Consonant g1a

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Consonant g1a

  1. 1. University of Social Sciences & Humanities Department Of English Linguistics & Literature English Phonetics and Phonology CONSONANTS Instructor: Vo Thi Nu Anh, M.A Group 1: Nguyễn Hương Anh 0857010012 Lê Thị Minh Châu 0857010026 Nguyễn Thị Hiền 0857010084 Lê Thi Hương Trầm 0857010293
  2. 2. OUTLINE <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Places of Articulation </li></ul><ul><li>Manners of Articulation </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  3. 3. A. Definition <ul><li>Sounds: </li></ul><ul><li>Consonants are produced with some restriction in the vocal tract that impedes the flow of air from the lungs. </li></ul>Consonants (24) Vowels(20)
  4. 4. The Vocal Tract <ul><li>Nose </li></ul><ul><li>2&3. (upper/lower) lip </li></ul><ul><li>4&11. (lower/upper) teeth </li></ul><ul><li>5. Tongue </li></ul><ul><li>6. Larynx </li></ul><ul><li>7. Pharynx </li></ul><ul><li>8. Velum (soft palate) </li></ul><ul><li>9. Hard palate </li></ul><ul><li>10. Alveolar ridge </li></ul>
  5. 5. B. Places of Articulation <ul><li>Bilabial ( labials): The lips against each other </li></ul><ul><li>[p], [m], [b],[w] </li></ul>
  6. 6. Places of Articulation <ul><li>2. Labiodental: Placing the upper teeth </li></ul><ul><li>towards the lower lip. </li></ul><ul><li>[f], [v] </li></ul>
  7. 7. Places of Articulation <ul><li>3. Dental(Interdental): The tongue between the teeth. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Places of Articulation <ul><li>4. Alveolar : The tip of the tongue towards </li></ul><ul><li> the alveolar ridge. </li></ul><ul><li>[t], [d], [s], [z], [n], [l] </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>5. Alveopalatal (post-alveolar): The front of the tongue towards the area between alveolar ridge and the hard palate </li></ul>, , , . [r]
  10. 10. <ul><li>6. Palatal : The body of the tongue towards the hard palate. </li></ul><ul><li>[j] </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>7. Velar : The body of the tongue towards the velum. </li></ul><ul><li>[k], [g], </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>8. Glottal : produced by completely or partially constricting the glottis [h] </li></ul>
  13. 13. C/ Manner of Articulation 1. Plosives/ Oral stops Sounds that are stopped completely in the oral cavity for a brief period. [b], [p], [d], [t], [g], [k]
  14. 14. <ul><ul><li>English plosives: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bilabial: [ p], [b] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alveolar: [ t], [d] </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Velar: [ k], [g] </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Tips to distinguish between voiced & unvoiced sounds: 1. Put your hands over your ears & say the sounds - you'll hear the voiced sounds. 2. Put your hand on your throat while saying the sounds - you'll feel a vibration for the voiced sounds. 3. Put a piece of paper in front of your mouth when saying the sounds - the paper will move when saying the unvoiced sounds. </li></ul>Voiced and Voiceless Sounds
  16. 16. 2. Fricatives <ul><li>In the production of fricative consonant sounds, the airflow is so severely obstructed that it causes friction and the sounds are therefore called fricatives. </li></ul>
  17. 17. 3. Affricates <ul><li>Sounds which are produced by a stop closure followed immediately by a gradual release of the closure that produces an effect characteristic of a fricative. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>4. Nasal </li></ul><ul><li>The air pass through the nose. It is prevented by a complete closure in the mouth at some points. They are 3 types of closure: </li></ul><ul><li>Bilabial (lips) </li></ul><ul><li>Alveolar (tongue blade against alveolar ridge) </li></ul><ul><li>Velar (back or tongue against the palate) </li></ul><ul><li>So, we have 3 nasal consonants: m (bilabial), n (alveolar) and ŋ (velar) </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>The consonants m & n are simple and straightforward with distributions like those of flosives. </li></ul><ul><li>The articulation of ŋ is the same with k and g (Velar) </li></ul><ul><li>In phonology, ŋ has the distribution unusual. This differ from m and n : </li></ul>
  20. 20. 5.Consonant ŋ <ul><li>Initially: no occur </li></ul><ul><li>Finally: occur frequently (E.g: long, hang, sing…) </li></ul><ul><li>Medially: occur frequently but its pronounciation is rather complex. </li></ul><ul><li>Rule: ŋ </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: ‘fi ng er’ /fi ŋg eǝr/ ‘a nge r’/æ ŋg ǝ/ </li></ul><ul><li>‘ si ng er’ / si ŋ ǝr/ ‘ha ng er’ /hæ ŋg ǝ/ </li></ul>ŋg (word has 1 morpheme) ŋ(word has 2 morphemes)
  21. 21. <ul><li>Exception in comparative and superlative in the rule: </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: ‘longer’ /lɒ ŋg ǝ/ </li></ul><ul><li>‘ longest’ /lɒ ŋg ǝst/ </li></ul><ul><li>ŋ never occurs after a dipthong or long vowel. Infact, it only occur after 5 vowels: e, æ, ɒ, ᴧ and i </li></ul>
  22. 22. 6. Consonant l <ul><li>l is a lateral consonant </li></ul><ul><li>The way of air through the mouth does not go inn the usual way along the centre of the tongue. The air escapes along the sides of the tongue. </li></ul><ul><li>The position of l in a word: initially, medially and finally. So, its distribution is not limited. </li></ul><ul><li>Another allophone of l is found when it follows p and k at the beginning of as stress syllable (e.g: placable, klanman …) </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>However, consonant l has one unusual characteristic: the realization of l found before vowel sounds quite different from that found in other context </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: ‘lea’ li: called “dark l ” </li></ul><ul><li>‘ eel’ i:l called “clear l ” </li></ul><ul><li>Dark l : the front of tongue raised </li></ul><ul><li>Clear l : the back of tongue raised </li></ul>
  24. 24. 7. Consonant r <ul><li>Consonant r is an approximant. </li></ul><ul><li>Consonant r is called retroflex : the tongue is in fact usually slightly curled backwards with the tips raised. </li></ul><ul><li>The curling-back of r has a position further back t and d . So, it is called post-alveolar. </li></ul><ul><li>A rather different r sound if it is precede by p, t, k. Ex: press, tress, cress… </li></ul><ul><li>One finally characteristic of articulation of r is that is usual for the slips to be slightly rounded </li></ul>
  25. 25. In phonology <ul><li>r only is pronounced when it occurs before vowel. Ex: r ed, ar r ive, hea r ing… </li></ul><ul><li>non-rhotic </li></ul><ul><li>There is no r in pronunciation when it is follows by a vowel. Ex: ca r , eve r , he r e… </li></ul><ul><li>rhotic </li></ul><ul><li>r in final position(before a pause) and before a consonant, it is silent consonant.Ex: ha r d, ve r se, ca r es… </li></ul><ul><li>rhotic </li></ul>
  26. 26. 8. Consonants j and w <ul><li>They are approximants the same with r </li></ul><ul><li>They are phonetically like vowels but phonologically like consonants: </li></ul><ul><li>Like vowel: </li></ul><ul><li>Articulation of j is the same with vowel / i:/ </li></ul><ul><li>Articulation of w is the same with vowel / u:/ </li></ul><ul><li>Like consonant: </li></ul><ul><li>Only occur before vowel </li></ul><ul><li>Occur at the beginning of the word </li></ul><ul><li>Definite article “ a ” like other consonants </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>j and w have mispronunciation the same with fricative or affricative. </li></ul><ul><li>For place of articulation , we regard j as palatal and w as bilabial </li></ul>
  28. 28. D/ CONCLUSION
  29. 29. TABLE OF ENGLISH CONSONANTS Place of Articulation Front Back Manner of Articulation f p θ s ʧ ʃ k h t Unvoiced phonemes are on shaded background. Voiced phonemes are normal Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Palato-alveolar Palatal Velar Glotal Plosive b d g Affricative ʤ Fricative v ð z Ʒ Nasal m n ŋ Lateral l Approxi mant ( w ) r j w
  30. 30. Chart of English consonant phoneme Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Post- Chart of English lateral Pala tal Velar Glottal Flosive p b t d k g Fricatives f v Ɵ ð s z ʃ ʓ h Affricates t ʃ ʤ Nasal m n ŋ Lateral l Aproximant w r j

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