RiverPollution_Yamuna: By Suresh Babu.ppt


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  • RiverPollution_Yamuna: By Suresh Babu.ppt

    1. 1. Dead rivers in India Centre for Science and Environment, April 10 , 2007
    2. 2. River action plans in India…
    3. 3. Twenty two years later 1 crore = 10 million
    4. 4. River cleaning strategies <ul><li>Sewage interception & diversion </li></ul><ul><li>Sewage treatment plants (STPs) </li></ul><ul><li>Low-cost sanitation works to prevent open defecation </li></ul><ul><li>Electric crematoria </li></ul><ul><li>River front works (eg-bathing ghats) </li></ul><ul><li>Plantation, public awareness, etc. </li></ul>
    5. 5. River factsheet
    6. 6. Yamuna stretch Himalayan segment 172-km Upper stretch 224-km Delhi stretch 22-km Eutrophicated stretch 490-km Diluted segment 468-km Not meeting coliform bathing standard Not meeting coliform, DO and BOD bathing standard Not meeting coliform, and BOD bathing standard Eastern Yamuna canal TAJEWALA BARRAGE YAMUNANAGAR PANIPAT SONEPAT WAZIRABAD BARRAGE NIZAMUDDIN BARRAGE OKHLA BARRAGE MAJHAWALI MATHURA AGRA ATESHWAR ETAWAH UDI AURIYA/JUHIKHA ALLAHABAD Banas river Chambal river Sind river Betwa river Dhasan river Ken river Ganga river Y a m u n a r I v e r N
    7. 7. Zero dilution
    8. 8. Faecal coliform counts
    9. 9. Delhi’s 22 drains
    10. 10. Costly plans Already Rs 55-75 crore per km has been spent in Delhi stretch. YAP-II will add Rs 25 crore per km.
    11. 11. No dissolved oxygen
    12. 12. Faecal coliform counts
    13. 13. Problem: Learn from Yamuna <ul><li>STPs plants built but not used </li></ul><ul><li>Where there is sewage, there’s no STPs Where there’s STPs, there’s no sewage! </li></ul><ul><li>Treated mixed with untreated effluent (‘legal’ waste of rich mixed with “illegal waste” of poor) </li></ul><ul><li>All effluent (treated & untreated) discharged into drain. Leads to river. No improvement in water quality </li></ul><ul><li>No longer can the river dilute waste (no assimilative capacity) </li></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><li>DELHI </li></ul><ul><li>Per capita availability 211 lpcd </li></ul><ul><li>2011 Master plan targets 363 lpcd </li></ul>Cities want more. All cities plan to increase water availability to meet needs. Policies focus only on supply
    15. 15. The water-waste-pollution link Cost of treatment depends on the amount of water used
    16. 16. Who pollutes the Yamuna? The rich or the poor? <ul><li>Generates 10-30 mld waste (40 to 135 lpcd water supply); </li></ul><ul><li>0.3 to 0.9 per cent of Delhi’s waste </li></ul>
    17. 17. Change water-waste paradigm <ul><li>Reduce water use . Minimise waste. </li></ul><ul><li>Treat all sewage (no ‘illegal waste’) from open & closed drains </li></ul><ul><li>Treat sewage as close to source as possible (treat residual waste in drains at point of drainage into river) </li></ul><ul><li>Reuse and recycle treated water. </li></ul><ul><li>Rich must pay more for their water-waste. </li></ul><ul><li>Make existing facilities more efficient (before more “hardware”) </li></ul><ul><li>Keep treated and untreated water unmixed - reduce treatment cost </li></ul>
    18. 18. Waste sums ● We generate: 33, 212 mld of sewage. ● We have the capacity to treat: 6,190 mld of sewage. ● We actually treat: 4,469 mld of sewage (72 per cent). ● Therefore: 28,743 mld of sewage not treated.
    19. 19. Waste sums ● Annual cost of treatment of 6,190 mld sewage is Rs 135 - 677 crore. ● Capital costs to build STPs= Rs 7,566 crore - Rs 16,753 crore.
    20. 20. Source: Planning Commission Note: Outlays shown are Central plus State investments at current prices Money will never be enough Investment on water-sanitation (as percentages of total plan outlay)