Affordance-Driven    Process ImprovementDesigning a Process that Works for Your Team  Ariadna Font             Michael Kee...
Workshop Agenda•  The Theory of Affordances•  Affordance-Driven Process Improvement•  Workshop Time!                     F...
Goals for this Workshop1.  Unlock your mind so you can identify    affordances in your team’s process2.  Practice affordan...
Warning          4
THE	  THEORY	  OF	   AFFORDANCES	                        5
You’ve seen these concepts before…•    Software Architects•    Object Designers•    User Experience Experts•    Kanban Exp...
Goal:	  	  Design	  an	  object	  that	  makes	  it	  feel	  natural	  and	  easy	  	      to	  do	  the	  right	  thing.	...
What is an affordance?   	  An	  affordance	  is	  any	  perceivable	    element,	  such	  as	  an	  object	  or	  idea,	  ...
What is an affordance?   	  An	  affordance	  is	  any	  perceivable	    element,	  such	  as	  an	  object	  or	  idea,	  ...
The	  Dutch	  Airport	  Problem	                                       10
11
12
The Urinal Fly                             “It improves the aim. If a                             man sees a fly, he aims ...
Good Affordance..Bad AffordancePush	                    Pull	         Good	  Affordance	           14
Bad	  Affordance	            15
Gary	  Larson	  The	  Far	  Side	            16
17
18
19
QualiAes	  vs.	  FuncAonality	                                        20
Example: Blend a Drink•  Functions  –  Prepare the blender  –  Blend  –  Clean the blender•  Qualities  –  Countertop-abil...
22
Portable…	   but	  noisy.	                       Motorcycle	  Gas	  Engine	      ThroJle	                                 ...
Application to Software Process•  Example Process Functions  –  Write software, test software, release software•  Example ...
AFFORDANCE-­‐DRIVEN	  PROCESS	  IMPROVEMENT	                           25
Goal:	  	  Design	  a	  process	  that	   makes	  it	  natural	  and	  easy	  	     to	  do	  the	  right	  thing.	       ...
Affordance-Driven Change•  Observe and Evaluate Behaviors  –  What is your team doing?  –  Positive, Negative, Neutral•  I...
Affordance-Driven ChangeObserve	  Behaviors	    Evaluate	    Behaviors	      IdenAfy	      Affordances	         Alter	     ...
Affordance-Driven ChangeObserve	               What	  is	  your	  Behaviors	                          team	  doing?	    Ev...
Affordance-Driven ChangeObserve	               Is	  this	  the	  behavior	  Behaviors	                     you	  want?	   ...
Affordance-Driven ChangeObserve	  Behaviors	               What	  nudged	                          your	  team	  to	  act	...
Affordance-Driven ChangeObserve	  Behaviors	             Keep	  the	  good	    Evaluate	             affordances,	    Behav...
Example: Team Square Root         ObservaAons:	              	  Arguments	  about	  tasking	              	  Team	  over-­...
Values: Baseline for Evaluating Behavior   As	  a	  team	  we	  valued	           	  Predictability	           	  Adaptabi...
Evaluate Behaviors ObservaAons:	  + –	   	   	  Arguments	  about	  tasking	    –	        	  Team	  over-­‐commiang	    –	...
Identify AffordancesReflecAng	  on	  our	  pracAces…	  	  “Milestone	  Owners”	  	  	  	  	  Nudge:	  Aatude	  of	  lone	  ...
Alter AffordancesCreated	  a	  backlog	  	  Abolished	  “Owners”	  	  New	  burndown	  chart	  –	  show	       	  progress...
Team Values: Evaluating Behaviors         “Qualities your team values”•  Examples:  –  courage          –  scalability  – ...
Examples of Good Affordances•  Iterative planning, light documentation  –  Nudge: changeability•  Pair programming  –  Nud...
Examples of Bad Affordances•  Large planning buffers  –  Nudge: procrastination•  Developer Branches  –  Nudge: solitary d...
LET’S	  PRACTICE!	                       41
What is an affordance?   	  An	  affordance	  is	  any	  perceivable	    element,	  such	  as	  an	  object	  or	  idea,	  ...
Goals for this Workshop1.  Unlock your mind so you can identify    affordances in your team’s process2.  Practice affordan...
Ground Rules•  When your team is ready to move on,   have somebody wear the party hat•  Manage your time, watch the clock!...
Workshop Agenda1.  Establish context, agree on team values2.  Evaluate behaviors3.  Identify affordances nudging your team...
QualiAes	  your	       “team”	  values	  Summary	  of	  pracAces	   nudge	  your	  team’s	       behavior	  AcAon	  items	...
Establishing Context – 2 min•  Task: Introduce yourselves to one another  –  Briefly share some interesting facts about yo...
Get your packageSend	  one	  team	  member	  to	  the	  front	    to	  retrieve	  workshop	  materials.	                  ...
Agree on Team Qualities – 5 min•  Task: Agree on the 3 – 5 core qualities   you value most as a team.  –  Annotate workshe...
50
QualiAes	  your	                                “team”	  values	  Start	  populaAng	  your	  poster!	           Start	  	 ...
Affordance-Driven Change    Observe	      Behaviors	        Evaluate	        Behaviors	          IdenAfy	          Affordan...
Evaluate Behaviors – 10 min•  Task: Decide whether your team’s   behaviors (Blue Cards) are positive,   neutral, or negati...
54
Affordance-Driven Change    Observe	      Behaviors	        Evaluate	        Behaviors	          IdenAfy	          Affordan...
56
Identify Affordances – 15 min•  Task: Map practices to negative behaviors.         What affordances nudged your team?  –  ...
QualiAes	  your	                                  “team”	  values	                              Summary	  of	  pracAces	  ...
Affordance-Driven Change    Observe	      Behaviors	        Evaluate	        Behaviors	          IdenAfy	          Affordan...
Propose Key Changes – 10 min•  Task: Create 2 or 3 action items for your team   and document why you think they will get r...
Example…Free dinner nudges developers to stay  late…Change the Free Dinner affordanceFree breakfast – nudge developers to ...
Propose Key Changes – 10 min•  Task: Create 2 or 3 action items for your team   and document why you think they will get r...
QualiAes	  your	       “team”	  values	  Summary	  of	  pracAces	   nudge	  your	  team’s	       behavior	  AcAon	  items	...
Share your findings! – 15 min•  Task: Share your poster!•  Goal: Tell a story so that others can learn   from your thinkin...
WRAP-­‐UP	              65
Goals for this Workshop1.  Unlock your mind so you can identify    affordances in your team’s process2.  Practice affordan...
Practices vs. Affordances? We simplified things a little for the simulation…        The world is not this simple.Affordanc...
Tools for Retrospectives•  Identify valued team qualities•  “Like to Like” game  –  Create your own behaviors and practice...
“A	  bad	  system	  will	  beat	  a	  good	  person	  every	  Ame.”	                     -­‐	  W.	  Edwards	  Deming	     ...
Go	  forth	  and	  design	   GREAT	  systems!	  	                                     70
Thank you!Michael Keeling           Ariadna Font@michaelkeeling           @quicolahttp://neverletdown.net   http://ariadna...
References•  Robert Krulwhich, “There’s a Fly in my Urinal”   http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=1213109...
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Designing a Process that Works for Your Team

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The best processes are those that encourage teams to naturally do the right things at the right times. Amazing processes like this don’t happen by accident; they are specifically designed to encourage desirable behavior while discouraging harmful behaviour. By carefully choosing the process’s affordances -- practices or artifacts that direct our thinking toward a specific goal -- a team can tailor a process that makes success intuitive. The session will begin by presenting the core concepts behind affordence-driven process improvement before diving into a collaborative workshop. During the workshop teams will use information from the introduction to brainstorm practices that will help them promote those values, as you would in a team retrospective.

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Designing a Process that Works for Your Team

  1. 1. Affordance-Driven Process ImprovementDesigning a Process that Works for Your Team Ariadna Font Michael Keeling @quicola @michaelkeeling
  2. 2. Workshop Agenda•  The Theory of Affordances•  Affordance-Driven Process Improvement•  Workshop Time! FYI -- We’ll spend about the last hour hands-on 2
  3. 3. Goals for this Workshop1.  Unlock your mind so you can identify affordances in your team’s process2.  Practice affordance-driven improvement in a retrospective simulation3.  Map typical team behaviors to common agile practices 3
  4. 4. Warning 4
  5. 5. THE  THEORY  OF   AFFORDANCES   5
  6. 6. You’ve seen these concepts before…•  Software Architects•  Object Designers•  User Experience Experts•  Kanban Experts•  Agile Coaches•  “Systems Thinkers” 6
  7. 7. Goal:    Design  an  object  that  makes  it  feel  natural  and  easy     to  do  the  right  thing.   7
  8. 8. What is an affordance?  An  affordance  is  any  perceivable   element,  such  as  an  object  or  idea,   that  directs  a  person’s  thinking   toward  a  specific  set  of  acAons.  J.  J.  Gibson,  The  Ecological  Approach  to  Visual  Percep:on.  Psychology  Press,  1986.  Donald  Norman,  The  Design  of  Everyday  Things.  Basic  Books,  1998   8
  9. 9. What is an affordance?  An  affordance  is  any  perceivable   element,  such  as  an  object  or  idea,   that  directs  a  person’s  thinking   toward  a  specific  set  of  acAons.  J.  J.  Gibson,  The  Ecological  Approach  to  Visual  Percep:on.  Psychology  Press,  1986.  Donald  Norman,  The  Design  of  Everyday  Things.  Basic  Books,  1998   9
  10. 10. The  Dutch  Airport  Problem   10
  11. 11. 11
  12. 12. 12
  13. 13. The Urinal Fly “It improves the aim. If a man sees a fly, he aims at it. Fly-in-urinal research found that etchings reduce spillage by 80%. It gives a guy something to think about. That’s a perfect example of process control.” Robert  Krulwhich,  “There’s  a  Fly  in  my  Urinal”   hJp://www.npr.org/templates/story/ story.php?storyId=121310977   13
  14. 14. Good Affordance..Bad AffordancePush   Pull   Good  Affordance   14
  15. 15. Bad  Affordance   15
  16. 16. Gary  Larson  The  Far  Side   16
  17. 17. 17
  18. 18. 18
  19. 19. 19
  20. 20. QualiAes  vs.  FuncAonality   20
  21. 21. Example: Blend a Drink•  Functions –  Prepare the blender –  Blend –  Clean the blender•  Qualities –  Countertop-ability –  Clean-ability –  Transportability Galvao and Sato, “Affordances in Product Architecture: Linking Technical Functions and Users’ Tasks” Proceedings of IDETC/CIE 2005 21
  22. 22. 22
  23. 23. Portable…   but  noisy.   Motorcycle  Gas  Engine   ThroJle   23
  24. 24. Application to Software Process•  Example Process Functions –  Write software, test software, release software•  Example Process Qualities –  Plan-ability –  Performance –  Predictability –  Reliability –  Changeability –  Estimate-ability –  Quality –  Harmony 24
  25. 25. AFFORDANCE-­‐DRIVEN  PROCESS  IMPROVEMENT   25
  26. 26. Goal:    Design  a  process  that   makes  it  natural  and  easy     to  do  the  right  thing.   26
  27. 27. Affordance-Driven Change•  Observe and Evaluate Behaviors –  What is your team doing? –  Positive, Negative, Neutral•  Identify Affordances –  What nudged your team’s behavior?•  Alter Affordances –  Change the negative affordances, keep the positive ones 27
  28. 28. Affordance-Driven ChangeObserve  Behaviors   Evaluate   Behaviors   IdenAfy   Affordances   Alter   Affordances   28
  29. 29. Affordance-Driven ChangeObserve   What  is  your  Behaviors   team  doing?   Evaluate     Behaviors   How  do   IdenAfy   they  act?   Affordances   Alter   Affordances   29
  30. 30. Affordance-Driven ChangeObserve   Is  this  the  behavior  Behaviors   you  want?   Evaluate     Behaviors   PosiAve   IdenAfy   NegaAve   Affordances   Neutral   Alter   Affordances   30
  31. 31. Affordance-Driven ChangeObserve  Behaviors   What  nudged   your  team  to  act   Evaluate   Behaviors   the  way  the  did?       IdenAfy   Affordances   Alter   Affordances   31
  32. 32. Affordance-Driven ChangeObserve  Behaviors   Keep  the  good   Evaluate   affordances,   Behaviors   change  the  bad   IdenAfy   affordances   Affordances   Alter   Affordances   32
  33. 33. Example: Team Square Root ObservaAons:    Arguments  about  tasking    Team  over-­‐commiang    Resist  giving  up  tasks  Michael  Keeling,  “Process  Affordances:  Ignore  at  your  own  Peril”  hJp://neverletdown.net/2009/03/process-­‐affordances-­‐ignore-­‐at-­‐your-­‐own-­‐peril/   33
  34. 34. Values: Baseline for Evaluating Behavior As  a  team  we  valued    Predictability    Adaptability    Respect    Open  CommunicaAon   34
  35. 35. Evaluate Behaviors ObservaAons:  + –      Arguments  about  tasking   –    Team  over-­‐commiang   –    Resist  giving  up  tasks   35
  36. 36. Identify AffordancesReflecAng  on  our  pracAces…    “Milestone  Owners”          Nudge:  Aatude  of  lone  responsibility    No  backlog          Nudge:    Anxiety  over  future  tasks   36
  37. 37. Alter AffordancesCreated  a  backlog    Abolished  “Owners”    New  burndown  chart  –  show    progress  against  commitments   37
  38. 38. Team Values: Evaluating Behaviors “Qualities your team values”•  Examples: –  courage –  scalability –  predictability –  responsibility –  sustainability –  feedback –  face-to-face –  improvability communication –  measurability 38
  39. 39. Examples of Good Affordances•  Iterative planning, light documentation –  Nudge: changeability•  Pair programming –  Nudge: knowledge sharing, performance, quality 39
  40. 40. Examples of Bad Affordances•  Large planning buffers –  Nudge: procrastination•  Developer Branches –  Nudge: solitary development 40
  41. 41. LET’S  PRACTICE!   41
  42. 42. What is an affordance?  An  affordance  is  any  perceivable   element,  such  as  an  object  or  idea,   that  directs  a  person’s  thinking   toward  a  specific  set  of  acAons.  J.  J.  Gibson,  The  Ecological  Approach  to  Visual  Percep:on.  Psychology  Press,  1986.  Donald  Norman,  The  Design  of  Everyday  Things.  Basic  Books,  1998   42
  43. 43. Goals for this Workshop1.  Unlock your mind so you can identify affordances in your team’s process2.  Practice affordance-driven improvement in a retrospective simulation3.  Map typical team behaviors to common agile practices 43
  44. 44. Ground Rules•  When your team is ready to move on, have somebody wear the party hat•  Manage your time, watch the clock!•  Raise your hand if you have a question•  Have fun! 44
  45. 45. Workshop Agenda1.  Establish context, agree on team values2.  Evaluate behaviors3.  Identify affordances nudging your team4.  Propose changes to your team’s practices5.  Finish posters and share findings6.  Wrap-up 45
  46. 46. QualiAes  your   “team”  values  Summary  of  pracAces   nudge  your  team’s   behavior  AcAon  items  –  how  to   change  behavior?   46
  47. 47. Establishing Context – 2 min•  Task: Introduce yourselves to one another –  Briefly share some interesting facts about yourself and your role(s) at work•  Context: –  You are now a team, working together to build a new awesome piece of software. –  You’ve gathered together for a team retrospective…. 47
  48. 48. Get your packageSend  one  team  member  to  the  front   to  retrieve  workshop  materials.   48
  49. 49. Agree on Team Qualities – 5 min•  Task: Agree on the 3 – 5 core qualities you value most as a team. –  Annotate worksheet and add to poster•  Goal: You are going to focus on these through the workshop and use them to evaluate behaviors and determine what improvements to pursue first. 49
  50. 50. 50
  51. 51. QualiAes  your   “team”  values  Start  populaAng  your  poster!   Start     51
  52. 52. Affordance-Driven Change Observe   Behaviors   Evaluate   Behaviors   IdenAfy   Affordances   Alter   Affordances   52
  53. 53. Evaluate Behaviors – 10 min•  Task: Decide whether your team’s behaviors (Blue Cards) are positive, neutral, or negative relative to your values.•  Goal: Learn to observe and analyze team behaviors in your work environment. 53
  54. 54. 54
  55. 55. Affordance-Driven Change Observe   Behaviors   Evaluate   Behaviors   IdenAfy   Affordances   Alter   Affordances   55
  56. 56. 56
  57. 57. Identify Affordances – 15 min•  Task: Map practices to negative behaviors. What affordances nudged your team? –  Try the “5 Whys” technique –  If there is no practice in your deck that you think leads to this bad behavior, use one of the wildcards•  Goal: Have a handful of patterns like this on your poster <Practice> nudges <Behavior> because ____ 57
  58. 58. QualiAes  your   “team”  values   Summary  of  pracAces   nudge  your  team’s   behavior  Don’t  forget  your  poster!   Start     58
  59. 59. Affordance-Driven Change Observe   Behaviors   Evaluate   Behaviors   IdenAfy   Affordances   Alter   Affordances   59
  60. 60. Propose Key Changes – 10 min•  Task: Create 2 or 3 action items for your team and document why you think they will get rid of the negative behavior•  Goal: Add or remove affordances to your team’s process. Turn the undesired behaviors into desired ones. Practice P(Bad Behavior) è Practice P’ Ø / Good Behavior 60
  61. 61. Example…Free dinner nudges developers to stay late…Change the Free Dinner affordanceFree breakfast – nudge developers to come to work early, not waiting for a signal to mark the end of the day 61
  62. 62. Propose Key Changes – 10 min•  Task: Create 2 or 3 action items for your team and document why you think they will get rid of the negative behavior•  Goal: Add or remove affordances to your team’s process. Turn the undesired behaviors into desired ones. Practice P(Bad Behavior) è Practice P’ (Ø / Good Behavior) 62
  63. 63. QualiAes  your   “team”  values  Summary  of  pracAces   nudge  your  team’s   behavior  AcAon  items  –  how  to   change  behavior?   63
  64. 64. Share your findings! – 15 min•  Task: Share your poster!•  Goal: Tell a story so that others can learn from your thinking process•  Reflection –  Any surprises in you practice/behavior map? –  What can you take back to your team? 64
  65. 65. WRAP-­‐UP   65
  66. 66. Goals for this Workshop1.  Unlock your mind so you can identify affordances in your team’s process2.  Practice affordance-driven improvement in a retrospective simulation3.  Map typical team behaviors to common agile practices 66
  67. 67. Practices vs. Affordances? We simplified things a little for the simulation… The world is not this simple.Affordances can be subtle, tricky to identify. 67
  68. 68. Tools for Retrospectives•  Identify valued team qualities•  “Like to Like” game –  Create your own behaviors and practices card decks•  Affordance Awareness –  It’s not your fault! 68
  69. 69. “A  bad  system  will  beat  a  good  person  every  Ame.”   -­‐  W.  Edwards  Deming   69
  70. 70. Go  forth  and  design   GREAT  systems!     70
  71. 71. Thank you!Michael Keeling Ariadna Font@michaelkeeling @quicolahttp://neverletdown.net http://ariadna.font.cat/ 71
  72. 72. References•  Robert Krulwhich, “There’s a Fly in my Urinal” http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=121310977•  Donald Norman, The Design of Everyday Things. Basic Books, 1988•  J. J. Gibson, The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception. Psychology Press, 1986.•  Galvao and Sato, “Affordances in Product Architecture: Linking Technical Functions and Users’ Tasks” Proceedings of IDETC/CIE 2005•  Michael Keeling, “Identifying Process Affordances: Nudging Toward Change” http://neverletdown.net/2010/03/identifying-process-affordances- nudging-toward-change/•  Michael Keeling, “Process Affordances: Ignore at your own Peril” http://neverletdown.net/2009/03/process-affordances-ignore-at-your- own-peril/ 72
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