• Complete closure of articulation
• Airstream cannot escape through
Types of stops
• Soft palate is raised
• Airstream obstructed
in the mouth
• Pressure built up
• Small burst of sound
when air released
• Soft palate is lowered
• Air stopped in oral cavity
• No pressure
• No burst
• No complete stop
• Friction is there
Brief stopping of airstream and with
an obstructed release
English Consonants chart
Place of articulation
dental alveolar palatal velar glottal
stop p b
f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ
affricate _____ _____ _____ _____ ʧ ʤ _____ _____
flap _____ _____ _____
ɾ _____ _____ _____
nasal m _____ _____ n _____ ŋ _____
lat. _____ _____ _____ l
_____ _____ _____
glide w _____ _____ _____ j _____ h
• Consonant sounds are generally assumed to be:
Consonant Dimensions: Summary
1. Airstream Mechanism pulmonic egressive p.e.
2. Phonation Type voiceless voiced
3. Place of Articulation alveolar palatal
4. Aperture stop approx.
5. Retroflexion non-retroflex non-retro
6. Nasality oral oral
7. Laterality central central
• Vowel articulations can be characterized along four
1. Height (of tongue body)
• high, mid, low
2. Front-back (of tongue body)
• front, central, back
3. Roundedness (of lips)
• rounded vs. unrounded
Other Vowel Features
• are pronounced with rounded lips
• the other English vowels are not
• a “tense” vowel is closer to the edge of the vowel space
• a “lax” vowel is closer to the center
• Ex: [i] is tense, is not.
• Tense/lax distinctions:
• found predominately in Germanic languages
• are very hard for non-native speakers of English to hear
The Cardinal Vowels
• A set of 8 reference vowels
• Brainchild of English Phonetician Daniel Jones
• “Cardinal Vowels can only be
learnt from a teacher who knows
how to make them or from a
gramophone record or tape record.”
• Henry Sweet taught phonetics to Daniel Jones.
• Daniel Jones taught David Abercrombie.
• David Abercrombie taught Peter Ladefoged.
• Peter Ladefoged taught Sarah Dart.
• Sarah Dart taught me.
• I am teaching you.
The Cardinal Vowels
• So let’s learn about the Cardinal Vowels.
• Two “anchor” vowels:
• [i] - Cardinal Vowel 1 - highest, frontest vowel possible
• - Cardinal Vowel 5 - lowest, backest vowel possible
• Remaining vowels are spaced at equal intervals of frontness and height
between the anchor vowels.
• Note: [u] - Cardinal Vowel 8 - may serve as a third anchor as the highest,
backest, roundest vowel possible
Tense vs. Lax
• There are five lax vowels in English.
• The lax vowels cannot appear at the end of a syllable.
• They also often have a offglide.
• Lastly: they are shorter than their tense counterparts.