Organizational Behavior Chapter 5


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  • Organizational Behavior Chapter 5

    1. 1. Chapter 5Understanding Perceptions and Attributionsq The Perceptual Process* (esp. Figure 3.1, p. 68)q Perceptual Selection*q Person Perception*q Perceptual Errors*q Attributions: Perceived Causes of Behavior*q Exercise: Truth or Consequences? 1
    2. 2. Perceptionq Definition: The process by which people select, organize, interpret, and respond to information from the world around them. s Perception (consciously and unconsciously) involves searching for, obtaining, and processing information in the mind in an attempt to make sense of the worldq Selection and organization often account for differences in interpretation/perception between individuals observing the same stimuli 2
    3. 3. Basic Elements in the Perceptual Process* (See Figure 3.1, page 68) Observation Environmental * Taste * Smell Stimuli * Hearing * Sight * TouchPerceptual Selection Perceptual* External factors Organization* Internal factors * Perceptual groupingInterpretation Response* Perceptual errors * Covert* Attributions * Overt 3
    4. 4. Concepts Manifest in the Princeton Caseq Selective Screening: the process by which people filter out most information so they can deal with the most important mattersq Perceptual Set: an expectation of a perception based on past experience with the same or similar objectsq Pollyanna Principle: the notion that pleasant stimuli are processed more efficiently and accurately than unpleasant stimuli; an effect of motivation on perceptionq Perceptual Grouping: tendency to form individual stimuli into a meaningful pattern by continuity, closure, proximity, or similarity 4
    5. 5. Person Perceptionq Definition: the process by which individuals attribute characteristics or traits to other people; closely related to attributionq Implicit personality theories: personal beliefs about the relationships among other’s physical characteristics, personality traits, and specific behaviorsq Impression Management: the attempt people make to manipulate or control the impressions others form about them 5
    6. 6. Common Perceptual Errorsq Perceptual defense: the tendency for people to protect themselves against ideas, objects, or situations that are threateningq Stereotyping: the tendency to assign attributes to someone solely on the basis of the category of people, of which that person is a memberq Halo effect: the process by which the perceiver evaluates another person solely on the basis of one attribute, either favorable or unfavorableq Projection: the tendency for people to see their own traits in othersq Expectancy effects: extent to which expectations bias how events, objects, and people are actually perceived s Self-fulfilling prophecy: expecting certain things to happen will shape the behavior of the perceiver in such a way that the expected is more likely to happen 6
    7. 7. Nature of the Attribution Process*q Definition: The ways in which people come to understand the causes of their own and others’ behaviorsq Most often an unconscious process (i.e., people are not normally aware of making attributions)q People are constantly attributing the behavior of themselves and others to either internal (i.e., personal) or external (i.e., situational) causes. 7
    8. 8. The Attribution ProcessAntecedents-- •Informationfactors internal •Beliefsto the perceiver •Motivation •Perceived externalAttributions made by the perceiver or internal causes of behavior •Behavior Consequences for the perceiver •Feelings •Expectations 8
    9. 9. Theory of Causal Attributions Consistency s Does person usually Ye Ye s behave this way in this situation? DistinctivenessExternal Attribution Does person behave Internal Attribution No (to person’s situation) Yes differently in different (to person’s disposition) situations? Consensus Ye s Do others behave No similarly in this situation? 9
    10. 10. Frequent Attribution Errors*q Fundamental Attribution Error = overestimating the personal causes for other’s behavior while underestimating the situational causesq Self-Serving Bias = attributing personal success to internal factors and personal failure to external factors 10