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Water supply demand and Water Quality


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Presentation made at Bhoomi college as part of a 3-day workshop

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Water supply demand and Water Quality

  1. 1. Water Management Case of Bengaluru Biome Environmental Trust
  2. 2. Water Supply and Demand Biome Environmental Trust
  3. 3. Bengaluru’s natural water sources Biome Environmental Trust
  4. 4. A little bit of history of water supply in Bangalore • Most of Bangalore’s lakes are actually irrigation tanks • The Hoysalas, Vijaynagara, Marathas, Tipu Sultan, Haider Ali, Wodeyars have all been patrons of lakes and tanks. • Open wells near the lakes were the withdrawal points Biome Environmental Trust
  5. 5. • Open wells closer to the lakes • Source of drinking and other purposes of cooking, etc.
  6. 6. Open well
  7. 7. A cascade Biome Environmental Trust
  8. 8. Who managed and owned these lakes? Farmers, Fishermen, Grazers Community Community and Village Elders NeerugantiRulers Patronage Ensured tanks were maintained Control management distribution of water to village or community tank Joint decision making on water use Active participation in maintenance: cleaning, desilting… Used lakes for economic use Biome Environmental Trust
  9. 9. Bangalore Population growth Environmental Trust
  10. 10. Bengaluru – 2001 Total population : 5.1 million The centre of the city was more populous but… Biome Environmental Trust
  11. 11. Bengaluru – 2011 Total population : 8.4 million (65.2% growth) …Now the periphery is more populous Biome Environmental Trust
  12. 12. Lakes no longer able to suffice our water needs….. • 189 lakes in BBMP area • 50-60 have water Biome Environmental Trust
  13. 13. Bangalore water supply 1890-1900 1896-Hessarghatta WSS-untreated water 1900-1930 Hesarghatta-Combined Jewel filter 1930-1940 T G Halli Arkavathy WSS- 27 MLD 1950-1960 1952-T G Halli-45 MLD 1960-1970 1964- T G Halli-135 MLD Source: Biome Environmental Trust
  14. 14. Year of the development Name of the water supply scheme Distance of the city from the water source 1896 Arkavathy River (Hessarghatta Water Suply Scheme) 20 km to NW of Bangalore 1930-1970 Arkavathy River (TG Halli or Chamaraja Sagar reservoir) 35 km to West of Bangalore Biome Environmental Trust
  15. 15. Bengaluru gets its official water from the Cauvery 95 kms and 500 meters below the city Biome Environmental Trust
  16. 16. Cauvery Stages Year commissioned Water withdrawn (MLD) Cauvery Stage I 1974 135 Cauvery Stage II 1982 135 Cauvery Stage III 1995-96 270 Cauvery Stage IV Phase I 2002 270 Cauvery Stage IV Phase II 2012 500 1310 Environmental Trust
  17. 17. How is water demand calculated? Demand Norms as per CPHEEO Manual Metropolitan and Mega cities provided with piped water supply and sewerage system is existing / contemplated 150 LPCD Cities provided with piped water supply and sewerage system is existing / contemplated 135 LPCD Towns provided with piped water supply but without sewerage system 70 LPCD Rural Areas 55 LPCD Biome Environmental Trust
  18. 18. How much water I use? Use L/person/day Drinking 3 Cooking 4 Bathing 20 Flushing 40 Washing Clothes 25 Washing Utensils 20 Gardening 23 Total 135 Drinking 2% Cooking 3% Bathing 15% Flushing 30% Washing Clothes 18% Washing Utensils 15% Gardening 17% Drinking Cooking Bathing Flushing Washing Clothes Washing Utensils Gardening Biome Environmental Trust
  19. 19. Water Balance of the city Population as per 2011 Census 8.4 million Population in 2015 11 million Demand @ 135 LPCD (Liters per capita per day) 1485 MLD (Million Litres a day) Quantity of water sourced from Kaveri by BWSSB 1310 MLD Leakages – 40% ~524 MLD Groundwater to the rescue ! ~700 MLD Wastewater generated ~1100-1200 MLD Biome Environmental Trust
  20. 20. Cauvery Bangalore city: 1310 MLD BWSSB Bangalore city 786 MLD from CauveryWTP Demand @135 LPCD - 1485 MLD Groundwater Distribution loss- @40% 524 MLD Consumption @200lpcd-2200 MLD Deficit of 1414 MLD 700 MLD Deficit Population as per 2011 Census 8.4 million Population in 2015 ~11 million Biome Environmental Trust
  21. 21. Majority depend on groundwater • Resort to groundwater • No single source of data giving exact number of groundwater wells (borewells) • A 2005 ISEC study estimates 200,000 to 450,000 borewells in Bangalore. • Official Thyagaraja report pegs 500 + MLD, 400,000+ borewells • 3000 water Tankers belonging to 100-120 water tanker companies Biome Environmental Trust
  22. 22. Biome Environmental Trust
  23. 23. Change in water levels over a period of time Biome Environmental Trust
  24. 24. Multi-sourcing inside the city • Private borewells • Tankers • Some from Rainwater • And some from even treated wastewater (Tzed) • Open wells? Biome Environmental Trust
  25. 25. Biome Environmental Trust
  26. 26. Local hydrological cycle Biome Environmental Trust
  27. 27. MONTH DAYS QUANTITY (mm) JAN 0.2 2.70 FEB 0.5 7.20 MAR 0.4 4.40 APR 3.0 46.30 MAY 7.0 119.60 JUN 6.4 80.80 JUL 8.3 110.20 AUG 10.0 137.00 SEP 9.3 194.80 OCT 9.0 180.40 NOV 4.0 64.50 DEC 1.7 22.10 TOTAL 59.8 970.00 Rainfall Pattern in Bangalore- 30 years Biome Environmental Trust
  28. 28. Rainfall endowment for Bangalore Total Annual Average Rainfall for Bangalore 970mm Total Population (2015) 11 million Demand @ 135 LPCD (Liters per capita per day) 1485MLD 5,42,025ML/year Total Area (sqm) BBMP limits/Land endowment 741Sq km Demand as Rainfall (Land endowment) 731mm Biome Environmental Trust
  29. 29. Total Annual Average Rainfall for Bangalore 970mm Total Population (2015) 11 million Demand @ 200 LPCD (Liters per capita per day) 2200MLD 8,03,000ML/year Total Area (sqm) BBMP limits/Land endowment 741Sq km Demand as Rainfall (Land endowment) 1084mm Biome Environmental Trust
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  31. 31. Current Official Paradigm : “Supply” • Treatment for potability • Supply Source Cauvery • Subsidised Tariffs • No Demand management Demand • Flows out • reuse mostly incidental Partial waste water treatment Supply driven paradigm, little acknowledgement of other sources of water, and little encouragement on utilizing other sources of water actively as a measure of minimizing the demand.. It’s time to do all of this from the institutions’ perspective Biome Environmental Trust
  32. 32. Stories Biome Environmental Trust
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  36. 36. Demand Management Biome Environmental Trust
  37. 37. RAINBOW DRIVE Location Sarjapur Road, Bangalore – Ground water stressed area Size 35 acres, approx 350 plots, 258 occupied Details Currently governed by Plot owners association (Society) since 2002. No BWSSB connection Dependent on Ground water ( owned bore wells)Biome Environmental Trust
  38. 38. Rainbow Drive: SUMMARY OF KEY PROBLEMS in 2008 •Increasing water insecurity – borewells drying up. •Community as a whole not aware of the problems – wasteful consumption •Water Tankers not reliable. •Flash flooding at entrance during heavy rains •STP output water stagnating at entrance drains Biome Environmental Trust
  39. 39. 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 Feb08 Mar08 Apr08 May08 Jun08 July08 Aug08 Sep08 Oct08 Nov08 Dec08 Jan09 Feb09 Mar09 Mar10 Mar11 Mar12 Nov-2012 Dec-2012 Jan-2013 Feb-2013 Mar-2013 April-2013 May-2013 June-2013 July-2013 Aug-2013 Sep-2013 Oct-2013 Nov-2013 Dec-2013 Jan-2014 Feb-2014 Mar-2014 April-2014 May-2014 June-2014 July-2014 Aug-2014 Sep-2014 Oct-2014 Nov-2014 Dec-2014 Jan-2015 Total Monthly water consumption Per capita consumption Rainbow Drive Layout: Demand Management Biome Environmental Trust
  40. 40. Piped water Supply 0 Rooftop Rainwater 1 45 Groundwater 48 WW Disposed For Flushing 0 For Gardening 8 Freshwater Total 57 Recycled water Net flows across boundary Endowment 120 -38 ML/ Year 48 86 (Natural Recharge + Artificial recharge) 0 (Waste water should be treated to potable quality standards) Rainwater Recharge (ML/year) Treated waste water recharged (ML/year) Ground Water dependence (ML/year) WW Generation Waste Water reuse (ML / Year) Gardening Flushing Annual Groundwater overdraft 37 8 8 Demand (ML / Year) Others (Freshwater) 41 Waste Water (ML / year) Waste Water Disposal (ML/year) Supply (ML / Year) Piped water Supply 0 Rooftop Rainwater 2 59 Groundwater 78 WW Disposed For Flushing 0 For Gardening 0 Freshwater Total 80 Recycled water Net flows outside of boundary Endowment 134 68 ML/ Year 78 10 Supply (ML / Year) 59 7 10 Demand (ML / Year) Others (Freshwater) 63 Waste Water (ML / year) Waste Water Disposal (ML/year) Ground Water dependence (ML/year) Recharge (ML/year) WW Generation Waste Water reuse (ML / Year) Gardening Flushing Annual Groundwater overdraft Rainbow Drive layout Water Balance @ 61% occupancy (2009-2010) Rainbow Drive layout Water Balance @ 72% occupancy (2015) Biome Environmental Trust
  41. 41. Water Quality Biome Environmental Trust
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  43. 43. And lake water quality is also deteriorating Source: Wetlands: Treasures of Bangalore (Abused, Polluted, Encroached and Vanishing) by Ramachandra TV et al •79% lakes fell under Class E category classified by CPCB as suitable for irrigation, industrial cooling or controlled waste disposal. •29% lakes could be classified under Class E and D as suitable for fish culture and wildlife propagation. Biome Environmental Trust
  44. 44. What do we understand by the water quality? • Physical, chemical and biological nature and amount of substances • Can I drink that water or bathe in it or use for irrigation? pH E.coliCl TDS Biome Environmental Trust
  45. 45. What does the water quality depend on? Natural geology and ecosystems External sources like Human uses Biome Environmental Trust
  46. 46. Type of contaminants (Anthropological) Nutrients-from sewage and fertilizers Hazardous waste-pesticide, industrial waste Organic matter-leaf litter, etc. Point and Non-point sources of pollution: • Point source: a single, identifiable source of pollution (Pipe/Drain, etc.) • Non-Point: sort of diffused, source not attributable to one single point Biome Environmental Trust
  47. 47. Drinking water quality standards: BIS 10500 (2012) A 35 parameter test • Physical • Minerals • Toxic substances • Radioactive substances • Pesticide residue tests • Bacteriological/Microbiological Biome Environmental Trust
  48. 48. Parameter Acceptable limit Permissible limit Sources Physical Color (Hazen units) 5 15 Tannins, Iron, Copper, Manganese, Natural deposits Odour Agreeable Agreeable Chlorine, Hydrogen sulfide, Organic matter, Septic contamination, Methane gas pH 6.5 8.5 Natural Turbidity (NTU) 1 5 Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) (mg/l) 500 2000 Livestock waste, septic system Landfills, nature of soil, Hazardous waste, landfills Dissolved minerals, iron and manganese General Parameters Concerning Substances Undesirable in Excessive Amounts Calcium (mg/l) 75 200 Natural Magnesium (mg/l) 30 100 Natural Total Hardeness as Calcium Carbonate (mg/l) 200 600 Dissolved calcium from soil and aquifer minerals containing limestone or dolomite Alkalinity as Calcium Carbonate (mg/l) 200 600 Pipes, Hazardous waste landfills Sulphate (mg/l) 200 400 Animal sewage, septic system, sewage By-product of coal mining, industrial waste, Natural deposits or salt Chloride (mg/l) 250 1000 Fertilizers, Industrial wastes, Minerals, seawater Nitrate (mg/l) 45 No relaxation Livestock facilities, septic systems, manure lagoons, fertilizers, Household waste water, Natural Deposits Iron (mg/l) 0.3 No relaxation Leaching of cast iron pipes in water distribution systems, Natural Fluoride (mg/l) 1 1.5 Industrial waste, Geological Microbiological E.coli (MPN/100 ml) Absent Absent Human waste Coliforms (MPN/100 ml) Absent Absent Livestock facilities, septic systems, manure lagoons, Household waste water Biome Environmental Trust
  49. 49. Parameter Impacts pH Affects aquatic life, bitter taste, corrosion Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) (mg/l) Undesirable taste, gastro-intestinal irritation, corrosion Calcium (mg/l) Poor lathering, incrustation in pipes; scale formation Magnesium (mg/l) Poor lathering, incrustation in pipes; scale formation Alkalinity as Calcium Carbonate (mg/l) Poor lathering with soap; scale forming; skin irritation Sulphate (mg/l) Taste affected; laxative effect; gastro intestinal irritation Chloride (mg/l) Taste is affected, corrosive Nitrate (mg/l) Eutrophication, Fish kills, Blue Baby disease Iron (mg/l) Poor or sometimes bitter taste, color and turbidity; staining of clothes materials; iron bacteria causing slime Fluoride (mg/l) Dental and skeletal fluorosis E.coli (MPN/100 ml) Gastro-intestinal diseases Coliforms (MPN/100 ml) Gastro-intestinal diseases Health Impacts Biome Environmental Trust
  50. 50. Treatment and purification Selection dependent on: • Specific end use of the source- drinking or other purposes • Nature and amount of the substances in water source Biome Environmental Trust
  51. 51. Type of treatment Water with turbidity in excess of limit specified in BIS 10500: Pressure filtration with addition of a coagulant. Pressure filtration with chlorination/ozonisation if bacteria is present. Water with total hardness in excess of limit specified by BIS 10500: Water softening Water with only bacteriological contamination ( for domestic use): Boiling for 20 minutes, exposure to ultra violet light, chlorination, ultrafiltration for disinfection Biome Environmental Trust
  52. 52. THANK YOU Biome Environmental Trust
  53. 53. Biome Environmental Trust