New technologies in the food industry


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Year 13 Edexcel Food Tech

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New technologies in the food industry

  1. 1. New Technologies in the Food Industry Tuesday 5 th October
  2. 2. Aims of the lesson: <ul><li>To define biotechnology. </li></ul><ul><li>To understand where increases in the use of biotechnology have occurred. </li></ul><ul><li>To understand areas of traditional biotechnology. </li></ul><ul><li>To understand areas of modern biotechnology. </li></ul><ul><li>To understand encapsulation technology in the food industry. </li></ul><ul><li>To debate, for and against, genetically modified food products. </li></ul><ul><li>Farm to Pharma : The Rise and Rise of Food Science | Free Educational & How-To Videos - Watch Educational & How-To Videos Online | Veoh </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is biotechnology? <ul><li>The application of technology to modify genes of animals, plants, and micro organisms to create new species which have desired production, marketing, or nutrition related properties. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Increases of biotechnology <ul><li>Increases in the use of biotechnology by the food industry are due to: </li></ul><ul><li>• competition between food companies for an increased market share; </li></ul><ul><li> • attempts to increase efficiency and reduce the environmental impact of production; </li></ul><ul><li> • consumer demand for convenient, high quality products at reasonable cost. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Traditional biotechnology <ul><li>Traditional biotechnology mainly involves the production of foods, such as cheese, bread and wine. </li></ul><ul><li>The fermentation process: </li></ul><ul><li>• offers a method of preservation, e.g. by producing acid which lowers the pH (converting a perishable food into one that has a longer shelf-life); </li></ul><ul><li> • can be used to change the nutritional value of food products, e.g. converting milk to cheese; </li></ul><ul><li> • can create or improve sensory characteristics of foods (flavour, aroma and texture). </li></ul>
  6. 6. Encapsulation <ul><li>Encapsulation can be defined as a process where a continuous thin coating is formed around solid particles, liquid droplets, or gas cells that are fully contained within the capsule wall (King, 1995). </li></ul><ul><li>Natural examples include birds’ egg shells and plant seeds. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Encapsulation <ul><li>Encapsulation technology has been used in the food industry for more than 60 years as a way to provide liquid and solid ingredients as an effective barrier for environmental and/or chemical interactions until release is desired (Reineccius, 1994). </li></ul>
  8. 8. So why encapsulate?   <ul><li>Encapsulation protects against oxygen, oxidizing agents, other ingredients, enzymes, temperatures, light. </li></ul><ul><li>Equally important, encapsulation provides ease of handling (change liquid into solid) enhances flavour and nutritional value. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Longer-lasting chewing gum <ul><li>Encapsulation technologies are playing several roles in </li></ul><ul><li>improving the taste of gums. </li></ul><ul><li>The cooling sensation of menthol is subjected to an initial </li></ul><ul><li>spray-drying step to create the smallest particle size </li></ul><ul><li>possible. Those particles then are coated with a gum, </li></ul><ul><li>Wax or other water-insoluble substance so that with </li></ul><ul><li>each chew, one or two capsules burst to provide the </li></ul><ul><li>Intended sensation. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Genetically Modified (GM) <ul><li>The term 'biotechnology' is used to describe genetic modification. </li></ul><ul><li>GM foods have been artificially changed by scientists in a laboratory. </li></ul><ul><li>In the past, plants have been improved by breeding them with other, better plants - a natural process which takes years. But with GM foods, it's done quickly and artificially, and lots of people are worried about it. </li></ul>
  11. 11. History of GM <ul><li>In 1994, the first genetically modified crop - a tomato came on the market in the USA. Since then there have been many more. Eating GM food has become quite common. People have only been eating GM food for a relatively short period. So there may be long-term effects which we simply don't know about yet. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Are they dangerous? <ul><li>There have been angry debates between scientists and campaigners about whether GM foods are safe or not. Campaigners against GM foods say: </li></ul><ul><li>GM foods can damage your health - research showed that rats eating them didn't grow properly. New diseases could also be created by accident. </li></ul><ul><li>Different species are being mixed up - to give a tomato a more reddish colour, it may be given parts of a very red fish, which seems to be against nature. </li></ul><ul><li>Because GM foods are new , there has not been any long-term testing to see if they are dangerous to humans. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Any real benefits? <ul><li>Scientists argue GM technology is the future of food. They say plants can be bred to fight off weeds and pests, so crops are never spoiled. </li></ul><ul><li>We can then produce more food, like rice, and feed the world's starving people. Food could also be cheaper because there would be more of it. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Are they allowed in the UK? <ul><li>GM crops have been grown on a few farms in Britain, as an experiment and the government has now said that GM maize can be grown in the UK. </li></ul><ul><li>But people have become so worried about GM foods that most of the big supermarkets have banned them. </li></ul><ul><li>Most items should say on the label if they contain genetically modified ingredients - you can decide if you're happy to eat them or not. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Are they allowed in the UK? <ul><li>Any GM foods intended for sale in the European Union are subject to a rigorous safety assessment, which is the responsibility of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). </li></ul>
  16. 16. Examples of GM: <ul><li>Insecticide sweet corn Scientists have GM sweet corn so that it produces a poison which kills harmful insects. This means the farmer no longer needs to fight insects with insecticides . The GM corn is called Bt-corn, because the insect-killing gene in the plant comes from the bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><li>The farmer no longer has to use insecticide to kill insects, so the surrounding environment is no longer exposed to large amounts of harmful insecticide. </li></ul><ul><li>The farmer no longer needs to walk around with a drum of toxic spray wearing a mask and protective clothing. </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><li>This type of genetically modified corn will poison the insects over a longer period than the farmer who would spray the crops once or twice. In this way the insects can become accustomed (or resistant) to the poison. If that happens both crop spraying and the use of genetically modified Bt-corn become ineffective. </li></ul><ul><li>A variety of insects are at risk of being killed. It might be predatory insects that eat the harmful ones or, perhaps attractive insects such as butterflies. In the USA, where Bt-corn is used a great deal there is much debate over the harmful effects of Bt-corn on the beautiful Monarch butterfly. </li></ul><ul><li>Cotton and potatoes are other examples of plants that scientists have , genetically modified to produce insecticide. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Examples of GM: <ul><li>Long-lasting tomatoes Long-lasting, GM tomatoes came on to the market in 1994 and were the first GM food available to consumers. The GM tomato produces less of the substance that causes tomatoes to rot, so remains firm and fresh for a long time </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><li>Because the GM tomatoes can remain fresh longer they can be allowed to ripen in the sun before picking - resulting in a better tasting tomato. </li></ul><ul><li>GM tomatoes can tolerate a lengthier transport time. This means that market gardens can avoid picking tomatoes while they are green in order that they will tolerate the transport. </li></ul><ul><li>The producers also have the advantage that all the tomatoes can be harvested simultaneously. </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><li>Scientists today can genetically modify tomatoes without inserting genes for antibiotic resistance . However the first genetically modified tomatoes contained genes that made them resistant to antibiotics . Doctors and vets use antibiotics to fight infections. These genes spread to animals and people, doctors would have difficulties fighting infectious diseases. </li></ul><ul><li>Strawberries, pineapples, sweet peppers and bananas have all been genetically modified by scientists to remain fresh for longer. </li></ul>
  20. 20. What GM products do we have? <ul><li>In Europe today 3 genetically modified crops are permitted (June 2002). These are: </li></ul><ul><li>Soya beans - resistant to crop spray </li></ul><ul><li>Sweet corn - resistant to crop spray and produce insecticide </li></ul><ul><li>Rape plants - resistant to crop spray and does not produce pollen (therefore it cannot pollinate other plants) </li></ul><ul><li>All 3 plants have been approved for import and food produce manufacture. Sweet corn and rape plants are also approved for cultivation. </li></ul><ul><li>Genetically modified chicory lettuce is also approved for cultivation. But the lettuce is solely used in processing work and not as food produce. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Task: <ul><li>The GM debate… </li></ul><ul><li>Produce an argument both for and against GM food products. </li></ul><ul><li>You will present it to the rest of the class (you can use PowerPoint if you wish) </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>The GM debate… </li></ul>
  23. 23. Vegetarianism <ul><li>Vegetarianism is the practice of following a </li></ul><ul><li>plant-based diet including fruits, vegetables, </li></ul><ul><li>cereal grains, nuts, and seeds, with or </li></ul><ul><li>without dairy products and eggs </li></ul>
  24. 24. Meat Analogue <ul><li>Some people choose not to eat meat for a variety of reasons. What are these reasons? </li></ul><ul><li>In recent years manufacturers have produced many meat-like products, called ‘meat analogues’, which mimic the sensory properties of meat and can be used to replace meat. </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>vs. Disadvantages </li></ul>
  26. 26. Advantages vs Disadvantages <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>they are versatile </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>they are easy to store </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>they are cheap </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>they can be bland </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>they can be colourless </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>they can be quite dry </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Protein: must obtain a variety of non-meat protein foods will ensure you get all the essential amino acids the body requires, e.g. pulses and vegetarian alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>Iron: most easily absorbed iron is found in meat. Iron from plant foods is less well absorbed, which may increase risk of iron deficiency, e.g. wholegrain cereals, green leafy veg and pulses. </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin C: Helps absorb iron into the body so vegetarians need plenty of fruit and veg </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin B12: mainly in meat. Dairy products or eggs. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Design and Make Task: <ul><li>You have invited a person to come for a meal…you have planned to make Bruschetta to start, lamb lasagne for main and chocolate mousse for dessert. You find out the person is vegetarian and can’t eat the lamb lasagne. </li></ul><ul><li>Design and make an alternative main meal to serve 2 people. Your meal must be high in protein, iron and vitamin C, so use alternative ingredients to achieve this. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Modified Starch <ul><li>Modified starch is a food additive which is </li></ul><ul><li>prepared by treating starch or starch </li></ul><ul><li>granules, causing the starch to be partially </li></ul><ul><li>degraded. Modified starch is used as a </li></ul><ul><li>thickening agent, stabilizer, or an emulsifier. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Modified Starches <ul><li>The starch in some canned soups, for example, is bonded with phosphate, which allows it to absorb more water and so the soup from does not separate. </li></ul><ul><li>Fish batter contains an oxidised starch to make it &quot;stickier&quot; to adhere to the sides of the fish better. </li></ul><ul><li>Instant desserts, such as blancmange, use a pre-gelatinised starch which has been thickened by heat, then dried and added to the product. So, when liquid is then added, it reverts to its original gelatinised form, and hardens. </li></ul><ul><li>Pizza uses starch to stop the tomato sauce spilling off during baking, a starch treated with a chlorine solution is often added to the topping. This produces a gel that thickens during cooking, but goes runny when cooled. </li></ul>