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Personality Values and Emotions
Personality Values and Emotions
Personality Values and Emotions
Personality Values and Emotions
Personality Values and Emotions
Personality Values and Emotions
Personality Values and Emotions
Personality Values and Emotions
Personality Values and Emotions
Personality Values and Emotions
Personality Values and Emotions
Personality Values and Emotions
Personality Values and Emotions
Personality Values and Emotions
Personality Values and Emotions
Personality Values and Emotions
Personality Values and Emotions
Personality Values and Emotions
Personality Values and Emotions
Personality Values and Emotions
Personality Values and Emotions
Personality Values and Emotions
Personality Values and Emotions
Personality Values and Emotions
Personality Values and Emotions
Personality Values and Emotions
Personality Values and Emotions
Personality Values and Emotions
Personality Values and Emotions
Personality Values and Emotions
Personality Values and Emotions
Personality Values and Emotions
Personality Values and Emotions
Personality Values and Emotions
Personality Values and Emotions
Personality Values and Emotions
Personality Values and Emotions
Personality Values and Emotions
Personality Values and Emotions
Personality Values and Emotions
Personality Values and Emotions
Personality Values and Emotions
Personality Values and Emotions
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Personality Values and Emotions

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Explain the factors that determine an individual’s personality. …

Explain the factors that determine an individual’s personality.
Describe the MBTI personality framework.
Identify the key traits in the Big Five personality model.
Explain the impact of job typology on the personality/job performance relationship.
Differentiate emotions from moods.
Contrast felt versus displayed emotions.

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  • 1. Chapter 4PersonalityValues andEmotions
  • 2. 4–2After studying this chapter,you should be able to:1. Explain the factors that determine anindividual’s personality.2. Describe the MBTI personality framework.3. Identify the key traits in the Big Fivepersonality model.4. Explain the impact of job typology on thepersonality/job performance relationship.5. Differentiate emotions from moods.6. Contrast felt versus displayed emotions.LEARNINGOBJECTIVES
  • 3. 4–3After studying this chapter,you should be able to:7. Explain gender-differences in emotions.8. Describe external constraints on emotions.9. Apply concepts on emotions to OB issues.LEARNINGOBJECTIVES(cont’d)
  • 4. 4–4What is Personality?What is Personality?PersonalityThe sum total of ways in which an individual reacts andinteracts with others.Personality TraitsEnduring characteristicsthat describe anindividual’s behavior.PersonalityDeterminants• Heredity• Environment• SituationPersonalityDeterminants• Heredity• Environment• Situation
  • 5. 4–5The Myers-Briggs Type IndicatorThe Myers-Briggs Type IndicatorPersonality Types• Extroverted vs. Introverted (E or I)• Sensing vs. Intuitive (S or N)• Thinking vs. Feeling (T or F)• Judging vs. Perceiving (P or J)Personality Types• Extroverted vs. Introverted (E or I)• Sensing vs. Intuitive (S or N)• Thinking vs. Feeling (T or F)• Judging vs. Perceiving (P or J)Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)A personality test that taps four characteristics andclassifies people into 1 of 16 personality types.
  • 6. 4–6Myers-BriggsSixteenPrimaryTraitsMyers-BriggsSixteenPrimaryTraits
  • 7. 4–7The Big Five Model of Personality DimensionsThe Big Five Model of Personality DimensionsExtroversionSociable, gregarious, and assertiveAgreeablenessGood-natured, cooperative, and trusting.ConscientiousnessResponsible, dependable, persistent, and organized.Openness to ExperienceImaginativeness, artistic, sensitivity, and intellectualism.Emotional StabilityCalm, self-confident, secure (positive) versus nervous, depressed,and insecure (negative).
  • 8. 4–8Major Personality Attributes Influencing OBMajor Personality Attributes Influencing OB Locus of control Machiavellianism Self-esteem Self-monitoring Risk taking Type A personality
  • 9. 4–9Locus of ControlLocus of ControlLocus of ControlThe degree to which people believe theyare masters of their own fate.InternalsIndividuals who believe that theycontrol what happens to them.ExternalsIndividuals who believe thatwhat happens to them iscontrolled by outside forcessuch as luck or chance.
  • 10. 4–10MachiavellianismMachiavellianismConditions Favoring High Machs• Direct interaction• Minimal rules and regulations• Emotions distract for othersConditions Favoring High Machs• Direct interaction• Minimal rules and regulations• Emotions distract for othersMachiavellianism (Mach)Degree to which an individual is pragmatic,maintains emotional distance, and believesthat ends can justify means.
  • 11. 4–11Self-Esteem and Self-MonitoringSelf-Esteem and Self-MonitoringSelf-Esteem (SE)Individuals’ degree of likingor disliking themselves.Self-MonitoringA personality trait that measuresan individuals ability to adjust hisor her behavior to external,situational factors.
  • 12. 4–12Risk-TakingRisk-Taking High Risk-taking Managers– Make quicker decisions– Use less information to make decisions– Operate in smaller and more entrepreneurialorganizations Low Risk-taking Managers– Are slower to make decisions– Require more information before making decisions– Exist in larger organizations with stable environments Risk Propensity– Aligning managers’ risk-taking propensity to jobrequirements should be beneficial to organizations.
  • 13. 4–13Personality TypesPersonality TypesType A’s1. are always moving, walking, and eating rapidly;2. feel impatient with the rate at which most events take place;3. strive to think or do two or more things at once;4. cannot cope with leisure time;5. are obsessed with numbers, measuring their success interms of how many or how much of everything they acquire.Type B’s1. never suffer from a sense of time urgency with itsaccompanying impatience;2. feel no need to display or discuss either their achievementsor accomplishments;3. play for fun and relaxation, rather than to exhibit theirsuperiority at any cost;4. can relax without guilt.
  • 14. 4–14Personality TypesPersonality TypesProactive PersonalityIdentifies opportunities,shows initiative, takesaction, and perseveresuntil meaningful changeoccurs.Creates positive changein the environment,regardless or even inspite of constraints orobstacles.
  • 15. 4–15Achieving Person-Job FitAchieving Person-Job FitPersonality Types• Realistic• Investigative• Social• Conventional• Enterprising• ArtisticPersonality Types• Realistic• Investigative• Social• Conventional• Enterprising• ArtisticPersonality-Job FitTheory (Holland)Identifies six personalitytypes and proposes thatthe fit between personalitytype and occupationalenvironment determinessatisfaction and turnover.
  • 16. 4–16Holland’sTypology ofPersonalityandCongruentOccupationsHolland’sTypology ofPersonalityandCongruentOccupationsE X H I B I T 4–2E X H I B I T 4–2
  • 17. 4–17RelationshipsamongOccupationalPersonalityTypesRelationshipsamongOccupationalPersonalityTypesE X H I B I T 4–3E X H I B I T 4–3Source: Reprinted by special permission of the publisher, PsychologicalAssessment Resources, Inc., from Making Vocational Choices, copyright 1973,1985, 1992 by Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 18. 3–18ValuesValuesValuesBasic convictions that a specificmode of conduct or end-state ofexistence is personally or sociallypreferable to an opposite orconverse mode of conduct orend-state of existence.Value SystemA hierarchy based on a rankingof an individual’s values in termsof their intensity.
  • 19. 3–19Importance of ValuesImportance of Values Provide understanding of the attitudes,motivation, and behaviors of individuals andcultures. Influence our perception of the world around us. Represent interpretations of “right” and “wrong.” Imply that some behaviors or outcomes arepreferred over others.
  • 20. 3–20Types of Values –- Rokeach Value SurveyTypes of Values –- Rokeach Value SurveyTerminal ValuesDesirable end-states ofexistence; the goals that aperson would like to achieveduring his or her lifetime.Instrumental ValuesPreferable modes of behavioror means of achieving one’sterminal values.
  • 21. 3–21Values intheRokeachSurveyValues intheRokeachSurveyE X H I B I T 3–1E X H I B I T 3–1Source: M. Rokeach, The Nature ofHuman Values (New York: The FreePress, 1973).
  • 22. 3–22Values intheRokeachSurvey(cont’d)Values intheRokeachSurvey(cont’d)E X H I B I T 3–1 (cont’d)E X H I B I T 3–1 (cont’d)Source: M. Rokeach, The Nature ofHuman Values (New York: The FreePress, 1973).
  • 23. 3–23Mean Value Rankings ofExecutives, UnionMembers, and ActivistsMean Value Rankings ofExecutives, UnionMembers, and ActivistsE X H I B I T 3–2E X H I B I T 3–2Source: Based on W. C. Frederick and J. Weber, “The Values ofCorporate Managers and Their Critics: An Empirical Descriptionand Normative Implications,” in W. C. Frederick and L. E. Preston(eds.) Business Ethics: Research Issues and Empirical Studies(Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1990), pp. 123–44.
  • 24. 3–24Dominant Work Values in Today’s WorkforceDominant Work Values in Today’s WorkforceE X H I B I T 3–3E X H I B I T 3–3
  • 25. 3–25Hofstede’s Framework for Assessing CulturesHofstede’s Framework for Assessing CulturesPower DistanceThe extent to which a society accepts thatpower in institutions and organizations isdistributed unequally.low distance: relatively equal distributionhigh distance: extremely unequal distribution
  • 26. 3–26Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d)Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d)CollectivismA tight social framework inwhich people expectothers in groups of whichthey are a part to lookafter them and protectthem.IndividualismThe degree to whichpeople prefer to act asindividuals rather than amember of groups.
  • 27. 3–27Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d)Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d)AchievementThe extent to which societalvalues are characterized byassertiveness, materialism andcompetition.NurturingThe extent to which societalvalues emphasize relationshipsand concern for others.
  • 28. 3–28Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d)Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d)Uncertainty AvoidanceThe extent to which a society feels threatened byuncertain and ambiguous situations and tries toavoid them.
  • 29. 3–29Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d)Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d)Long-term OrientationA national culture attribute thatemphasizes the future, thrift,and persistence.Short-term OrientationA national culture attribute thatemphasizes the past andpresent, respect for tradition,and fulfilling social obligations.
  • 30. 3–30The GLOBEFrameworkforAssessingCulturesThe GLOBEFrameworkforAssessingCultures• Assertiveness• Future Orientation• Gender differentiation• Uncertainty avoidance• Power distance• Individual/collectivism• In-group collectivism• Performance orientation• Humane orientation• Assertiveness• Future Orientation• Gender differentiation• Uncertainty avoidance• Power distance• Individual/collectivism• In-group collectivism• Performance orientation• Humane orientationE X H I B I T 3–4E X H I B I T 3–4Source: M. Javidan and R. J. House, “Cultural Acumen for the GlobalManager: Lessons from Project GLOBE,” Organizational Dynamics, Spring2001, pp. 289–305.
  • 31. 4–31Emotions- Why Emotions Were Ignored in OBEmotions- Why Emotions Were Ignored in OB The “myth of rationality”– Organizations are not emotion-free. Emotions of any kind are disruptive toorganizations.– Original OB focus was solely on the effects of strongnegative emotions that interfered with individual andorganizational efficiency.
  • 32. 4–32What Are Emotions?What Are Emotions?MoodsMoodsFeelings that tend to beFeelings that tend to beless intense thanless intense thanemotions and that lack aemotions and that lack acontextual stimulus.contextual stimulus.MoodsMoodsFeelings that tend to beFeelings that tend to beless intense thanless intense thanemotions and that lack aemotions and that lack acontextual stimulus.contextual stimulus.EmotionsEmotionsIntense feelings that areIntense feelings that aredirected at someone ordirected at someone orsomething.something.EmotionsEmotionsIntense feelings that areIntense feelings that aredirected at someone ordirected at someone orsomething.something.AffectAffectA broad range of emotionsA broad range of emotionsthat people experience.that people experience.AffectAffectA broad range of emotionsA broad range of emotionsthat people experience.that people experience.
  • 33. 4–33What Are Emotions? (cont’d)What Are Emotions? (cont’d)Emotional LaborA situation in which an employee expressesorganizationally desired emotions duringinterpersonal transactions.Emotional DissonanceA situation in which an employeemust project one emotion whilesimultaneously feeling another.
  • 34. 4–34Felt versus Displayed EmotionsFelt versus Displayed EmotionsFelt EmotionsAn individual’s actual emotions.Displayed EmotionsEmotions that are organizationallyrequired and considered appropriatein a given job.
  • 35. 4–35Emotion ContinuumEmotion Continuum The closer any two emotions are to each other onthe continuum, the more likely people are toconfuse them.E X H I B I T 4–4E X H I B I T 4–4Source: Based on R.D. Woodworth, Experimental Psychology (New York: Holt, 1938).
  • 36. 4–36Emotion DimensionsEmotion Dimensions Variety of emotions– Positive– Negative Intensity of emotions– Personality– Job Requirements Frequency and duration of emotions– How often emotions are exhibited.– How long emotions are displayed.
  • 37. 4–37Gender and EmotionsGender and Emotions Women– Can show greater emotional expression.– Experience emotions more intensely.– Display emotions more frequently.– Are more comfortable in expressing emotions.– Are better at reading others’ emotions. Men– Believe that displaying emotions is inconsistent withthe male image.– Are innately less able to read and to identify withothers’ emotions.– Have less need to seek social approval by showingpositive emotions.
  • 38. 4–38External Constraints on EmotionsExternal Constraints on EmotionsOrganizationalOrganizationalInfluencesInfluencesOrganizationalOrganizationalInfluencesInfluencesCulturalCulturalInfluencesInfluencesCulturalCulturalInfluencesInfluencesIndividualIndividualEmotionsEmotionsIndividualIndividualEmotionsEmotions
  • 39. 4–39Affective Events Theory (AET)Affective Events Theory (AET) Emotions are negative or positive responses to a workenvironment event.– Personality and mood determine the intensity of theemotional response.– Emotions can influence a broad range of work performanceand job satisfaction variables. Implications of the theory:– Individual response reflects emotions and mood cycles.– Current and past emotions affect job satisfaction.– Emotional fluctuations create variations in job satisfaction.– Emotions have only short-term effects on job performance.– Both negative and positive emotions can distract workersand reduce job performance.
  • 40. 4–40Affective Events Theory (AET)Affective Events Theory (AET)E X H I B I T 4–5E X H I B I T 4–5Source: Based on N.M. Ashkanasy and C.S. Daus, “Emotion in the Workplace: The NewChallenge for Managers,” Academy of Management Executive, February 2002, p. 77.
  • 41. 4–41OB Applications of Understanding EmotionsOB Applications of Understanding Emotions Ability and Selection– Emotions affect employee effectiveness. Decision Making– Emotions are an important part of the decision-makingprocess in organizations. Motivation– Emotional commitment to work and high motivation arestrongly linked. Leadership– Emotions are important to acceptance of messagesfrom organizational leaders.
  • 42. 4–42OB Applications… (cont’d)OB Applications… (cont’d) Interpersonal Conflict– Conflict in the workplace and individual emotions arestrongly intertwined. Customer Services– Emotions affect service quality delivered to customerswhich, in turn, affects customer relationships. Deviant Workplace Behaviors– Negative emotions lead to employee deviance(actions that violate norms and threaten theorganization).• Productivity failures• Property theft and destruction• Political actions• Personal aggression
  • 43. 4–43Ability and SelectionAbility and Selection Emotional Intelligence (EI)– Self-awareness– Self-management– Self-motivation– Empathy– Social skills Research Findings– High EI scores, not highIQ scores, characterizehigh performers. Emotional Intelligence (EI)– Self-awareness– Self-management– Self-motivation– Empathy– Social skills Research Findings– High EI scores, not highIQ scores, characterizehigh performers.EmotionalIntelligenceAn assortment ofnoncognitive skills,capabilities, andcompetencies thatinfluence a person’sability to succeed incoping withenvironmentaldemands andpressures.

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