introduction to biotechnology

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introduction to biotechnology

  1. 1. Introduction toBiotechnology
  2. 2. BiotechnologyBiotechnology helps to meet our basic needs.Food, clothing, shelter, health and safety
  3. 3. BiotechnologyImprovements by using scienceScience helps in production plants, animals and other organisms
  4. 4. BiotechnologyAlso used in maintaining a good environment that promotes our well being
  5. 5. BiotechnologyUsing scientific processes to get new organisms or new products from organisms.
  6. 6. BiotechnologyLarge areaIncludes many approaches and methods in science and technology
  7. 7. Office of TechAssessment DefinitionAny technique that uses living organisms or substances from those organisms to make or modify a product, to improve plants or animals….
  8. 8. Cont.Or to develop microorganisms for specific uses.
  9. 9. Agricultural ViewAll of the applied science based operations in producing food, fiber, shelter, and related products
  10. 10. Agricultural ViewMilk productionNew horticultural and ornamental plantsWildlife, aquaculture, natural resources and environmental management
  11. 11. MultidisciplinaryInvolves many disciplines or branches of learningIncludes all areas of Life Sciences
  12. 12. Organismic BiotechWorking with complete, intact organisms or their cellsOrganisms are not genetically changed with artificial means
  13. 13. Organismic BiotechHelp the organism live better or be more productiveGoal – improve organisms and the conditions in which they grow
  14. 14. Organismic BiotechStudy and use natural genetic variationsCloning is an example of organismic biotech
  15. 15. CloningProcess of producing a new organism from cells or tissues of existing organism.1997 cloned sheep – “Dolly” in Edinburgh Scotland
  16. 16. Molecular BiotechChanging the genetic make-up of an organismAltering the structure and parts of cellsComplex!
  17. 17. Molecular BiotechUses genetic engineering, molecular mapping and similar processes
  18. 18. GeneticEngineeringChanging the genetic information in a cellSpecific trait of one organism may be isolated,cut, and moved into the cell of another organism
  19. 19. TransgenicResults of Gen. Eng. Are said to be “transgenic”Genetic material in an organism has been altered
  20. 20. Biotech examples Medicine Agriculture Environment Forestry Food and beverage processing
  21. 21. Medicine Some new developments delve into the hereditary material of humans known as gene therapy
  22. 22. Medicine Therapeutant - product used to maintain health or prevent disease Biopharmaceuticals – drug or vaccine developed through biotechnology Called designer drugs
  23. 23. Medicine Biopharming – production of pharmaceuticals in cultured organisms Combination of the agriculture and pharmaceutical industries
  24. 24. Medicine Certain blood – derived products needed in human medicine can be produced in the milk of goats
  25. 25. Environment Any biotechnological process that may promote a good environment Organisms developed during the gulf war to “eat” oil Organism used in gold mining to “eat” contaminants
  26. 26. Environmental Problems naturally solved by microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi break down contaminant into a form less harmful or not harmful
  27. 27. Ag and Forestry Plant biotech Animal biotech
  28. 28. Plant biotech Improve plants and the products produced from them Insect and disease resistance Engineered to have desired characteristics
  29. 29. Plant biotech Corn plant produced with high levels of the amino acid Lysine
  30. 30. Animal Biotech Improve animals or the products they produce Animals may be used to produce products that promote human health
  31. 31. Animal Biotech Increase productivity Pigs engineered to produce human hemoglobin
  32. 32. Food andBeverages Use of technology in producing and processing Some biotech principles have been employed for hundreds of years Yeast in baking bread
  33. 33. Food and Bev. Genetically altered crops rBGH milk
  34. 34. Biotechnology Helps meet human needs Food, clothing and shelter Plants and animals are used in manufacturing food, clothing and materials for shelter
  35. 35. Biotechnology Used to make products more useful or desirable Ex: conversion of milk into cheese or yogurt
  36. 36. Efficiency Must keep the cost of improving products as low as possible Biotech results in greater efficiency
  37. 37. Efficiency Inoculating legume seeds with bacteria that allow the plant to pull nitrogen out of the air and put it into the soil Saves the producer the cost of applying N fertilizer
  38. 38. Efficiency Results in trees that grow faster and produce wood that is more desirable
  39. 39. Greater Production Increases yields bST use in cows to produce more milk Higher crop yields from drought, disease & insect resistant crops
  40. 40. Health PromotingFoods Food with unique traits Some contain therapeutants Some designed with nutrient enrichment
  41. 41. Safety Consumers want foods to provide needed nutrients and in some cases, enhanced foods Do not want side effects from those enhanced foods
  42. 42. Easy preparation Flavr-Savr Tomato Reached the market in early 1990’s Engineered to have a longer shelf life
  43. 43. Flavr-Savr No soft spots No rotten spots Tomato resists spoilage
  44. 44. Synthetic biology Creating lifelike characteristics through the use of chemicals Based on creating structures similar to those found in living organisms
  45. 45. Synthetic Biology Need for synthetic cells lead to the development of the vesicle Vesicle – tiny rounded structure with cell like traits
  46. 46. Vesicle Tiny structures similar to soap bubbles were created to serve as the cell membrane Visible only with powerful microscope
  47. 47. Vesicle Once the cell membrane has been successfully developed, development of the materials with the cell is initiated.
  48. 48. Synthetic biology Is important because it brings science closer to creating life in the lab Cells and tissues may be developed to treat human injury and disease

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