquoia<br /><ul><li>16th Century
  3. 3. French, English, and Dutch mariners want to settle near New Spain
  4. 4. Difficult task with Spanish watching and defending land
  5. 5. French decide to settle in North America
  6. 6. Safer, but less desirable
  7. 7. Main commodities: Fish and fur trade
  8. 8. Indians divided into two categories: Iroquoian and Algonquian</li></li></ul><li>American Colonies: Ch 5 – Canada and Iroquoia<br />Fur Trade<br />Fishery employees begin trading manufactured good for furs with local Indians<br />Indians initially view trades as a sign of alliance and friendship<br /> Begin negotiating <br />Liked European goods for utility<br />Became dependant on these goods, forgot how to make stone tools and weapons<br />Some traders became stuck, could not cease trading since it would end alliance with Indians <br />Beaver fur was one of the primary furs traded<br />
  9. 9. American Colonies: Ch 5 – Canada and Iroquoia <br /> The Five Nations<br /><ul><li> Group of Iroquoian Indians
  10. 10. Practiced “mourning wars” – Would take hostages from other tribes
  11. 11. Seen as a violent, never-ending cycle
  12. 12. Great Leagues was formed to try and promote calm and peaceful think
  13. 13. Refocused anger and war towards farther enemies
  14. 14. Including other Iroquoian-speaking nations
  15. 15. In 1633-35 small pox and measles depleted half of the Iroquois population
  16. 16. Believed it was sorcery and sought revenge
  17. 17. Every attack resulted in a counter-attack
  18. 18. Resulting in more death and lower populations </li></li></ul><li>American Colonies: Ch 5 – Canada and Iroquoia <br />Jesuits<br />French missionaries came up with the Counter-Reformation<br />A movement meant to stem and reverse the growth of Protestantism<br />1615- French first attempt to evangelize the Indians<br />Not very successful<br />Only baptized 50 men over 10 years<br />Jesuits came in 1625<br />Mastered natives’ language, built churches in the village<br />Very focused on their mission of converting the Indians – this impressed the Indians <br />Natives converted, but did not fully assimilate or accept the beliefs<br />Natives did not believe in Heaven or Hell<br />Still regarded shamans as powerful and real since they had the power to heal and harm<br />
  19. 19. American Colonies: French America, 1650-1750<br />Emigration<br /><ul><li>French crown ordered the Company of New France to recruit more people
  20. 20. Stimulated growth by paying for transatlantic passages
  21. 21. Many men would only stay for short terms, eventually returning to France
  22. 22. Those who did emigrated improved their status and standard of living
  23. 23. Ate meat and white bread often
  24. 24. Allowed to fish and hunt (not something one could do in France)
  25. 25. Paid less for rent
  26. 26. First farm families were formed
  27. 27. Brought by seigneurs
  28. 28. Initiated modest growth
  29. 29. The “habitats” introduced crops of wheat and small herds of livestock</li></li></ul><li>American Colonies: Ch 16 – French America 1650-1750<br />Upper Country<br /><ul><li> Vast interior of forest and lakes
  30. 30. Area of mostly trade
  31. 31. Area found balance with Indians
  32. 32. Missions allowed a reasonable amount of Indian culture alongside that of Catholicism
  33. 33. Based alliance of mutual accommodations
  34. 34. Neither group dominated the other
  35. 35. “Middle Ground”
  36. 36. Balance of Indians and French living together
  37. 37. Demanded constant attention and generosity from French
  38. 38. Otherwise trust and alliance would be lost
  39. 39. French needed Indians for trade and help in battle</li></li></ul><li>American Colonies: Ch 16- French America, 1650-1750<br /> Louisiana founded<br />Trade more important here than converting the natives<br />Divided into two landscapes<br />Small plantation core – where settlers lived<br />Treated natives poorly<br />Immense hinterland – where Indians thrived<br /> French here cultivated natives as allies<br />English and French competed for influence over Indians<br />Expensive, due to so many groups of Indians and French having to provide gifts to chiefs to obtain influence<br />French decided they must be selective, only befriend certain tribes<br />King Louis XIV in which Louisiana was named after by La Salle<br />
  40. 40. American Colonies: Ch 16 French America, 1650-1750<br />Petite Nations<br />Group of various Indian tribes<br />Provided French with food<br />Were betrayed by French<br />Once the French gained numbers and strength attempted to control the Petite Nations<br />Petite Nations forced to accept French domination due to low populations from disease<br />One group – the Natchez had an uprising<br />Killed over 200 French, absorbed 200 black slaves as allies, and took 50 women and children as captives<br />Were defeated by French allying with Choctaw<br />Demonstrated the French dependence on Indians for aid<br />Both Indians and French dependant on each other<br />Forced French to always keep alliance with at least some tribes<br />