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Am Federalism

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Am Federalism

  1. 1. Federalism <ul><ul><li>Andrew Martin </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Quiz Answers
  3. 3. Quiz Answers <ul><li>1. False </li></ul>
  4. 4. Quiz Answers <ul><li>1. False </li></ul><ul><li>2. C </li></ul>
  5. 5. Quiz Answers <ul><li>1. False </li></ul><ul><li>2. C </li></ul><ul><li>3. D </li></ul>
  6. 6. Quiz Answers <ul><li>1. False </li></ul><ul><li>2. C </li></ul><ul><li>3. D </li></ul><ul><li>4. B </li></ul>
  7. 7. Quiz Answers <ul><li>1. False </li></ul><ul><li>2. C </li></ul><ul><li>3. D </li></ul><ul><li>4. B </li></ul><ul><li>5. C </li></ul>
  8. 8. What is Federalism? “ Look, the American people don’t want to be bossed around by federal bureaucrats. They want to be bossed around by state bureaucrats”
  9. 9. What is Federalism? <ul><li>Federalism is a system of government where power and authority is divided between a central government and regional subunit. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both exercise authority over citizens. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In the United States, the Constitution sets up the boundaries between federal and state governments. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. What is Federalism? <ul><li>This system creates layers of government, which are sometimes distinct and sometimes concurrent. </li></ul><ul><li>The alternative to this is a unitary system of government. </li></ul>From tour360.com
  11. 11. Why Federalism? <ul><li>Historical Reasons </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophical Reasons </li></ul><ul><li>Practical Reasons </li></ul>
  12. 12. Historical Reasons <ul><li>The colonies had been settled over a long period of time. </li></ul><ul><li>Settlers came from different cultural and legal traditions. </li></ul><ul><li>All had some history of self-government. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Historical Reasons From loc.gov From imustread.com
  14. 14. Philosophical Reasons Baron de Montesquieu
  15. 15. Philosophical Reasons James Madison
  16. 16. Philosophical Reasons From nodens.physics.ox.ac.uk From colorado.naturephotographers.net
  17. 17. Philosophical Reasons <ul><li>Madison borrowed this idea of separate branches and layers of government in Federalist no. 51 . </li></ul><ul><li>He argued that this would provide a “double security” for the rights of the people. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Practical Reasons <ul><li>Without some degree </li></ul><ul><li>of state authority, </li></ul><ul><li>some states would not </li></ul><ul><li>have ratified the </li></ul><ul><li>Constitution. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Practical Reasons <ul><li>Federalism provided a compromise position between advocates of a unitary system and “states’ rights.” </li></ul><ul><li>Still allowed for a strong federal government, but states retained some power. </li></ul>
  20. 20. American Federalism <ul><li>There has always been conflict over the division of power between the federal government and the states. </li></ul><ul><li>The manifestation of this conflict has often centered over which powers each should control. </li></ul>
  21. 21. American Federalism
  22. 22. American Federalism <ul><li>Should the federal government belong in some of these areas or is it just too big to be effective? </li></ul>
  23. 23. American Federalism
  24. 24. American Federalism Pat Bagley, The Salt Lake Tribune
  25. 25. American Federalism <ul><li>Unfunded mandates occur when the national government imposes regulations on state and local governments without covering the costs. </li></ul>
  26. 26. American Federalism <ul><li>Should the federal government pay for all of these expenses? </li></ul>
  27. 27. Evolution of Federalism <ul><li>State-Centered Federalism </li></ul><ul><li>1787-1868 </li></ul>
  28. 28. Debate over Federal Power <ul><li>Those in favor of centralized or strong national government argue that the central government should be denied authority only when the Constitution clearly prohibits it from acting. </li></ul><ul><li>Those in favor of decentralized system of government viewed the Constitution as a compact among states that gives the central government very little authority. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Growth of Federal Power From www.law.harvard.edu
  30. 30. Growth of Federal Power <ul><li>McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Doctrine of Implied National Powers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doctrine of National Supremacy </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Growth of Federal Power <ul><li>Cohens v. Virginia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. Supreme Court can review decisions of state courts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gibbons v. Ogden </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broadly defined Congressional Power under the Commerce Clause </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Assertions of State Power <ul><li>Doctrine of Nullification </li></ul>
  33. 33. Assertions of State Power From www.wikipedia.org
  34. 34. Assertions of State Power <ul><li>Doctrine of Secession </li></ul>
  35. 35. From web.syr.edu
  36. 36. Civil War <ul><li>The Civil War ended the arguments in support of the Doctrines of Secession and Nullification </li></ul><ul><li>The Constitution was amended to limit the power of the states – specifically regarding the treatment of African-Americans. </li></ul><ul><li>13th abolished slavery </li></ul><ul><li>14th gives citizenship and equal rights to slaves </li></ul><ul><li>15th grants free slaves suffrage </li></ul>
  37. 37. Evolution of Federalism <ul><li>Dual Federalism </li></ul><ul><li>1868-1938 </li></ul>
  38. 38. Dual Federalism <ul><li>Views the Constitution as giving a limited list of powers to the national government, leaving the rest to sovereign states </li></ul>
  39. 39. Dual Federalism <ul><li>During this period, the national government narrowly interpreted its delegated powers and the states continued to decide most domestic policy issues </li></ul>
  40. 40. Industrial Revolution and Change From www.sustainability.murdoch.edu.au From webinstituteforteachers.org
  41. 41. Industrial Revolution and Change <ul><li>The federal government took a mostly hands off approach to economic regulation during this period with a few important exceptions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interstate Commerce Commission Act (1887) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sherman Anti-Trust Act (1890) </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Industrial Revolution and Change <ul><li>Some states also attempted to regulate big business during this time period. </li></ul><ul><li>This varied from state to state based on influence of business interests in the state legislature. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. West Virginia and coal companies; N. Carolina and child labor </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Industrial Revolution and Change <ul><li>The Supreme Court </li></ul><ul><li>and Regulation of Business </li></ul>
  44. 44. Industrial Revolution and Change <ul><li>US v. E.C. Knight Company (1895) </li></ul><ul><li>Hammer v. Dagenhart (1918) and Bailey v. Drexel Furniture Company (1922) </li></ul><ul><li>Lochner v. New York (1905) </li></ul>
  45. 45. Evolution of Federalism <ul><li>Cooperative Federalism </li></ul><ul><li>1938-1964 </li></ul>
  46. 46. Evolution of Federalism From www.dianasbakery.com The system was likened to a marbled cake in that “as the colors are mixed in a marble cake, so functions are mixed in the American federal system.”
  47. 47. Great Depression From library.thinkquest.org
  48. 48. New Deal and Change <ul><li>Supreme Court Hostility </li></ul><ul><li>to the New Deal </li></ul>
  49. 49. New Deal and Change From loc.gov
  50. 50. Evolution of Federalism <ul><li>Centralized or Creative </li></ul><ul><li>Federalism </li></ul><ul><li>1964-1980 </li></ul>
  51. 51. The Great Society Lyndon Johnson’s presidency marked a significant change in federal-state relations.
  52. 52. The Great Society <ul><li>Many of Johnson’s programs implemented as part of the “War on Poverty” involved cooperation between federal, state, and local governments. </li></ul>
  53. 53. Grants-in-Aid <ul><li>Federal funds given to state and local governments for specific purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>Have been utilized since the earliest days of the nation’s history. </li></ul><ul><li>Today grant-in-aid projects cost the federal government over $418 billion annually. </li></ul>
  54. 54. Grants-in-Aid
  55. 55. Grants-in-Aid
  56. 56. Types of Grants <ul><li>2 types of Categorical Grants: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Formula grants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Project grants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Block Grants </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Far more flexible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Recently, there has been a shift to greater use of Block Grants </li></ul>
  57. 57. Evolution of Federalism <ul><li>New Federalism </li></ul><ul><li>1980-? </li></ul>
  58. 58. New Federalism <ul><li>“ Government is not the solution to our problems; it is the problem” </li></ul>
  59. 59. New Federalism
  60. 60. Devolution <ul><li>The transfer of political and economic power to the states </li></ul>
  61. 61. Devolution
  62. 62. New Federalism and the Courts <ul><li>US v. Lopez (1995) </li></ul><ul><li>US v. Morrison (2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Printz v. US (1997) </li></ul>
  63. 63. New Federalism and the Courts <ul><li>Why did the Supreme Court </li></ul><ul><li>shift positions on </li></ul><ul><li>questions of federalism? </li></ul>

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