Unit 02 settlement of the west


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Unit 02 settlement of the west

  1. 1. With<br />Mr. Luzadder<br />5th Grade<br />Plain Elementary<br />Simpsonville, South Carolina<br />Settlement of the West<br />
  2. 2. Settlement of the West<br />2<br />
  3. 3. 3<br />Pony Express<br />Telegraph<br />Central Pacific<br />golden spike<br />Irish<br />William Tecumseh Sherman <br />Prejudice<br />Sacramento, California<br />Pacific Railroad Act <br />Promontory Point<br />transcontinental railroad <br />Union Pacific <br />Charles Crocker<br />Leland Stanford<br />"Done"<br />time zone<br />Samuel Morse<br />Chinese<br />gold rush<br />Sierra Nevada Mountains<br />Jupiter<br />Omaha, Nebraska<br />Grenville Dodge<br />Settlement of the West<br />
  4. 4. 4<br />Technology<br />Kansas Fever Exodus<br />John Deere<br />Homesteader<br />Pioneer<br />Great Plains<br />Homestead Act<br />Joseph Glidden <br />Nicodemus, Kansas<br />steel plow<br />Exoduster<br />Sod Buster<br />barbed wire<br />Windmill<br />Settlement of the West<br />
  5. 5. Essential Questions<br />Settlement of the West<br />5<br />What was the transcontinental railroad?<br />
  6. 6. The Pony Express<br />The Pony Express was a service begun in 1860 that used a relay of riders on horses to deliver mail from Missouri to California in ten days.<br />Advertisements for riders read: “Young, skinny, wiry fellows, not over 18. Must be expert riders. Willing to risk death daily. Orphans preferred.”<br />Buffalo Bill Cody and Wild Bill Hickok both worked for the Pony Express when they were young.<br />The Pony Express route stretched between St. Joseph, Missouri and Sacramento, California<br />Settlement of the West<br />6<br />
  7. 7. The Pony Express<br />Pony Express riders who would carry mail 75-100 miles a day. They would change horses every ten to fifteen miles. <br />Once a rider handed off the mail he was carrying to another rider, he would wait for a rider coming from the opposite direction to arrive with mail for him to carry back to the post where he had started.<br />The Pony Express charged $5.00 for each ½ ounce of mail.<br />The Pony Express ceased operation in October of 1861, a year and a half after it started, due to the completion of a telegraph line reaching California.<br />Settlement of the West<br />7<br />
  8. 8. The Telegraph<br />Inventors began experimenting with the idea of sending messages over a wire in the mid 1700s. <br />An American scientist invented the first known telegraph in the United States in 1836.<br />In 1838, Samuel Morse, and his assistant, Alfred Vail, invented a telegraph that was able to transmit messages over long distances. The two men also developed Morse code in order to send messages. <br />On October 24, 1861 the first transcontinental telegraph was completed.<br />Settlement of the West<br />8<br />
  9. 9. The Transcontinental Railroad<br />A transcontinental railroad is a railroad that crosses a continent. The first transcontinental railroad in the United States was completed in 1869. <br />The desire for a railroad that could cross the United States grew after the California gold rush.<br />In 1862 Congress passed the Pacific Railroad Act which offered government loans and free land if two companies would build the railroad.<br />Settlement of the West<br />9<br />
  10. 10. The Union Pacific<br />The Union Pacificwould begin in Omaha, Nebraska and workers would lay the tracks as they headed west.<br />Grenville Dodge led the building of the Central Pacific.<br />Settlement of the West<br />10<br />
  11. 11. The Central Pacific<br />The Central Pacificwould begin in Sacramento, California and workers would lay the tracks as they headed east.<br />Charles Crocker led the building of the Central Pacific.<br />Settlement of the West<br />11<br />
  12. 12. The Central Pacific<br />Settlement of the West<br />12<br />Central Pacific supplies came from the East. Until 1868 their materials and machinery were shipped around the southern tip of South America.<br />Work was often delayed because materials were not shipped on time or they were lost due to accident en route. <br />Charles Crocker often cut corners. Among other things, he is reported to have had his crews drive spikes in only seven of every ten rails along the line.<br />
  13. 13. Settlement of the West<br />13<br />
  14. 14. Settlement of the West<br />14<br />Union Pacific workers laying railsOctober 1866<br />
  15. 15. Native Americans<br />15<br />One group that did not want to see the railroad built were the Native Americans who attempted to disrupt the building of the transcontinental railroad. Red Cloud, a Lakota chief, said, “We do not want you here, you are scaring away the buffalo.”<br />William Tecumseh Sherman warned Native Americans saying, “We will build iron roads, and you cannot stop the locomotive.” Federal troops began patrolling the Union Pacific in an effort to protect the workers and the railroad tracks.<br />Settlement of the West<br />
  16. 16. 16<br />The train pictured is the Jupiter which carried Leland Stanford, one of the "big four” owners of the Central Pacific, and other railway officials to the Golden Spike Ceremony. Notice the Indians on the hill overlooking the train.<br />Settlement of the West<br />
  17. 17. Essential Questions<br />17<br />What role did immigrants play in the building of the transcontinental railroad?<br />Settlement of the West<br />
  18. 18. Prejudice<br />18<br />While the Central Pacific had enough work to employ 4,000 workers, at first they were barely able to maintain a workforce of 800 men.<br />Prejudice caused many to believe that Irish workers simply used their wages to purchase alcohol and Chinese workers were unreliable. <br />Definition of prejudice:<br />an unfavorable opinion or feeling formed beforehand or without knowledge, thought, or reason.<br />any preconceived opinion or feeling, either favorable or unfavorable. <br />unreasonable feelings, opinions, or attitudes, especially of a hostile nature, regarding a racial, religious, or national group.<br />Settlement of the West<br />
  19. 19. Immigrants<br />19<br />At one point, Irish workers became upset over their wages. Crocker recruited some Chinese to take their place. The Irishmen quickly went back to work.<br />At first, the Central Pacific Railroad hired just 50 Chinese workers. Their work ethic was so impressive, however, that many more were hired. <br />Crocker not only sent word all over California that he was hiring Chinese workers, but he also hired companies to advertise for workers in China.<br />Settlement of the West<br />
  20. 20. Immigrants<br />20<br />By 1868 there were 12,000 Chinese workers employed by Central Pacific. This was at least 80% of their workforce. <br />"Wherever we put them, we found them good and they worked themselves into our favor to such an extent that if we found we were in a hurry for a job of work, it was better to put Chinese on at once.” -- Charles Crocker<br />Settlement of the West<br />
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  27. 27. Promontory Point<br />27<br />On May 10, 1869, the Union Pacific and the Central Pacific met at Promontory Point, in the Utah Territory.<br />Over a period of six years, over 1,700 miles of track had been laid.<br />To commemorate the momentous occasion of the transcontinental railroad being completed, a spike made of gold from the mines of California was made. Leland Stanford, President of the Central Pacific, was given the honor of driving the spike into the track.<br />The message “Done” was telegraphed throughout the country.<br />Settlement of the West<br />
  28. 28. 28<br />Settlement of the West<br />
  29. 29. 29<br />Completion of the world’s first transcontinental railroad was celebrated at Promontory Point where the Central Pacific and the Union Pacific met on May 10, 1869.<br />Settlement of the West<br />
  30. 30. Railroads<br />30<br />Before the completion of the railroad, it would cost about $1000 and require months of traveling to cross the United States. Once the railroad was completed, a person could cross the continent in a week for less than $100. <br />Settlement of the West<br />
  31. 31. Essential Questions<br />31<br />What are time zones and why are they needed?<br />Settlement of the West<br />
  32. 32. Time Zones<br />32<br />A time zone is a region in which one standard of time is used. There are 24 time zones around the world. <br />On October 11, 1883, the General Time Convention adopted the current standard time system used in the United States. The convention was called by the nation’s railroads. They needed a more uniform means of governing railroads. <br />Prior to the convention, the time was determined by the position of the sun in the sky. <br />The new system started being used on November 18, 1883. That Sunday became known as the “Day of Two Noons.”<br />Settlement of the West<br />
  33. 33. Time Zones<br />33<br />Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is calculated by + or – hours from the Prime Meridian (0° longitude) which runs through England. UTC is sometimes referred to as “Zulu time.”<br />The Eastern Time Zone is UTC -4 hours which means that our time is four hours earlier than the time in England.<br />Click here to view The Official U.S. Time web site.<br />Settlement of the West<br />
  34. 34. U.S. Time Zones<br />34<br />Atlantic Time Zone (Puerto Rico & Virgin Islands) (-4 hours)<br />Eastern Time Zone (South Carolina) (-4 hours)<br />Central Time Zone (-5 hours)<br />Mountain Time Zone (-6 hours)<br />Pacific Time Zone (-7 hours)<br />Alaska Time Zone (-8 hours)<br />Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone (-10 hours)<br />Samoa Time Zone (-11 hours)<br />Chamorro time zone (Guam) (+10 hours)<br />Settlement of the West<br />
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  36. 36. Daylight Savings Time<br />36<br />Daylight savings time is the practice of moving the clock forward so that there is more daylight of an evening. <br />In the United States, DST starts on the second Sunday of March and ends on the first Sunday of November.<br />Arizona and Hawaii do not observe daylight savings time.<br />It is thought that DST helps conserve energy as there is less need for people to use electric lights.<br />Settlement of the West<br />
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  38. 38. Time Zones<br />38<br />The International Date Line is found approximately at 180° longitude. <br />Traveling east across the International Date Line results in a day, or 24 hours, being subtracted. Traveling west across the International Date Line results in a day, or 24 hours, being added.<br />Settlement of the West<br />
  39. 39. Essential Questions<br />39<br />What made it possible for settlers to settle the west?<br />Settlement of the West<br />
  40. 40. Great Plains<br />40<br />The Great Plains was a vast grassland found between the Missouri River and the Rocky Mountains that was given the nickname the “Great American Desert.”<br />Up to this time these plains had been sparsely populated by white settlers.<br />Settlement of the West<br />
  41. 41. Homestead Act<br />41<br />In an effort to encourage people to move to the Great Plains, Congress passed the Homestead Act. In 1862 Abraham Lincoln signed this act which gave 160 acres (1/4 square mile) of land to individuals who were at least 21 years old, the head of a household, were either citizens of the United States or individuals who declared their intention of to become citizens, and individuals who had never taken up arms against the United States. <br />Homesteaderswere the settlers who claimed land on the Great Plains under the Homestead Act. <br />Settlement of the West<br />
  42. 42. Homestead Act<br />42<br />Homesteaders were required to build a 12 x 14 house, grow crops, and live on the property for five years. <br />Those who purchased land under the Homestead Act would make a payment of $10. They could get the deed to their property after living on it for only six months if they were willing to pay the government $1.25 an acre.<br />Settlement of the West<br />
  43. 43. Homestead Act<br />43<br />By 1895 more than 430,000 people had established homesteads on the Great Plains. Most homesteaders settled in Kansas, Nebraska, and the Dakota Territory. Nearly 300 million acres were given to new settlers on the Plains.<br />Because life on the plains was so difficult, however, many homesteaders did not stay on the land the five years that were required to keep the land. <br />Settlement of the West<br />
  44. 44. Settlers<br />44<br />A pioneer is an early settler of a region.<br />Some of these settlers were African Americans who had recently been freed from slavery and immigrants from France, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Russia.<br />With the completion of the transcontinental railroad, families were able to obtain farm tools, barbed wire, cloth, and even houses from businesses that sold goods through catalogs.<br />Settlement of the West<br />
  45. 45. Sodbusters<br />45<br />Sodbusterswere Great Plains farmers of the late 1800s who had to cut through sod, or thick grass, before planting crops.<br />In 1877 John Deere invented a steel plow that was able to slice through the grass and soil of the Plains.<br />Sodbusters learned that they could use this sod to build their homes in the absence of trees. These houses proved to be cool in the summer and warm in the winter. Unfortunately, insects, rodents, and snakes liked to make their homes in the sod walls.<br />Settlement of the West<br />
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  48. 48. Essential Questions<br />48<br />Why did African Americans move west and what was their life like once they got there?<br />Settlement of the West<br />
  49. 49. Nicodemus<br />49<br />In 1877, fliers were printed that encouraged southern blacks to leave their homes and come to Nicodemus, Kansas, the most famous town settled by African Americans. These fliers typically exaggerated the abundance of resources and the low cost of land.<br />Settlement of the West<br />
  50. 50. Nicodemus<br />50<br />The people of this town faced many difficulties including shortages of supplies and having their crops trampled by the cattle of ranchers. The first settlers of the town lived in dugouts much "like prairie dogs" among the grasses of the plains.<br />While Nicodemus did become more prosperous, it eventually began to decline due to the fact that a railroad was never built near the town.<br />Settlement of the West<br />
  51. 51. 51<br />Aerial view of Nicodemus, Kansas<br />Settlement of the West<br />
  52. 52. Exodusters<br />In 1879, around twenty thousand African Americans sailed north on the Mississippi River to Kansas in what came to be known as the Kansas Fever Exodus. These individuals became known as exodusters.<br />Exodus means “a journey to freedom.” These African Americans saw themselves escaping slavery in search of the Promised Land much like the Israelites who had been led by Moses as described in the Bible.<br />52<br />Settlement of the West<br />
  53. 53. Essential Questions<br />53<br />What were some of the problems faced by settlers on the Great Plains and what technology helped make their lives easier?<br />Settlement of the West<br />
  54. 54. Hardships on the Great Plains<br />Life on the plains was very difficult. Some of the hardships faced by homesteaders included prairie fires, unpredictable weather (blizzards, droughts, violent thunderstorms, etc.), and swarms of grasshoppers and locusts.<br />54<br />Settlement of the West<br />
  55. 55. Technology<br />Technology is the use of new ideas to make tools that improve people’s lives.<br />Some technology that aided settlers were the windmill which made it possible to get water from deep underground and barbed wire, invented by Joseph Glidden in 1874, which made it possible to fence in large areas of land in the absence of many trees.<br />55<br />Settlement of the West<br />
  56. 56. Essential Questions<br />56<br />What was the life of a cowboy?<br />Settlement of the West<br />
  57. 57. Cowboys<br />57<br />Around 1/3 to 1/2 of all cowboys were African American or Mexican American. Many of the African American Cowboys were former slaves while many of the white cowboys were former Civil War soldiers. It was not uncommon for cowboys to be very young.<br />A cowboy’s life could be adventurous, but it was also exhausting and dangerous. <br />Settlement of the West<br />
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  64. 64. Cattle Drives<br />64<br />By 1865 there were more than 5 million head of longhorn cattle in Texas. Each could be sold for as little as $4 in Texas, but would be worth $40 in the North where cattle were less plentiful.<br />Ranchers realized they could make more money by taking their cattle East by railroad. <br />Cowboys would herd cattle from their ranches in Texas to rail stations. This was known as a cattle drive. Cattle drives would often begin in the spring when the weather was cooler.<br />Settlement of the West<br />
  65. 65. Cattle Drives<br />65<br />During a cattle drive cowboys might work sixteen-hour days seven days a week.<br />In the 1860s cattle drives would be led by a trail boss and a chuck wagon, which carried food and supplies. The trail boss would be assisted by 8 to 20 cowboys. They would often be responsible for getting 2,000 to 3,000 cattle to the rail station. These herds could sometimes stretch for two miles<br />Settlement of the West<br />
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  67. 67. Cattle Drives<br />67<br />The routes cowboys took their cattle were known as trails. One of the most famous was the Chisholm Trail, which connected San Antonio, Texas with Abilene, Kansas. Another well-known trail was the Goodnight-Loving Trail which ran from Texas to Colorado.<br />Towns where cowboys drove their cattle to meet the railroad were known as railheads. Railheads would have stockyards where the cattle could be kept while waiting for a train and hotels where weary cowboys could rest. Abilene and Dodge City were two well-known railheads in Kansas.<br />Settlement of the West<br />
  68. 68. Cattle Drives<br />68<br />One of the greatest dangers cowboys faced were stampedes. A stampede occurred when cattle became frightened and ran out of control. In a stampede, cowboys and their horses could be trampled or the cattle could charge into a river and drown. Cowboys would often sing to help keep the cattle calm.<br />Settlement of the West<br />
  69. 69. Cattle Drives<br />69<br />The cattle were transported from railheads on the Great Plains to meatpacking plants in Chicago, Illinois. By 1870 Chicago was the world’s largest supplier of beef.<br />Settlement of the West<br />
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  73. 73. Cattle Drives<br />73<br />Cattle drives came to an end in the late 1880s as railroads stretched down into Texas making cattle drives unnecessary.<br />Settlement of the West<br />
  74. 74. Essential Questions<br />74<br />How did the discovery of gold change the west?<br />Settlement of the West<br />
  75. 75. California Gold Rush<br />75<br />On January 24, 1848, James Marshall discovered a few nuggets of gold at a saw mill owned by John Sutter. Over half a million people traveled to California in hopes of striking it rich. Gold mining was hard work that required long days and a lot of patience. Few people actually became rich mining for gold.<br />Prospectors, or people who went to California during the California Gold Rush in hopes of striking it rich, were known as forty-niners.<br />By 1850, enough people had moved to California that it was able to become a state.<br />Settlement of the West<br />
  76. 76. Entrepreneurs<br />76<br />An entrepreneur is a person who starts a new business, hoping to make a profit.<br />Luzena Stanley Wilson was an entrepreneur who moved her family Nevada City, California, and opened a restaurant in her home. Soon hungry miners were paying a dollar to eat at her table.<br />Levi Strauss was an entrepreneur from Germany who learned to make sturdy pants for miners out of denim and rivets. These were the world’s first blue jeans.<br />Settlement of the West<br />
  77. 77. Boomtowns & Ghost Towns<br />77<br />Boomtowns were communities that sprung up when silver or gold was discovered nearby. <br />Ghost towns are towns that were left empty when the miners moved away.<br />Denver, Colorado, and San Francisco, California, were two towns that began as supply stations for miners and continued to grow into major metropolitan cities.<br />Settlement of the West<br />
  78. 78. Essential Questions<br />78<br />How did settlers change the Indian’s way of life? <br />Settlement of the West<br />
  79. 79. Buffalo<br />79<br />In the 1860s, Native Americans saw homesteaders’ farms, railroads, and longhorn cattle on the land that had once been their hunting grounds.<br />In 1850 there were fewer than 200,000 white settlers in the West. In 1870 there were nearly 1,400,000 settlers.<br />Hunters shot hundreds of buffalo, and longhorn cattle ate the grass the buffalo needed. By 1890 the number of buffalo had shrunk from more than 15 million to less than 1,000. With the loss of buffalo, Native Americans lost their main source of food, clothing, and shelter.<br />Settlement of the West<br />
  80. 80. Settlers<br />80<br />The Homestead Act gave settlers the right to own their own land. Native Americans believed that the land belonged to all of their people and that it could not be bought or sold. <br />Since the 1800s the government made treaties with Native Americans promising not to take over their lands. Yet there were times the government broke these promises and sold land to settlers.<br />Settlement of the West<br />
  81. 81. Reservations<br />81<br />The government established reservations, or lands set aside for Native American, in an effort to get Native Americans to give up hunting buffalo and begin farming. Most Native Americans did not want to live on reservations.<br />Native Americans fought with settlers and soldiers many times during the mid 1800s. These conflicts are often called the Plains Wars. Native Americans were skilled warriors but usually lost in these clashes.<br />Settlement of the West<br />
  82. 82. Lakota<br />82<br />In the Treaty of 1868, the government had agreed that the territory around the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming belonged to the Lakota.<br />In 1874 gold was discovered in the Black Hills. Nearly 15,000 miners came to South Dakota in hopes of getting rich. The government offered to buy the Black Hills from the Lakota for $6 million.<br />When the Lakota refused the government’s offer, they were ordered to leave their land and to settle on reservations.<br />Settlement of the West<br />
  83. 83. Lakota<br />83<br />In 1874 the Lakota, Cheyenne, and Arapaho Indians united in an effort to protect their territory.<br />Two Lakota chiefs, Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse, led more than 2,000 Native American warriors against Colonel George Custer and 600 soldiers of the Seventh Calvary at the Battle of the Little Bighorn, which has also become known as “Custer’s last stand.”<br />The Battle of the Little Bighorn was the last major victory of the Plains Wars for Native Americans.<br />Settlement of the West<br />
  84. 84. 84<br />Sitting Bull<br />Settlement of the West<br />
  85. 85. 85<br />George Armstrong Custer<br />Settlement of the West<br />
  86. 86. 86<br />George Armstrong Custer<br />Settlement of the West<br />
  87. 87. 87<br />Battle of the Little Bighorn<br />Settlement of the West<br />
  88. 88. Nez Percé<br />88<br />In 1876 the government ordered the Nez PercéIndians living along the Wallowa River in Oregon to move to a reservation in the Idaho Territory.<br />In June of 1877, U.S. soldiers were sent to relocate the Nez Percé to a reservation. The Nez Percé, however, did not want to leave their land. “It has always belonged to our people,” said the Nez Percé leader Chief Joseph.<br />Settlement of the West<br />
  89. 89. Nez Percé<br />89<br />Chief Joseph and 700 Nez Percé Indians tried to flee from the soldiers. When they were running low on food and supplies they attempted to escape to Canada. When the tribe was within forty miles, however, they found themselves surrounded by American soldiers.<br />I am tired of fighting. Our chiefs are killed…. The little children are freezing to death…. I am tired; my heart is sick and sad. From where the sun now stands I will fight no more forever. -- Chief Joseph<br />Settlement of the West<br />
  90. 90. Nez Percé<br />90<br />Chief Joseph surrendered when he was promised that the Nez Percé would be allowed to return to Oregon. This promise was not kept and the tribe was eventually moved to a reservation in Oklahoma.<br />I believed General Miles, or I never would have surrendered. -- Chief Joseph<br />Settlement of the West<br />