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biotechnology and genetic engineering

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  1. 1. What is Food Biotechnology?Food biotechnology is the evolution oftraditional agricultural techniques such ascrossbreeding and fermentation.It is an extension of the type of fooddevelopment that has provided nectarines,tangerines and similar advancements.
  2. 2. Technically Speaking...Food biotechnology employs the toolsof modern genetics to enhancebeneficial traits of plants, animals andmicroorganisms for food production.It involves adding or extracting selectgenes to achieve desired traits.
  3. 3. The musical stylings of Dr. Karl Winters
  4. 4. There must be more to it than that, Doc transcription translation• DNA makes RNA makes PROTEIN• Must be a protein already in existence• A “Selectable Marker” is required to identify the clone.• The selectable marker is usually antibiotic resistance, which does not make YOU antibiotic resistant.
  5. 5. And how do they do that…?
  6. 6. Other types of biotechnology• Clonal propagation• Random mutagenisis and selection (directed evolution)• Metabolic redirection• Use of “xenophiles”
  7. 7. Food Biotechnology Applications• Biotechnology methods are currently used to improve many foods.• Food biotechnology has had a profound positive impact on farming and food security.• At least twelve industrialized and four developing countries currently use some form of food biotechnology.
  8. 8. Consumer Benefits ofFood Biotechnology
  9. 9. Have YOU personally benefited from food biotechnology? Show of hands From Medical Biotechnology?
  10. 10. Have YOU personally benefited from food biotechnology? Show of handsHave YOU personally eaten a biotech food?
  11. 11. Have YOU personally benefited from food biotechnology? Show of handsHave YOU personally eaten a biotech food? Chyomsin (rennet) BST
  12. 12. The Colbert ReportMany people get their information from (fake) news.
  13. 13. • Taste and Quality – Delayed ripening allows fruits and vegetables to remain fresh longer Flavorsavar®. – Increased solids give foods superior taste and less water to remove for sauces.
  14. 14. • Nutrition – Some oils are lower in saturated fat and higher in oleic acid, making them more stable for frying without further processing. – Some foods have lower levels of saturated fat.
  15. 15. J. Amer. Dietetic Assoc.,2006;106:285-293
  16. 16. • Health – Some foods have enhanced nutritional profiles. – Biotechnology allows for the production of foods to help protect against diseases. – Enhanced foods will soon offer higher levels of antioxidant vitamins to reduce risk of cancer. Now being commercialized at Rutgers! (black tea extract).
  17. 17. How Nutrients Regulate Genes Nutrient Gene impact Disease potentialFolic acid DNA methylation Cancer Bind to transcriptionFatty acids Obesity factorsVitamin D mRNA stability Kidney disease Increase mRNA Flavones Cancer synthesis Decrease mRNATheaflavins synthesis(anti- Arthritis inflamatory)
  18. 18. WellGen, Inc. is the first biotechnology company using nutrigenomics to discover and develop proprietary products that treat and prevent diseaseNutrigenomics addressesthe role of diet in gene expression
  19. 19. Consumers Support Food Biotechnology• Nearly two-thirds believe food biotechnology will benefit their family in the next five years.• More than half would choose products modified to taste better or fresher.• Two-thirds would likely buy produce protected against insect damage. Source: Wirthlin Worldwide, October 1999
  20. 20. Environmental Impact of Agricultural Biotechnology• Healthier plants result in higher yields.• Insect-protected crops reduce the need for insecticides.• Biotechnology helps protect water (less pesticide run off, less erosion.)
  21. 21. Economic Impact of Agricultural Biotechnology• Food biotechnology results in higher plant yields, increasing farmers’ efficiency.• Farmer production costs are reduced.• Debilitating plant diseases and insect pests are often preventable.
  22. 22. Combating Hunger• Food biotechnology allows more food to be produced on less land.• Economic benefits will allow food biotechnology to contribute to combating global hunger.
  23. 23. Combating Hunger• Food biotechnology allows more food to be produced on less land.• Economic benefits will allow food biotechnology to contribute to combating global hunger.
  24. 24. FDA Food BiotechnologyUSDA Is Safe • Food biotechnology is one ofAMA the most extensively reviewedIFT agricultural advancements to date.FAO/ • Studies to date have shownWHO no evidence of any harmfulADA effects.
  25. 25. What is the FDA’s approval procedure ?•Regulate the product, not the process.•Regulate the ingredient, not its method ofmanufacture.•Substances that are not GRAS or exemptwill be regulated as additives.•Encourages “informal consultation.”
  26. 26. FDA’s basic paradigm• Is the gene coming from the donor well characterized?• Is the vector (plasmid) well characterized?• Is the recipient of the gene well characterized?
  27. 27. Potential Problems with GE Foods• Antibiotic resistance (significance needs to be determined)• Introduction of new proteins into foods (FDA seeks comments)• Plants used to make nonfood substances.• Special concerns with animal feeds.• ---------------------• Unintended “pleotropic” effects• Increases of known toxins, decreases in nutrients• Activation of dormant pathways, allergens
  28. 28. U.S. Labeling Policy for Food Biotechnology• FDA safety standards are consistent for all foods. – Must label the presence of common allergens not normally found in certain foods – Must demonstrate scientifically that allergens are not present in modified food. – If nutritional content or composition has been changed, product must be labeled accordingly.
  29. 29. Consumers Support Labeling Policy • More than two- Support FDA labeling policy thirds of O ppose FDA consumers labeling policy support the FDA Dont know /refused labeling policy Source: Wirthlin Worldwide, October 1999
  30. 30. What Does the Future Hold?Food biotechnology has thepotential to:• Reduce levels of natural toxins in plants• Provide simpler and faster ways to locate pathogens, toxins and contaminants• Keep products fresher longer• Identify ways to eliminate allergens from many foods• Increase food supply to support growing world population and decreasing agricultural space.
  31. 31. So what’s the bottom line, Doc? • It depends on the use. • It depends on the market. • It depends on how you vote.