Colonies experienced thisheavily centralisedsystem under British ruleCompromise thefounding fathers createdin 1787 after the failureof……this system created in1781 in fear of apowerful centralgovernment
Dual FederalismFederal – State relationship:Federal government wasrelatively small (only 3departments in 1790s) and waslimited mainly to war, moneyand peace.Focus on states’ rights. Statesexercised most political powerFederal and Stategovernments had distinctareas of responsibility
Presidents associated with DualFederalism: Guess who???A collection of lesser known presidents…but it’s not their fault - they didn’thave much to do!
Co-operativeFederalismFederal State relationship: theeffects of the Wall St crash andGreat Depression were huge,on a national scale. Federal andState governments cooperatedto solve the problems facing USSociety.• Employment• Poverty• Health• Education• Transport• National Securityin CategoricalGrantsIncrease in scope and power ofFederal government
Co-op Federalism era coincideswith four democratic presidentsFDR – responded with theNew Deal, raft of govtschemes promotingemployment, agricultureindustrial expansion and abuilding programme ofschools, roads, HEP, etcTruman –promoted FairDeal, passed lawsto stop racialdiscrimination andopposition tolynchingJFK – New Frontier:more money forhighways, raisefarmer’s wages,invest in science,tackle waterpollutionJohnson – GreatSociety – measuresto tackleemployment,health & educationin order to tacklepoverty and racerelations
New FederalismFederal - State relationship:whenever possible, power wasdevolved to the states• Reduction of federal governmenteconomic aid to states• Perception that New Deal andGreat Society had not been assuccessful as first thought• Belief that federal governmenthad failed to tackle social problemslike gun control, abortion, drugs,etc• Decisions made by mainlyRepublican appointed SupremeCourt limiting scope of federalgovernment (e.g. PlannedParenthood v Casey 1992)• Republicans dominated Congressand had many state governorsIn BlockGrantsDecentralisation and States’ Rightsare key buzzwords in US Politics.Why?
Associated with four RepublicanpresidentsNixon: Coined theterm and wantedto remover ‘redtape’ andpromoteentrepreneurshipReagan: Wanted a‘devolution revolution’.“Governments view of theeconomy could be summedup in a few short phrases: If itmoves, tax it. If it keepsmoving, regulate it. And if itstops moving, subsidize it.”Ford Bush SrAnd also aDemocrat (thoughhe was an exGovernor of aSouthern state…)“the era of biggovernment isover…” Clinton
Federalism underGeorge W Bush• The war in Iraq• Homeland security issues following the 9/11 attacks• The expansion of Medicare• The No child Left Behind Act passed by Congress in2001• The Wall Street and banking collapse in 2008You would expect a Republican to be keen on decentralisation - especially a formerTexas governor...However! That didn’thappen...Federal governmentspending grew at rateunseen since the 1960s!Whilst most Republicanpresidents arrived inWashington determined to cutbureaucracy, Bush increasedit.Why did this happen•••
Federalismunder BarackObama• The re-authorisation if the State Children’sHealth Insurance Programme in 2009• The expansion of Medicare• Higher education expenditure (e.g. PellGrants 2010)Whereas the Bush administration focused mainly onwar and terrorism, Obama is more clearly focusedon domestic policy.This has had a profoundeffect on the nature of therelationship betweenfederal government andthe states.War and security areexclusive federal powers,whereas domestic policyhas increasingly beendominated by the statessince 1960s.Why• Rate of state/local employees to federalemployees highest since New Deal• Fed govt aid to states up from 3.7% of GDP to4.7% in just over a year• Money from federal govt accounted for 30% ofstate spending in 2009 compared to 25% theyear before Heavily criticised byRepublicans Some in the ‘Tea Party’though he was more of aSocialist than a Federalist
Consequences of Federalism• Variations in state laws – e.g. age for compulsoryeducation and driving cars• Variation in penalties for law breaking from stateto state• Complexity of legal system – both national andstate courts• Each state has it own Constitution• State based elections (including frequency andnumber• Parties are decentralised and mainly state based• Regional diversity means considerations neededwhen appointing cabinet or choosing VP nominee