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Designing a Process that Works for Your Team
 

Designing a Process that Works for Your Team

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The best processes are those that encourage teams to naturally do the right things at the right times. Amazing processes like this don’t happen by accident; they are specifically designed to ...

The best processes are those that encourage teams to naturally do the right things at the right times. Amazing processes like this don’t happen by accident; they are specifically designed to encourage desirable behavior while discouraging harmful behaviour. By carefully choosing the process’s affordances -- practices or artifacts that direct our thinking toward a specific goal -- a team can tailor a process that makes success intuitive. The session will begin by presenting the core concepts behind affordence-driven process improvement before diving into a collaborative workshop. During the workshop teams will use information from the introduction to brainstorm practices that will help them promote those values, as you would in a team retrospective.

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    Designing a Process that Works for Your Team Designing a Process that Works for Your Team Presentation Transcript

    • Affordance-Driven Process ImprovementDesigning a Process that Works for Your Team Ariadna Font Michael Keeling @quicola @michaelkeeling
    • Workshop Agenda•  The Theory of Affordances•  Affordance-Driven Process Improvement•  Workshop Time! FYI -- We’ll spend about the last hour hands-on 2
    • Goals for this Workshop1.  Unlock your mind so you can identify affordances in your team’s process2.  Practice affordance-driven improvement in a retrospective simulation3.  Map typical team behaviors to common agile practices 3
    • Warning 4
    • THE  THEORY  OF   AFFORDANCES   5
    • You’ve seen these concepts before…•  Software Architects•  Object Designers•  User Experience Experts•  Kanban Experts•  Agile Coaches•  “Systems Thinkers” 6
    • Goal:    Design  an  object  that  makes  it  feel  natural  and  easy     to  do  the  right  thing.   7
    • What is an affordance?  An  affordance  is  any  perceivable   element,  such  as  an  object  or  idea,   that  directs  a  person’s  thinking   toward  a  specific  set  of  acAons.  J.  J.  Gibson,  The  Ecological  Approach  to  Visual  Percep:on.  Psychology  Press,  1986.  Donald  Norman,  The  Design  of  Everyday  Things.  Basic  Books,  1998   8
    • What is an affordance?  An  affordance  is  any  perceivable   element,  such  as  an  object  or  idea,   that  directs  a  person’s  thinking   toward  a  specific  set  of  acAons.  J.  J.  Gibson,  The  Ecological  Approach  to  Visual  Percep:on.  Psychology  Press,  1986.  Donald  Norman,  The  Design  of  Everyday  Things.  Basic  Books,  1998   9
    • The  Dutch  Airport  Problem   10
    • 11
    • 12
    • The Urinal Fly “It improves the aim. If a man sees a fly, he aims at it. Fly-in-urinal research found that etchings reduce spillage by 80%. It gives a guy something to think about. That’s a perfect example of process control.” Robert  Krulwhich,  “There’s  a  Fly  in  my  Urinal”   hJp://www.npr.org/templates/story/ story.php?storyId=121310977   13
    • Good Affordance..Bad AffordancePush   Pull   Good  Affordance   14
    • Bad  Affordance   15
    • Gary  Larson  The  Far  Side   16
    • 17
    • 18
    • 19
    • QualiAes  vs.  FuncAonality   20
    • Example: Blend a Drink•  Functions –  Prepare the blender –  Blend –  Clean the blender•  Qualities –  Countertop-ability –  Clean-ability –  Transportability Galvao and Sato, “Affordances in Product Architecture: Linking Technical Functions and Users’ Tasks” Proceedings of IDETC/CIE 2005 21
    • 22
    • Portable…   but  noisy.   Motorcycle  Gas  Engine   ThroJle   23
    • Application to Software Process•  Example Process Functions –  Write software, test software, release software•  Example Process Qualities –  Plan-ability –  Performance –  Predictability –  Reliability –  Changeability –  Estimate-ability –  Quality –  Harmony 24
    • AFFORDANCE-­‐DRIVEN  PROCESS  IMPROVEMENT   25
    • Goal:    Design  a  process  that   makes  it  natural  and  easy     to  do  the  right  thing.   26
    • Affordance-Driven Change•  Observe and Evaluate Behaviors –  What is your team doing? –  Positive, Negative, Neutral•  Identify Affordances –  What nudged your team’s behavior?•  Alter Affordances –  Change the negative affordances, keep the positive ones 27
    • Affordance-Driven ChangeObserve  Behaviors   Evaluate   Behaviors   IdenAfy   Affordances   Alter   Affordances   28
    • Affordance-Driven ChangeObserve   What  is  your  Behaviors   team  doing?   Evaluate     Behaviors   How  do   IdenAfy   they  act?   Affordances   Alter   Affordances   29
    • Affordance-Driven ChangeObserve   Is  this  the  behavior  Behaviors   you  want?   Evaluate     Behaviors   PosiAve   IdenAfy   NegaAve   Affordances   Neutral   Alter   Affordances   30
    • Affordance-Driven ChangeObserve  Behaviors   What  nudged   your  team  to  act   Evaluate   Behaviors   the  way  the  did?       IdenAfy   Affordances   Alter   Affordances   31
    • Affordance-Driven ChangeObserve  Behaviors   Keep  the  good   Evaluate   affordances,   Behaviors   change  the  bad   IdenAfy   affordances   Affordances   Alter   Affordances   32
    • Example: Team Square Root ObservaAons:    Arguments  about  tasking    Team  over-­‐commiang    Resist  giving  up  tasks  Michael  Keeling,  “Process  Affordances:  Ignore  at  your  own  Peril”  hJp://neverletdown.net/2009/03/process-­‐affordances-­‐ignore-­‐at-­‐your-­‐own-­‐peril/   33
    • Values: Baseline for Evaluating Behavior As  a  team  we  valued    Predictability    Adaptability    Respect    Open  CommunicaAon   34
    • Evaluate Behaviors ObservaAons:  + –      Arguments  about  tasking   –    Team  over-­‐commiang   –    Resist  giving  up  tasks   35
    • Identify AffordancesReflecAng  on  our  pracAces…    “Milestone  Owners”          Nudge:  Aatude  of  lone  responsibility    No  backlog          Nudge:    Anxiety  over  future  tasks   36
    • Alter AffordancesCreated  a  backlog    Abolished  “Owners”    New  burndown  chart  –  show    progress  against  commitments   37
    • Team Values: Evaluating Behaviors “Qualities your team values”•  Examples: –  courage –  scalability –  predictability –  responsibility –  sustainability –  feedback –  face-to-face –  improvability communication –  measurability 38
    • Examples of Good Affordances•  Iterative planning, light documentation –  Nudge: changeability•  Pair programming –  Nudge: knowledge sharing, performance, quality 39
    • Examples of Bad Affordances•  Large planning buffers –  Nudge: procrastination•  Developer Branches –  Nudge: solitary development 40
    • LET’S  PRACTICE!   41
    • What is an affordance?  An  affordance  is  any  perceivable   element,  such  as  an  object  or  idea,   that  directs  a  person’s  thinking   toward  a  specific  set  of  acAons.  J.  J.  Gibson,  The  Ecological  Approach  to  Visual  Percep:on.  Psychology  Press,  1986.  Donald  Norman,  The  Design  of  Everyday  Things.  Basic  Books,  1998   42
    • Goals for this Workshop1.  Unlock your mind so you can identify affordances in your team’s process2.  Practice affordance-driven improvement in a retrospective simulation3.  Map typical team behaviors to common agile practices 43
    • Ground Rules•  When your team is ready to move on, have somebody wear the party hat•  Manage your time, watch the clock!•  Raise your hand if you have a question•  Have fun! 44
    • Workshop Agenda1.  Establish context, agree on team values2.  Evaluate behaviors3.  Identify affordances nudging your team4.  Propose changes to your team’s practices5.  Finish posters and share findings6.  Wrap-up 45
    • QualiAes  your   “team”  values  Summary  of  pracAces   nudge  your  team’s   behavior  AcAon  items  –  how  to   change  behavior?   46
    • Establishing Context – 2 min•  Task: Introduce yourselves to one another –  Briefly share some interesting facts about yourself and your role(s) at work•  Context: –  You are now a team, working together to build a new awesome piece of software. –  You’ve gathered together for a team retrospective…. 47
    • Get your packageSend  one  team  member  to  the  front   to  retrieve  workshop  materials.   48
    • Agree on Team Qualities – 5 min•  Task: Agree on the 3 – 5 core qualities you value most as a team. –  Annotate worksheet and add to poster•  Goal: You are going to focus on these through the workshop and use them to evaluate behaviors and determine what improvements to pursue first. 49
    • 50
    • QualiAes  your   “team”  values  Start  populaAng  your  poster!   Start     51
    • Affordance-Driven Change Observe   Behaviors   Evaluate   Behaviors   IdenAfy   Affordances   Alter   Affordances   52
    • Evaluate Behaviors – 10 min•  Task: Decide whether your team’s behaviors (Blue Cards) are positive, neutral, or negative relative to your values.•  Goal: Learn to observe and analyze team behaviors in your work environment. 53
    • 54
    • Affordance-Driven Change Observe   Behaviors   Evaluate   Behaviors   IdenAfy   Affordances   Alter   Affordances   55
    • 56
    • Identify Affordances – 15 min•  Task: Map practices to negative behaviors. What affordances nudged your team? –  Try the “5 Whys” technique –  If there is no practice in your deck that you think leads to this bad behavior, use one of the wildcards•  Goal: Have a handful of patterns like this on your poster <Practice> nudges <Behavior> because ____ 57
    • QualiAes  your   “team”  values   Summary  of  pracAces   nudge  your  team’s   behavior  Don’t  forget  your  poster!   Start     58
    • Affordance-Driven Change Observe   Behaviors   Evaluate   Behaviors   IdenAfy   Affordances   Alter   Affordances   59
    • Propose Key Changes – 10 min•  Task: Create 2 or 3 action items for your team and document why you think they will get rid of the negative behavior•  Goal: Add or remove affordances to your team’s process. Turn the undesired behaviors into desired ones. Practice P(Bad Behavior) è Practice P’ Ø / Good Behavior 60
    • Example…Free dinner nudges developers to stay late…Change the Free Dinner affordanceFree breakfast – nudge developers to come to work early, not waiting for a signal to mark the end of the day 61
    • Propose Key Changes – 10 min•  Task: Create 2 or 3 action items for your team and document why you think they will get rid of the negative behavior•  Goal: Add or remove affordances to your team’s process. Turn the undesired behaviors into desired ones. Practice P(Bad Behavior) è Practice P’ (Ø / Good Behavior) 62
    • QualiAes  your   “team”  values  Summary  of  pracAces   nudge  your  team’s   behavior  AcAon  items  –  how  to   change  behavior?   63
    • Share your findings! – 15 min•  Task: Share your poster!•  Goal: Tell a story so that others can learn from your thinking process•  Reflection –  Any surprises in you practice/behavior map? –  What can you take back to your team? 64
    • WRAP-­‐UP   65
    • Goals for this Workshop1.  Unlock your mind so you can identify affordances in your team’s process2.  Practice affordance-driven improvement in a retrospective simulation3.  Map typical team behaviors to common agile practices 66
    • Practices vs. Affordances? We simplified things a little for the simulation… The world is not this simple.Affordances can be subtle, tricky to identify. 67
    • Tools for Retrospectives•  Identify valued team qualities•  “Like to Like” game –  Create your own behaviors and practices card decks•  Affordance Awareness –  It’s not your fault! 68
    • “A  bad  system  will  beat  a  good  person  every  Ame.”   -­‐  W.  Edwards  Deming   69
    • Go  forth  and  design   GREAT  systems!     70
    • Thank you!Michael Keeling Ariadna Font@michaelkeeling @quicolahttp://neverletdown.net http://ariadna.font.cat/ 71
    • References•  Robert Krulwhich, “There’s a Fly in my Urinal” http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=121310977•  Donald Norman, The Design of Everyday Things. Basic Books, 1988•  J. J. Gibson, The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception. Psychology Press, 1986.•  Galvao and Sato, “Affordances in Product Architecture: Linking Technical Functions and Users’ Tasks” Proceedings of IDETC/CIE 2005•  Michael Keeling, “Identifying Process Affordances: Nudging Toward Change” http://neverletdown.net/2010/03/identifying-process-affordances- nudging-toward-change/•  Michael Keeling, “Process Affordances: Ignore at your own Peril” http://neverletdown.net/2009/03/process-affordances-ignore-at-your- own-peril/ 72