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  1. 1. Reconstruction With Mr. Luzadder 5th Grade Plain Elementary Simpsonville, South Carolina
  2. 2. Reconstruction Last updated: June 5, 2009 12:51 PM
  3. 3. <ul><li>Standard 5-1: The student will demonstrate an understanding of Reconstruction and its impact on racial relations in the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>Indicators </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5-1.1 Summarize the aims of Reconstruction and explain the effects of Abraham Lincoln’s assassination on the course of Reconstruction. (P, H, E) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5-1.2 Summarize the provisions of the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments to the Constitution, including how the amendments protected the rights of African Americans and sought to enhance their political, social, and economic opportunities. (P, E, H) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5-1.3 Explain the effects of Reconstruction on African Americans, including their new rights and restrictions, their motivations to relocate to the North and the West, and the actions of the Freedmen’s Bureau. (P, G, E, H) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5-1.4 Compare the economic and social effects of Reconstruction on different populations, including the move from farms to factories and the change from the plantation system to sharecropping. (E, P) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5-1.5 Explain the purpose and motivations behind the rise of discriminatory laws and groups and their effect on the rights and opportunities of African Americans in different regions of the United States. (P, G, E, H) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Reconstruction Black Codes Ku Klux Klan Thirteenth Amendment Fourteenth Amendment Fifteenth Amendment Jim Crow Laws Segregation Andrew Johnson Abraham Lincoln Freedmen's Bureau John Wilkes Booth scalawags sharecropping carpetbagger impeachment Hiram Revels Blanche K. Bruce Ulysses S. Grant poll tax
  5. 5. Reconstruction <ul><li>Unit E.Q. What was Reconstruction? </li></ul><ul><li>E.Q. What did states that had seceded have to do in order to rejoin the Union? </li></ul><ul><li>E.Q. How were freed slaves helped to adapt to their new way of life? </li></ul><ul><li>E.Q. Why were amendments added to the U.S. Constitution during Reconstruction? </li></ul><ul><li>E.Q. Why did Congress want to impeach President Johnson </li></ul><ul><li>E.Q. What brought an end to reconstruction? </li></ul>
  6. 6. Reconstruction <ul><li>Unit E.Q. What was Reconstruction? </li></ul>
  7. 7. Reconstruction <ul><li>E.Q. What did states that had seceded have to do in order to rejoin the Union? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Reconstruction <ul><li>As Lincoln began his second term as President, he encouraged Americans to set aside their anger and to work together to rebuild the South. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Reconstruction <ul><li>On April 15, 1865, Abraham Lincoln was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth . </li></ul>
  10. 10. Reconstruction <ul><li>Vice President Andrew Johnson became the 17th President of the United States. Johnson was a former senator from Tennessee who had been a Democrat before becoming Lincoln’s Vice President. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Reconstruction <ul><li>Because the South was in ruins, something had to be done to rebuild it. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Reconstruction <ul><li>Reconstruction is the period following the Civil War in which Congress passed laws designed to rebuild the country and bring the Southern states back into the Union . </li></ul>
  13. 13. Reconstruction <ul><li>The plan for reconstruction allowed Southern states to rejoin the Union. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Reconstruction <ul><li>If 10 % of a state’s voters swore loyalty to the Union they could then form a new government which had to approve the 13th Amendment. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Reconstruction <ul><li>One way the South resisted reconstruction was to pass black codes. Black codes were laws that denied black people many of their civil rights. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Reconstruction <ul><li>In some communities, black people were prohibited from 1) owning property , 2) owning guns , and 3) from taking certain jobs . In some places, black men were prevented from voting. Some communities had laws that allowed black people to be arrested if they did not have jobs. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Reconstruction <ul><li>E.Q. How were freed slaves helped to adapt to their new way of life? </li></ul>
  18. 18. Reconstruction <ul><li>Many in Congress were not pleased with President Andrew Johnson’s plans, so they passed laws to change how Reconstruction would be carried out. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Reconstruction <ul><li>Twenty thousand federal soldiers were sent to the South to help keep order , ensure fair elections, and to minimize discrimination against black people. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Reconstruction <ul><li>Military Districts </li></ul>
  21. 21. Reconstruction <ul><li>After living in slavery for so long, blacks had to learn how to be free . </li></ul>
  22. 22. Reconstruction <ul><li>For many of these “freedmen,” emancipation (or freedom) meant hunger and homelessness . To help newly freed slaves, Congress created the Freedmen’s Bureau . </li></ul>
  23. 23. Reconstruction <ul><li>The Freedmen’s Bureau was a government agency created in 1865 that provided food , schools *, and medical care for freed slaves and others in the South. It also helped with shelter, jobs, and legal help for both blacks and whites. </li></ul><ul><li>*More than 4,000 schools </li></ul>
  24. 24. Reconstruction <ul><li>Many in the South disagreed with what was happening. Some, however, sided with the Union. These people were called scalawags , or white Southerners working for or supporting the federal government during Reconstruction. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Reconstruction <ul><li>Sharecropping was a system of farming in which farmers were allowed to rent land and pay the landowner with a share of the crops they raise. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Reconstruction <ul><li>The sharecropper would supply the labor , which would generally consist of the farmer and his family. In addition to the land, the land owner would often supply the necessary animals, equipment, and seed . The landowner would often also provide the farmer with credit to meet the living expenses of his family. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Reconstruction <ul><li>The farmer would earn a share (usually half) of the profit made on the crop when it was sold. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Reconstruction <ul><li>However, repayment of debt , high interest charges, and dishonest accounting on the part of the land owner often dramatically decreased the amount of money a farmer would receive. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Reconstruction <ul><li>Improvements in farm t echnology and a decrease in the amount of land farmed for cotton virtually brought an end to the sharecropping system. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Reconstruction <ul><li>Carpetbaggers were Northerners who planned to start businesses in the South. These individuals were called carpetbaggers because they often carried their belongings in suitcases made of carpet. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Reconstruction <ul><li>Southerners believed the carpetbaggers were looking to profit from the South’s misfortune . </li></ul>
  32. 32. Reconstruction <ul><li>Carpetbag </li></ul>
  33. 33. Reconstruction <ul><li>The Ku Klux Klan was formed after new state governments had been forced to repeal the black codes. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Reconstruction <ul><li>The Ku Klux Klan was a secret society formed by white Southerners to restore white control over blacks by terrorizing them. Klansmen burned African American homes and schools, and attacked those who tried to vote. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Reconstruction <ul><li>E.Q. Why were amendments added to the U.S. Constitution during Reconstruction? </li></ul>
  36. 36. Reconstruction <ul><li>Ratified in 1865, the Thirteenth Amendment stated that “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude… shall exist within the United States…” </li></ul>
  37. 37. Reconstruction <ul><li>This amendment officially abolished slavery. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Reconstruction <ul><li>Ratified in 1868, the Fourteenth Amendment made blacks citizens of the United States and guaranteed them the same legal rights as whites. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Reconstruction <ul><li>President Johnson tried to block this amendment, but failed. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Reconstruction <ul><li>Ratified in 1870, the Fifteenth Amendment said that states could not deny people the right to vote because of race or color. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Reconstruction <ul><li>Note: This amendment did not give women the right to vote. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Reconstruction <ul><li>In 1870 the first African American was elected to Congress . Hiram R. Revels , a Mississippi minister and teacher, was elected to the Senate. He held the same seat Jefferson Davis had held before the Civil War. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Reconstruction <ul><li>In 1874 Blanche K. Bruce , a former slave , was elected to the Senate. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Reconstruction <ul><li>E.Q. Why did Congress want to impeach President Johnson? </li></ul>
  45. 45. Reconstruction <ul><li>After all of the southern states except for one were admitted back into the Union, Johnson said that Reconstruction was complete . </li></ul>
  46. 46. Reconstruction <ul><li>Many Republican congressmen were angry that Johnson had opposed the Fourteenth Amendment and had tried to block the passage of several laws that would have given African Americans more rights. </li></ul>
  47. 47. Reconstruction <ul><li>Because of Johnson’s efforts, these congressmen attempted to remove Johnson from office by impeachment . </li></ul>
  48. 48. Reconstruction <ul><li>Impeachment is when charges of wrongdoing are brought by the House of Representatives against an elected official. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Reconstruction <ul><li>Beginning on March 23, 1868, a trial was held in the U.S. Senate. Johnson ultimately avoided being removed from office by one vote and was able to finish his term as President. </li></ul>
  50. 50. Reconstruction Ulysses S. Grant, a Republican, was elected President in November of 1868 and served in office from 1869 to 1877.
  51. 51. Reconstruction <ul><li>E.Q. What brought an end to reconstruction? </li></ul>
  52. 52. Reconstruction <ul><li>By 1870 all of the former Confederate states had fulfilled the requirements necessary for rejoining the United States. They had approved the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments to the U.S. Constitution. </li></ul>
  53. 53. Reconstruction <ul><li>In addition, many Northerners did not want to continue paying the taxes that were necessary for rebuilding the South. </li></ul>
  54. 54. Reconstruction <ul><li>In 1877 all remaining federal troops were withdrawn from the South. </li></ul>
  55. 55. Reconstruction <ul><li>Following Reconstruction, white Southerners began to take back the power they had had in state governments. </li></ul>
  56. 56. Reconstruction <ul><li>In order to win more elections, they attempted to limit the number of African Americans who voted. </li></ul>
  57. 57. Reconstruction <ul><li>At times, voting booths were placed far from where many black people lived or the location of polling places was changed without notifying blacks where they could go to vote. </li></ul>
  58. 58. Reconstruction <ul><li>In some places a fee called a poll tax was charged to vote that many black people could not afford. </li></ul>
  59. 59. Reconstruction <ul><li>In some communities blacks were forced to pass a test showing that they could read before they were allowed to vote. </li></ul>
  60. 60. Reconstruction <ul><li>Jim Crow laws were laws passed in the South after Reconstruction enforcing the segregation of blacks and whites. </li></ul>
  61. 61. Reconstruction <ul><li>Segregation is the separation of people of different races. </li></ul>
  62. 62. Reconstruction <ul><li>Jim Crow laws prohibited blacks from sitting with whites on trains, attending certain schools , eating at certain restaurants , staying in certain hotels, or going to certain parks or theaters. </li></ul>