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Unit 03   industrial revolution and immigration
 

Unit 03 industrial revolution and immigration

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A presentation on the industrial revolution and immigration for fifth graders.

A presentation on the industrial revolution and immigration for fifth graders.

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    Unit 03   industrial revolution and immigration Unit 03 industrial revolution and immigration Presentation Transcript

    • With
      Mr. Luzadder
      5th Grade
      Plain Elementary
      Simpsonville, South Carolina
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • 2
    • 3
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
      Inventors Change the World
    • 4
      Thomas Alva Edison
      power station
      Kitty Hawk
      inventor
      Bell Telephone Company
      airplane
      light bulb
      Mary had a Little Lamb
      Menlo Park
      Henry Ford
      assembly line
      Telephone
      Orville and Wilbur Wright
      phonograph
      General Electric
      Alexander Graham Bell
      patent
      ModelT
      Flyer
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • Essential Questions
      5
      How did Alexander Graham Bell
      and Thomas Edison help change the world?
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • The United States
      Because of the tens of thousands of new inventions that were developed during the 1890s, the United States became known as the “invention capital of the world.” These inventions led to the creation of new businesses and industries.
      Two inventors stood out from the rest – Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas Alva Edison.
      6
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • Alexander Graham Bell
      Alexander Graham Bell was a teacher of the deaf. He had set out to invent a machine that could transmit the human voice over a wire.
      On March 10, 1876, Bell transmitted the first message. He called to his assistant in another room with the words, “Mr. Watson – come here – I want to see you.”
      In 1878 the Bell Telephone Company was formed by Alexander’s father-in-law. In 1880 his company became American Telephone & Telegraph Company (AT&T) after merging with other existing telephone companies.
      By 1900, over 1.5 million telephones were in use.
      7
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • 8
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • 9
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • 10
      Helen Keller & Alexander Graham Bell
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • Thomas Edison
      Because his teachers thought he was slow, Thomas Edison attended school for only a few months. His mother taught him for a while, but eventually Thomas began to teach himself by reading constantly and doing experiments in the basement of his home.
      Thomas Edison was fascinated with how things worked. When he was only 11 years old he built his own telegraph set.
      Edison never even attended college. When he was older he said that his mother was the person most responsible for his success.
      11
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • 12
      Thomas Edison
      as a boy
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • Thomas Edison
      In March of 1876, Edison set up a laboratory in Menlo Park, New Jersey.
      Edison became known as “The Wizard of Menlo Park” because of the hundreds of inventions he created there.
      In December of 1877 Edison wrapped a piece of tin foil around a cylinder and made the first audio recording with the words to "Mary Had a Little Lamb.” The phonograph was Edison’s favorite invention.
      13
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • 14
      Thomas Edison
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • Thomas Edison
      15
      Following the invention of the phonograph, Edison set out to build a light bulbthat would last long enough to be useful. The most difficult part of his task was finding a filament that would not quickly burn out or explode.
      While searching for just the right filament, Edison is remembered for saying: “I’ve tried everything. I have not failed. I’ve just found 10,000 ways that won’t work.”
      In 1879, after hundreds of experiments, Edison and his team of researchers, known as “muckers,” made a light bulb with a filament made out of carbon that lasted for two days.
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • Thomas Edison
      16
      On September 4, 1882, Edison opened the first commercial electric power station on Pearl Street in New York City. The power station was needed to provide electricity for his newly created light bulbs.
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • Thomas Edison
      17
      Some of Edison’s other inventions included the kinetograph (a motion picture camera), the kinetoscope (a viewer for watching motion pictures), flexible celluloid film, a mimeograph machine, the first alkaline storage battery, and a cement mixer.
      Edison held a record 1,093 patents. Most of these patents were not for new inventions, but rather for improvements made to the inventions of others. In fact, many of Edison’s patents were for inventions made by his employees.
      In 1890 Edison started a company known as General Electric.
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • Essential Questions
      18
      How did the Wright brothers and
      Henry Ford help change the world?
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • The Wright Brothers
      19
      In the fall of 1900, two brothers named Orville and Wilbur Wright began experimenting with gliders to find out if man could fly. They traveled to Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, to secretly test their experimental gliders. By 1902 the brothers had flown a glider a distance of about 600 feet.
      They next built an airplane they called Flyer. The plane had a lightweight motor and a propeller that pulled the plane forward.
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • The Wright Brothers
      20
      When the plane was ready to be tested the brothers flipped a coin to see who would attempt to fly the plane first. Wilbur won the coin toss, but their first attempt at flying the plane ended in failure.
      Three days later, on December 17, 1903, Wilbur’s brother, Orville, attempted to fly the plane. This time the test of the Flyer was a success. The first flight went a total distance of about 120 feet and lasted 12 seconds.
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • 21
      Thomas Edison
      Wilbur Wright at 38 (1905)
      Orville Wright at 34
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • 22
      Flyer
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • 23
      The Wright brothers first flight
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • 24
      A close-up of a later Wright brothers’ airplane
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • 25
      Orville Wright flying in Dayton, Ohio (1905)
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • 26
      Orville Wright, Major Curry, & Charles Lindberg (1927)
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • Henry Ford
      27
      The first automobiles were made in Europe in the late 1880s. Americans began building automobiles in the U.S. in the 1890s. The first automobiles were expensive and took a long time to build.
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • Henry Ford
      28
      In 1913 Henry Ford created the first assembly line for building automobiles. The assembly line moved cars on a moving belt. Each factory worker fitted one part to the car as it passed them. The process allowed automobiles to be built for more quickly and far less expensively.
      In 1908, Ford’s Model T sold for $850. In 1925 a Model T cost only $300. By 1923 one out of every two cars sold in the United States was a Model T.
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • 29
      Henry Ford
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • 30
      Henry Ford’s assembly line
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • 31
      The first
      and ten millionth Ford automobile
      (June 4, 1924)
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • 32
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
      Corporations
    • 33
      property
      capital resources
      John D. Rockefeller
      stock
      steel
      Free enterprise
      Pittsburgh
      libraries
      StandardOil Company
      consumer
      competitors
      robber baron
      shareholder
      profit
      human resources
      oil
      philanthropist.
      corporation
      investor
      Andrew Carnegie
      monopoly
    • Essential Questions
      34
      Who were the robber barons
      and how did they make their money?
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • Robber Barons
      35
      A robber baron was a powerful U.S. businessman or financial investor of the late 19th century considered to have become wealthy by exploiting natural resources or by some other unfair or dishonest means.
      Robber Barons
      Andrew Carnegie Steel
      Jay Gould Financier
      J. P. Morgan Financier
      John D. Rockefeller Oil
      Cornelius Vanderbilt Railroads
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • Andrew Carnegie
      36
      The process of making steel was expensive. As a result most machinery had been made of iron. In the 1850s, however, a process whereby steel could be produced cheaply was discovered.
      In 1873 Andrew Carnegie built a steel mill in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and began making steel far less expensively using this method. He was able to do this by controlling the entire process of producing the steel and then shipping the steel.
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • Andrew Carnegie
      37
      He purchased iron and coal mines so that his steel mills would have the necessary resources to produce steel. He acquired railroads and ships so that these resources could be delivered to his mills and so that the steel they produced could be delivered all over the country.
      In 1870 the United States had produced 68,000 tons of steel. By 1900 the United States was producing 10 million tons of steel a year. This steel was needed to build buildings, bridges, automobiles, trains, and railroads.
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • Andrew Carnegie
      38
      By 1900 Andrew Carnegie had become one of the wealthiest men in the world.
      In 1901 he retired and spent the rest of his life using his money to establish libraries, museums, universities, hospitals, parks, and concert halls throughout the United States.
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • 39
      Andrew Carnegie
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • John D. Rockefeller
      40
      In 1859 a hole was drilled in western Pennsylvania and oil came up from the ground. This discovery led to the birth of the oil industry.
      In 1863 a man named John D. Rockefeller went into the oil refining business. He told his friends that he wanted to make a hundred thousand dollars.
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • John D. Rockefeller
      41
      Kerosene was one of the most important products produced from this oil until kerosene lamps were replaced by electric lights. At this same time Americans began buying cars in large numbers and so this oil was needed to produce gasoline and motor oil.
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • John D. Rockefeller
      42
      Standard Oil became a monopoly. A monopoly is a company that controls an entire industry. By 1879 Standard Oil controlled about 90% of the oil business in the United States.
      A business that is a monopoly is able to charge higher prices for its goods or services because they have few, if any, competitors. Customers are then forced to choose whether they will pay the higher prices or go without the goods or services offered by the company.
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • 43
      John D. Rockefeller
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • Essential Questions
      44
      What is a corporation?
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • Corporation
      45
      It was during this time that many businesses became corporations. A corporation is a company owned by people who invest their money in the company in hopes that the company will make a profit. Individuals purchase shares of stock, which represent ownership of a portion of a company.
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • Free Enterprise System
      46
      Free enterprise is an economic system in which people are free to start their own businesses and own their own property.
      Human resources are the people employed by a company or institution that contribute to the production of goods and services.
      Capital resources are the machines, equipment, and money that are used by a company to produce goods and services.
      A consumer is a person who buys goods and services.
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • 47
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
      Immigrants
    • 48
      Ellis Island
      poverty
      Immigration Act of 1924
      religious persecution
      diseases
      immigrants
      hunger
      Angel Island
      Annie Moore
      war
    • Essential Questions
      49
      Why did people immigrate to the United States
      and where did they come from?
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • Immigrants
      50
      Twenty-six million immigrants came to the United States between 1870 and 1924. By 1920, 1 out of every 4 people living in the United States had been born in another country.
      Many of these immigrants were either people from Europe or Jews who were fleeing poverty, hunger, war, injustice, and religious persecution.
      Many individuals spent their life’s savings just to come to the United States.
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • Ellis Island
      51
      When these immigrants arrived in the United States their first stop was either at Ellis Island in New York City or Angel Island in San Francisco.
      Ellis Island is located on the southern tip of Manhattan Island. Around 20 million people made a stop on the island during its years of operation between 1892-1924.
      On Ellis Island, immigrants were checked for diseases and questioned about where they would live and work.
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • Ellis Island
      The first immigrant to pass through Ellis was a "rosy-cheeked Irish girl," Annie Moore, age 15, from County Cork. She came with her two younger brothers to join their parents in New York City. --ellisisland.org
      The most immigrants processed in one day occurred on April 17, 1907 when 11,747 people passed through Ellis Island.
      -- ellisisland.org
      Some have estimated that nearly half of all Americans today can trace their family history to at least one person who passed through Ellis Island.
      52
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • 53
      Ellis Island
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • 54
      Passengers arriving at Ellis Island
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • 55
      Immigrants at Ellis Island
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • 56
      Immigrants at Ellis Island
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • 57
      Immigrants arriving at Ellis Island
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • 58
      An immigrant undergoes a physical examination
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • Immigration Act of 1924
      In the 1920’s congress passed laws that began to restrict the number of immigrants allowed in the United States. The Immigration Act of 1924 reduced the number of immigrants to 164,000 a year. This was far below the 1,004,756 immigrants who entered the U.S. in 1907.
      59
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • Angel Island
      On Angel Island, Chinese immigrants had to prove they had family already living in the United States before they were allowed to enter the United States. Immigrants would often wait weeks or months before they were allowed to enter the country.
      60
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • 61
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
      Labor
    • 62
      long hours
      unsanitary
      Lewis Hine
      Triangle Shirtwaist Company
      sweatshop
      strikebreakers
      factories
      "Mother" Jones
      American Federation of Labor
      labor unions
      Samuel Gompers
      low wages
      child labor
      Labor Day
      mines
      strike
      mechanization
      unsafe
    • Essential Questions
      63
      What is a sweatshop and what happened to make people aware of conditions in these dangerous factories?
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • Sweatshops
      With the development of new inventions and the rise of corporations, life for the average American worker began to change.
      While small businesses continued to exist, more and more people were being employed by factories and mines.
      Some individuals, desperate for employment, worked in sweatshops. Sweatshops are small factories often found in buildings that have unsafe or unsanitary working conditions. Employees usually work excessively long hours for low wages.
      64
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • Triangle Shirtwaist Company
      65
      One such sweatshop was the Triangle Shirtwaist Company located in New York City. On March 25, 1911, a fire broke out at the factory and took the lives of 146 immigrant women, some as young as 15 years old.
      The owners had often locked the exits claiming that employees stole from the factory.
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • Triangle Shirtwaist Company
      66
      When firefighters arrived they found that their ladders were far too short to reach the women who were hanging out the windows and the water from the hoses could not reach the top floors.
      Many women chose to jump to their deaths rather than burn alive.
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • Essential Questions
      67
      What did children often endure
      when they went to work 100 years ago?
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • Child Labor
      68
      Many of the new industrial jobs were filled by immigrants. Immigrants were often not only accustomed to a lower standard of living, but also desperate for work. Therefore, they would often be willing to take jobs that paid low wages and required long hours that native-born Americans would not.
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • Child Labor
      69
      In 1870, there were 750,000 children under the age of 15 working in mines and factories. This number did not including children who worked for their families in businesses or on farms.
      By 1911, more than two million American children under the age of 16 were working - many of them 12 hours or more, six days a week.
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • Child Labor
      70
      Glass factory: "...boys traveled as distance of nearly 22 miles in an 8-hour shift at a constant slow run to and from ovens... average pay of 72 cents per 8-hour shift....”
      Garment Factory: "...to reach their quota, girls had to put in an 84-hour week at a wage averaging 5 cents an hour..."
      Silk Mills: "...girl not 9 years old... cleaned bobbins for 3 cents an hour... must stand at their work... 12-hour shifts... by night... unceasingly... watching the threads... before... scores of revolving spindles... some of them making 25,000 revolutions per minute...."
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • Child Labor
      71
      Cannery: "...children as young as six employed as headers and cleaners (of shrimp and fish)... stand for shifts of 12 hours and longer in open sheds... hands immersed in cold water...“
      Soap-Packing Plants: "...girls were exposed to caustic soda that turned their nails yellow and ate away at their fingers…”
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • 72
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • 73
      Boys working
      in a factory
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • 74
      Girl working
      in a factory
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • 75
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • Women in the Workplace
      76
      Women usually earned about half as much as men. One woman wrote, “It took me months and months to save up money to buy a dress or a pair of shoes.”
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • Essential Question
      77
      What did workers do to try to get better pay
      and improved working conditions?
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • Labor Unions
      78
      Employees organized labor unions in an effort to get safer working conditions, shorter work weeks with fewer hours, and higher wages. Most business fought these unions and would fire employees who joined one.
      Labor unions would sometimes go on strike, or refuse to work, in an effort to get business owners to meet their demands.
      Business owners, religious organizations, and politicians also worked to improve conditions found in mines and factories.
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • Mother Jones
      79
      Mary Harris Jones, called “Mother” Jones by many, was one of the most famous labor union workers.
      In 1900 when coal miners in Pennsylvania called a strike, “Mother” Jones gathered together a group of women to turn away strikebreakers.
      In 1903 “Mother” Jones led a group of children to protest child labor in mines. As a result, Pennsylvania passed a law in 1905 forbidding children under the age of 14 from working.
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • American Federation of Labor
      80
      In 1886 Samuel Gompers formed the American Federation of Labor, or AFL. This organization helped get laws passed that ended child labor, shortened working hours, and required employers to pay workers for injuries they sustained while working.
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • Lewis Hine
      81
      Lewis Hine, a New York City school teacher, spent twelve years taking pictures of children working to make people aware of how children were being taken advantage of and mistreated.
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • Labor Day
      82
      In September of 1882, labor unions in New York City celebrated the first Labor Day. Thousands of workers marched through the streets calling for fairer pay, shorter work days, and an end to child labor.
      Within a few years, workers across the United States were celebrating Labor Day. In 1894, Congress officially recognized Labor Day as a national holiday. Labor Day is celebrated on the first Monday of September.
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • Essential Questions
      83
      What is urbanization and what caused
      so many people to move to American cities?
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • Immigrants
      84
      The number of people living in cities doubled between the end of the Civil War and the year 1900 to 30 million people.
      One reason cities were growing so rapidly was because of the millions of immigrants moving to America.
      Most immigrants headed to the cities in the Northeast. Here they lived in communities of people who spoke their language and had similar customs.
      Life in the United States could be very difficult for these immigrants. They were hoping, however, for a better life, especially for their children.
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • Urbanization
      85
      Immigrants were not the only reason cities were growing so rapidly. Another reason for this growth was urbanization. Urbanization is the movement of people from rural areas to cities.
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • Mechanization
      86
      Mechanization is one reason people were able to move to the cities. Mechanization is the using of machines to do work.
      Mechanization allowed farmers to farm more land in less time. It also allowed them to grow crops to sell. As farm machinery improved, farmers were able to grow food to feed more and more people.
      Mechanization also lead to the building of new factories which led to many jobs being created in cities.
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • Slums
      87
      Immigrants often found it difficult to find a place to live because there were so many people arriving from other countries. Many often ended up living in slums. A slum is a poor, crowded section of town with run-down and unsafe housing.
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • 88
      A slum
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • Tenements
      89
      Many of these people lived in tenements. A tenement is a building that is divided into small apartments. Some of these tenements did not even have heat or hot water. Bathrooms were often in the hallway and were shared by several families.
      Under these conditions, diseases spread quickly.
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • Essential Questions
      90
      What was done to help protect the health
      of people living in urban areas?
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • Public Baths
      91
      In 1895, the governor of New York signed a law that required large cities to “establish and maintain such public baths as the local Board of Health may determine to be necessary.”
      The law stated that “each bath shall be kept open not less than fourteen hours for each day, and both hot and cold water be provided.”
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • 92
      Public Baths
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • Essential Questions
      93
      What major disasters hit urban centers
      in the early twentieth century?
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • Great Chicago Fire
      94
      In Chicago, many wooden buildings had been built with little thought of fire safety. In 1905 a fire broke out and spread very quickly. When it was finally put out 24 hours later, one third of the city had been destroyed and nearly 100,000 people were left without a place to live.
      This has become known as the Great Chicago Fire. Some say the fire started when Mrs. O’Leary’s cow kicked over a kerosene lamp.
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • San Francisco Earthquake
      95
      On April 18, 1906 at 5:13 AM, a massive earthquake struck San Francisco. Hundreds, if not thousands, of people died when tenements collapsed. A fire broke out in the city and burned for four days.
      Historians now estimate that more than 3,000 people died from all causes and that $500,000,000 (1906 dollars) in damage was caused.
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • 96
      Results of the
      San Francisco earthquake
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • 97
      Results of the
      San Francisco earthquake
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • Influenza
      98
      October 1918 turned out to be the deadliest months in the nation's history as 195,000 Americans die of influenza.
      Over 600,000 people died in what was the worst epidemic in American history.
      The Population of the U.S. in 1918 was 103,208,000. This is the only year in the last 100 years that the population of the United States actually decreased. (Source: U.S. Census Bureau)
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • Influenza
      99
      In October of 1918, 851 New Yorkers died of influenza in a single day. In Philadelphia, the city's death rate for one single week is 700 times higher than normal.
      On November 21, 1918 sirens wailed in San Francisco signaling that it was safe--and legal--to remove protective face masks. 2,122 people in the city had died of influenza.
      In December, 5,000 new cases of influenza were reported in the city.
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • Essential Questions
      100
      Why were settlement houses started
      and what did they do?
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • Settlement Houses
      101
      Many of the immigrants who came to the United States during this period of time spoke a language other than English and had customs and religious beliefs that were far different from those of many Americans.
      Settlement houses began in the 1880s in London in response to problems created when large numbers of people began moving into cities, working in factories, and emigrating from other countries.
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • Settlement Houses
      102
      Settlement houses were often started by middle-class, educated people who moved into poor city neighborhoods in order to provide assistance.
      By 1900, the U.S. had over 100 settlement houses.
      The first settlement house in the United States was started in Chicago, Illinois, by Jane Addams and was known as Hull House.
      Hull House was located in a densely populated neighborhood that had Bohemian, German, Greek, Irish, Italian, Polish, and Russian immigrants.
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • Settlement Houses
      103
      Jane Addams and those who lived in Hull House taught immigrants English and what they need to know in order to become citizens. They also helped people find jobs and started a kindergarten and a day care for the children of working mothers.
      They also established an art gallery and libraries, and offered classes in art, music, and theater.
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • Settlement Houses
      104
      They helped start the Immigrants' Protective League, the Juvenile Protective Association, and the first juvenile court in the nation. Through their efforts, Illinois enacted laws to protect women and children.
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration
    • 105
      Hull House
      Industrial Revolution & Immigration