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Personality & Individual Behaviour

Talks about Personality and Individual Behavoiur for educational purposes. * Personality * Components of Personality * Nature of Personality * Framework Of Personality ** Iceberg Theory ** Psychoanalytic Theory ** The Myers Brigg Type Indicators ** The Big 5 Model * Determinants of Personality ** Biological Factors ** Social Factors ** Cultural Factors ** Situational Factors * Individual Behaviour ** Individual Behaviour Framework * Causes of Individual Behaviour

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1
PERSONALITY
&
INDIVIDUAL
BEHAVIOUR
GROUP 7
Personality & Individual Behaviour
PERSONALITY
Personality is made up of the characteristic patterns of thoughts, feelings, and
behaviors that make a person unique.
Personality arises from within an individual and remains fairly consistent
throughout life. It is a pattern of relatively permanent traits and unique
characteristics that give both consistency and individuality to a person's behavior.
The study of the psychology of personality called personality psychology attempts
to explain the tendencies that underlie differences in behavior.
3
COMPONENTS OF
PERSONALITY
Consistency: There is generally a recognizable order and regularity to behaviors.
Essentially, people act in the same ways or similar ways in a variety of situations.
Psychological and Physiological: Personality is a psychological construct, but research
suggests that it is also influenced by biological processes and needs.
It impacts behaviors and actions: Personality does not just influence how we move and
respond in our environment; it also causes us to act in certain ways.
Multiple Expressions: Personality is displayed in more than just behavior. It can also be
seen in our thoughts, feelings, close relationships, and other social interactions.
4
NATURE OF PERSONALITY
Inner psychological characteristics that reflects how a person responds in an
environment.
Inner characteristics like traits that distinguish individuals.
Different individuals have different behavioural patterns.
Personality changes in respond to certain events.
Personality is both inherited as well as it can be shaped by the environment.
5
IS THERE SUCH A THING AS
ADDICTIVE PERSONALITY?
(ARTICLE)
Nature versus Nurture
There is some evidence that both personality and addictive behaviours
have a genetic component.
One of these genes has also been associated with extroversion, another of
the big five personality dimensions. Extroversion refers to the degree to
which people “search for novel experiences and social connections that
allow them to interact with other humans as much as possible”.
It makes sense then that variants of these genes have been found to be
associated with “sensation seeking”, another dimension of
personality. Sensation seeking is a “trait defined by the seeking of novel
sensations, and the willingness to take physical, social, legal and financial
risks for the sake of such experiences”. People with addictive behaviours
also score high on this personality dimension.
Though to say these are genes for an addictive personality is a bit like
saying the genes for height are the basketball genes. While some people
who are tall are good at basketball, not all tall people have the opportunity
or desire to learn the game.
Similarly, not everybody with variants of the dopamine genes associated
with excessive behaviours develops problems with substance dependence
or other addictive behaviours. Environment is also important.
It’s likely that some people whose dopamine system is less efficient due to
genetic variations get their dopamine fix through other activities such as
car racing, snowboarding, surfing, sky diving and so on. And some people
who develop a dependence on alcohol and other drugs do not have this
genetic predisposition. They might develop problems due to a range of
environmental influences such as trauma or social modelling of drug use.
So while there are common factors associated with personality that
predict addiction, there is no personality type that will cause someone to
partake in excessive behaviours. Addiction has multiple causes and just
chalking it up to someone’s personality probably isn’t very helpful in
dealing with it.
Article By:
Mr. Stephen Bright
(Senior Lecturer of Addiction, Edith Cowan University)
6

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Personality & Individual Behaviour

  • 3. PERSONALITY Personality is made up of the characteristic patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that make a person unique. Personality arises from within an individual and remains fairly consistent throughout life. It is a pattern of relatively permanent traits and unique characteristics that give both consistency and individuality to a person's behavior. The study of the psychology of personality called personality psychology attempts to explain the tendencies that underlie differences in behavior. 3
  • 4. COMPONENTS OF PERSONALITY Consistency: There is generally a recognizable order and regularity to behaviors. Essentially, people act in the same ways or similar ways in a variety of situations. Psychological and Physiological: Personality is a psychological construct, but research suggests that it is also influenced by biological processes and needs. It impacts behaviors and actions: Personality does not just influence how we move and respond in our environment; it also causes us to act in certain ways. Multiple Expressions: Personality is displayed in more than just behavior. It can also be seen in our thoughts, feelings, close relationships, and other social interactions. 4
  • 5. NATURE OF PERSONALITY Inner psychological characteristics that reflects how a person responds in an environment. Inner characteristics like traits that distinguish individuals. Different individuals have different behavioural patterns. Personality changes in respond to certain events. Personality is both inherited as well as it can be shaped by the environment. 5
  • 6. IS THERE SUCH A THING AS ADDICTIVE PERSONALITY? (ARTICLE) Nature versus Nurture There is some evidence that both personality and addictive behaviours have a genetic component. One of these genes has also been associated with extroversion, another of the big five personality dimensions. Extroversion refers to the degree to which people “search for novel experiences and social connections that allow them to interact with other humans as much as possible”. It makes sense then that variants of these genes have been found to be associated with “sensation seeking”, another dimension of personality. Sensation seeking is a “trait defined by the seeking of novel sensations, and the willingness to take physical, social, legal and financial risks for the sake of such experiences”. People with addictive behaviours also score high on this personality dimension. Though to say these are genes for an addictive personality is a bit like saying the genes for height are the basketball genes. While some people who are tall are good at basketball, not all tall people have the opportunity or desire to learn the game. Similarly, not everybody with variants of the dopamine genes associated with excessive behaviours develops problems with substance dependence or other addictive behaviours. Environment is also important. It’s likely that some people whose dopamine system is less efficient due to genetic variations get their dopamine fix through other activities such as car racing, snowboarding, surfing, sky diving and so on. And some people who develop a dependence on alcohol and other drugs do not have this genetic predisposition. They might develop problems due to a range of environmental influences such as trauma or social modelling of drug use. So while there are common factors associated with personality that predict addiction, there is no personality type that will cause someone to partake in excessive behaviours. Addiction has multiple causes and just chalking it up to someone’s personality probably isn’t very helpful in dealing with it. Article By: Mr. Stephen Bright (Senior Lecturer of Addiction, Edith Cowan University) 6
  • 7. FRAMEWORK OF PERSONALITY 7 Iceberg Theory The Big 5 Model The Myers Briggs Type Indicators Psychoanalytic Theory
  • 8. 8
  • 9. ICEBERG THEORY (SIGMUND FREUD) The Conscious Mind: It contains all of the thoughts, memories, feelings, and wishes of which we are aware at any given moment. It is the aspect of our mental processing that we can think and talk about rationally. It also includes our memory, which is not always part of consciousness but can be retrieved easily and brought into awareness. The Preconscious Mind: It consists of anything that could potentially be brought into the conscious mind. The Unconscious Mind: It is a reservoir of feelings, thoughts, urges, and memories that are outside of our conscious awareness. The unconscious contains contents that are unacceptable or unpleasant, such as feelings of pain, anxiety, or conflict. 9
  • 10. 10
  • 11. PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY (SIGMUND FREUD) Id • The Id is the impulsive and unconscious part of our psyche which responds directly and immediately to basic urges, needs, and desires. The id is not affected by reality, logic or the everyday world, as it operates within the unconscious part of the mind. Ego • The ego develops to mediate between the unrealistic id and the external real world. It is the decision-making component of personality. • The ego operates according to the reality principle, working out realistic ways of satisfying the id’s demands. The ego considers social realities and norms, etiquette and rules in deciding how to behave. Super Ego • The superego consists of two systems: The Conscience and the Ideal Self. The conscience can punish the ego through causing feelings of guilt. The ideal self or ego ideal is an imaginary picture of how you ought to be, and represents career aspirations, how to treat other people, and how to behave as a member of society. • If the ego gives in to the id's demands, the superego may make the person feel bad through guilt. 11
  • 13. 13
  • 14. 14
  • 15. THE MYERS BRIGGS TYPE INDICATOR MBTI is a 100 question personality test that asks people how they usually feel or act in situations. Extraverted and Introverted (E or I): Extroverts gain energy by interacting with others & Introverts draw energy from spending time alone. Sensing and Intuitive (S or N): Sensors prefer concrete and factual information & Intuitive types use their imagination or wider patterns to interpret information. Thinking and Feeling (T or F): Thinkers make rational decisions based on logic & Feelers make empathetic decisions considering others’ needs. Judging and Perceiving (J or P): Judging types organize their life in a structured manner; perceiving types are more flexible and spontaneous. 15
  • 16. 16
  • 17. 17
  • 18. THE BIG FIVE MODEL The Big Five Model proposes that five basic dimensions underlie all others and encompass most of the significant variation in human personality: Openness: People who are high in this trait tend to be more adventurous and creative. People low in this trait are often much more traditional and may struggle with abstract thinking. Conscientiousness: It include high levels of thoughtfulness, good impulse control, and goal-directed behaviors. Highly conscientious people tend to be organized and mindful of details. They plan ahead, think about how their behavior affects others, and are mindful of deadlines. Extraversion: People who are high in extraversion are outgoing and tend to gain energy in social situations. People who are low in extraversion or introverted tend to be more reserved and have less energy to expend in social settings. Agreeableness: People who are high in agreeableness tend to be more cooperative while those low in this trait tend to be more competitive and sometimes even manipulative. Neuroticism: Neuroticism is a trait characterized by sadness, moodiness, and emotional instability. Individuals who are high in this trait tend to experience mood swings, anxiety, irritability, and sadness. Those low in this trait tend to be more stable and emotionally resilient. 18
  • 20. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS The study of the biological contributions to personality might be studied under three characteristics: Brain: The brain is one of the most important personality determinants. It is generally believed the father and the child adopt almost the same type of brain stimulation. Later, differences are the result of the environment in which the child has grown. Physical Factors: Physical characteristics includes, but are not limited to Height, Skin Tone, Weight, Hair Color or Beauty. These factors influence interactions with other people contributing to personality development. Heredity Factors: Heredity is perhaps the most important factor in determining personality as physical characteristics, gender, psychology and more are passed down through genes. 20
  • 21. SOCIAL FACTORS The society that we live in, the cultural environment that we face daily, the community that we get interacted to, all are included in social factors. Relationships, co-ordination, co-operation, interaction, environment in the family, organization, workplace etc. Socialization process is especially relevant to organizational behaviour because the process is not confined to early childhood but rather taking place throughout one's life. 21
  • 22. CULTURAL FACTORS Our personality formation are the culture in which we are raised, our early conditioning, the norms among our family, friends and social groups and other influences we experience. The culture largely determines attributes toward independence, aggression, competition, and cooperation. The personality of an individual to a marked extent is determined by the culture in which he or she is brought up. Example: A person reared in a western culture has a different personality from a person reared in our Indian culture. 22
  • 23. SITUATIONAL FACTORS An individual's personality, while generally stable and consistent, does change in different situations. They can be commonly observed when a person behaves contrastingly and exhibits different traits and characteristics. Knowledge, skills and language are obviously acquired and represent important modifications to behaviour. The different demands of different situations call forth different aspects of one's personality. 23
  • 24. INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR Individual behavior can be defined as a mix of responses to external and internal stimuli. It is the way a person reacts in different situations and the way someone expresses different emotions like anger, happiness, love, etc. Individual Behavior Framework The psychological theory studies the patterns of interaction between an individual and the environment. The theory is expressed using the formula: B = F(P,E) Where; B - Behavior, F - Behavior Function, P – Person and E - Environment around the person. Example: A well payed person who loses his job in recession may behave differently when unemployed. 24
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  • 26. CAUSES OF INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR Certain individual characteristics are responsible for the way a person behaves in daily life situations as well as reacts to any emergency situations. These characteristics are categorized as: Inherited Characteristics The features individuals acquire from their parents or from our forefathers are the inherited characteristics. In other words, the gifted features an individual possesses by birth is considered as inherited characteristics like the Color of a person’s eye, Religion/Race of a person, Shape of the nose, Shape of earlobes, etc… Learned Characteristics Nobody learns everything by birth. First our school is our home, then our society, followed by our educational institutions. The characteristics an individual acquires by observing, practicing and learning from others and the surroundings is known as learned characteristics. Perception: Result of different senses like feeling, hearing etc. Values: Influences perception of a situation, decision making process. Personality: Patterns of thinking, feeling, understanding and behaving. Attitude: Positive or negative attitude like expressing one’s thought. 26