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Consonant g1a
Consonant g1a
Consonant g1a
Consonant g1a
Consonant g1a
Consonant g1a
Consonant g1a
Consonant g1a
Consonant g1a
Consonant g1a
Consonant g1a
Consonant g1a
Consonant g1a
Consonant g1a
Consonant g1a
Consonant g1a
Consonant g1a
Consonant g1a
Consonant g1a
Consonant g1a
Consonant g1a
Consonant g1a
Consonant g1a
Consonant g1a
Consonant g1a
Consonant g1a
Consonant g1a
Consonant g1a
Consonant g1a
Consonant g1a
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Consonant g1a


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  • 1. University of Social Sciences & Humanities Department Of English Linguistics & Literature English Phonetics and Phonology CONSONANTS Instructor: Vo Thi Nu Anh, M.A Group 1: Nguyễn Hương Anh 0857010012 Lê Thị Minh Châu 0857010026 Nguyễn Thị Hiền 0857010084 Lê Thi Hương Trầm 0857010293
  • 2. OUTLINE
    • Definition
    • Places of Articulation
    • Manners of Articulation
    • Conclusion
  • 3. A. Definition
    • Sounds:
    • Consonants are produced with some restriction in the vocal tract that impedes the flow of air from the lungs.
    Consonants (24) Vowels(20)
  • 4. The Vocal Tract
    • Nose
    • 2&3. (upper/lower) lip
    • 4&11. (lower/upper) teeth
    • 5. Tongue
    • 6. Larynx
    • 7. Pharynx
    • 8. Velum (soft palate)
    • 9. Hard palate
    • 10. Alveolar ridge
  • 5. B. Places of Articulation
    • Bilabial ( labials): The lips against each other
    • [p], [m], [b],[w]
  • 6. Places of Articulation
    • 2. Labiodental: Placing the upper teeth
    • towards the lower lip.
    • [f], [v]
  • 7. Places of Articulation
    • 3. Dental(Interdental): The tongue between the teeth.
  • 8. Places of Articulation
    • 4. Alveolar : The tip of the tongue towards
    • the alveolar ridge.
    • [t], [d], [s], [z], [n], [l]
  • 9.
    • 5. Alveopalatal (post-alveolar): The front of the tongue towards the area between alveolar ridge and the hard palate
    , , , . [r]
  • 10.
    • 6. Palatal : The body of the tongue towards the hard palate.
    • [j]
  • 11.
    • 7. Velar : The body of the tongue towards the velum.
    • [k], [g],
  • 12.
    • 8. Glottal : produced by completely or partially constricting the glottis [h]
  • 13. C/ Manner of Articulation 1. Plosives/ Oral stops Sounds that are stopped completely in the oral cavity for a brief period. [b], [p], [d], [t], [g], [k]
  • 14.
      • English plosives:
        • Bilabial: [ p], [b]
        • Alveolar: [ t], [d]
        • Velar: [ k], [g]
  • 15.
    • Tips to distinguish between voiced & unvoiced sounds: 1. Put your hands over your ears & say the sounds - you'll hear the voiced sounds. 2. Put your hand on your throat while saying the sounds - you'll feel a vibration for the voiced sounds. 3. Put a piece of paper in front of your mouth when saying the sounds - the paper will move when saying the unvoiced sounds.
    Voiced and Voiceless Sounds
  • 16. 2. Fricatives
    • In the production of fricative consonant sounds, the airflow is so severely obstructed that it causes friction and the sounds are therefore called fricatives.
  • 17. 3. Affricates
    • Sounds which are produced by a stop closure followed immediately by a gradual release of the closure that produces an effect characteristic of a fricative.
  • 18.
    • 4. Nasal
    • The air pass through the nose. It is prevented by a complete closure in the mouth at some points. They are 3 types of closure:
    • Bilabial (lips)
    • Alveolar (tongue blade against alveolar ridge)
    • Velar (back or tongue against the palate)
    • So, we have 3 nasal consonants: m (bilabial), n (alveolar) and ŋ (velar)
  • 19.
    • The consonants m & n are simple and straightforward with distributions like those of flosives.
    • The articulation of ŋ is the same with k and g (Velar)
    • In phonology, ŋ has the distribution unusual. This differ from m and n :
  • 20. 5.Consonant ŋ
    • Initially: no occur
    • Finally: occur frequently (E.g: long, hang, sing…)
    • Medially: occur frequently but its pronounciation is rather complex.
    • Rule: ŋ
    • Ex: ‘fi ng er’ /fi ŋg eǝr/ ‘a nge r’/æ ŋg ǝ/
    • ‘ si ng er’ / si ŋ ǝr/ ‘ha ng er’ /hæ ŋg ǝ/
    ŋg (word has 1 morpheme) ŋ(word has 2 morphemes)
  • 21.
    • Exception in comparative and superlative in the rule:
    • Ex: ‘longer’ /lɒ ŋg ǝ/
    • ‘ longest’ /lɒ ŋg ǝst/
    • ŋ never occurs after a dipthong or long vowel. Infact, it only occur after 5 vowels: e, æ, ɒ, ᴧ and i
  • 22. 6. Consonant l
    • l is a lateral consonant
    • The way of air through the mouth does not go inn the usual way along the centre of the tongue. The air escapes along the sides of the tongue.
    • The position of l in a word: initially, medially and finally. So, its distribution is not limited.
    • Another allophone of l is found when it follows p and k at the beginning of as stress syllable (e.g: placable, klanman …)
  • 23.
    • However, consonant l has one unusual characteristic: the realization of l found before vowel sounds quite different from that found in other context
    • Ex: ‘lea’ li: called “dark l ”
    • ‘ eel’ i:l called “clear l ”
    • Dark l : the front of tongue raised
    • Clear l : the back of tongue raised
  • 24. 7. Consonant r
    • Consonant r is an approximant.
    • Consonant r is called retroflex : the tongue is in fact usually slightly curled backwards with the tips raised.
    • The curling-back of r has a position further back t and d . So, it is called post-alveolar.
    • A rather different r sound if it is precede by p, t, k. Ex: press, tress, cress…
    • One finally characteristic of articulation of r is that is usual for the slips to be slightly rounded
  • 25. In phonology
    • r only is pronounced when it occurs before vowel. Ex: r ed, ar r ive, hea r ing…
    • non-rhotic
    • There is no r in pronunciation when it is follows by a vowel. Ex: ca r , eve r , he r e…
    • rhotic
    • r in final position(before a pause) and before a consonant, it is silent consonant.Ex: ha r d, ve r se, ca r es…
    • rhotic
  • 26. 8. Consonants j and w
    • They are approximants the same with r
    • They are phonetically like vowels but phonologically like consonants:
    • Like vowel:
    • Articulation of j is the same with vowel / i:/
    • Articulation of w is the same with vowel / u:/
    • Like consonant:
    • Only occur before vowel
    • Occur at the beginning of the word
    • Definite article “ a ” like other consonants
  • 27.
    • j and w have mispronunciation the same with fricative or affricative.
    • For place of articulation , we regard j as palatal and w as bilabial
  • 29. TABLE OF ENGLISH CONSONANTS Place of Articulation Front Back Manner of Articulation f p θ s ʧ ʃ k h t Unvoiced phonemes are on shaded background. Voiced phonemes are normal Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Palato-alveolar Palatal Velar Glotal Plosive b d g Affricative ʤ Fricative v ð z Ʒ Nasal m n ŋ Lateral l Approxi mant ( w ) r j w
  • 30. Chart of English consonant phoneme Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Post- Chart of English lateral Pala tal Velar Glottal Flosive p b t d k g Fricatives f v Ɵ ð s z ʃ ʓ h Affricates t ʃ ʤ Nasal m n ŋ Lateral l Aproximant w r j