Safety procedures for the public railway transport <ul><li>Independent research about the readiness on Bulgarian State Railways for actions in crisis situations after the occurrence of train fires in Bulgaria and a European overview in the area of railway risk management. </li></ul><ul><li>Varujan Apelian </li></ul><ul><li>September 2008 </li></ul>
Antoaneta Todorova Valeria Jeleva Galina Ivanova Daniel Vichev Elena Halacheva Kalcho Stefanov Maya Masheva Rasho Rashev Stoyan Kovachev In memory of:
Measures taken by the Bulgarian state railways company after a series of train fires and nine tragically deceased Bulgarian citizens.
16 /08/2008 Carriage part of Express Train <ul><li>Green arrows – from the way they look it is not clear what they refer to or what are they pointing at. </li></ul><ul><li>Stickers with warnings about passenger security. The information is incomplete, and their appearance is also unsuitable. </li></ul><ul><li>Pictograms “Smoking not allowed” </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency brake. The system has existed before the incidents. There are no improvements after the incidents. </li></ul><ul><li>Railway company mobile phones working in the network of civil mobile provider. The question who will bear responsibility in case that during an emergency the network has no reception due to circumstances outside the mobile operator’s control is open. </li></ul>
17/09/2008 Carriage part of Cross Border Train <ul><li>Fire safety instructions written in Bulgarian with 3 seals but no pictures on them whatsoever considering that this is an international train and there are passengers unfamiliar with the Bulgarian language !? </li></ul><ul><li>The door to the sleeping-carriage is tied with a rope, maybe to ensure that no one can evacuate during an emergency !? </li></ul><ul><li>The door to the locomotive is not secured and can be opened while the train is in motion, maybe to be used as an emergency exit !? </li></ul>
10/09/2008 Carriage part of Fast Train <ul><li>Fire safety instructions. </li></ul><ul><li>Unlocked door of an electricity panel. It is possible for cigarette stumps to be thrown in(a possible cause considered by Bulgarian State Railway company for the fire in the Plovdiv-Sofia train) and it is also easier for passenger to tamper with it. </li></ul><ul><li>During the train departure on the place where the fire extinguisher was supposed to be there wasn’t any (due to technical problems the photograph is not published) </li></ul>
Competency of the Bulgarian State Railways employees <ul><li>Answers received from the train staff when asked about the safety procedures and the actions that must be taken by the passengers during emergencies. </li></ul><ul><li>“ You don’t need to worry, the train has everything!” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Just make sure you escape, don’t worry in every carriage there is a fire extinguisher, I have checked them personally.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ There are fire extinguishers in the train…whoever wants can go extinguish fires!” </li></ul><ul><li>No explanations about emergency exits, locations of the fire extinguishers, emergency brakes, fire safety instructions and others. </li></ul>
The railway company “has no money”… 5500 X = CO 2 or smoke detector price 12 Euros rail company car costing 65 000 Euros
Security directors of Bulgarian State Railways Ivan Lalov Director of safety control and internal security until 24 th March 2008 Geno Genov Director of safety, control and internal security after 25 th March 2008.
Risk management in the railways Overviews of the good practices for risk control in the railways
Instructions for emergency release of the doors, emergency alarm and an intercom connection with the train personnel
Instructions for giving first aid to injured passengers
Stickers giving clear information about location of Emergency alarm Fire extinguisher Emergency exit
Information panel with useful advice about passenger security
Information sticker giving information about the location of the first aid box and emergency equipment, located at the first carriage in the train manager’s office. Information sticker with fire extinguisher location.
Emergency window (through a window) and instructions on how to use the emergency hammer to break the glass complete with illustrations.
Instructions for emergency release of train doors Instructions about safely using the train doors
Brochure with instructions the location of emergency equipment in the train board Brochure with procedures to be carried out during an emergency Location of the brochures (at the back of each seat)
Information panels located in station infrastructure
* Railway transport magazine issue 11/12 year 2007 ** ** three months before the first train fire <ul><li>... Luckily for us there are methods which can help us further out knowledge about the problems of railway safety and security. </li></ul><ul><li>Simulations and specific training which are not implemented in the Bulgarian railways system can help define the weaknesses of those responsible…* </li></ul>
Preparation for simulation of a train incident Cameras are mounted in the train with the purpose of capturing the actions during the simulation from many angles
Actors reconstituting various human behavior in crisis situations are hired to make the training more realistic
Specific attention is given to the coordination between the emergency party and the different institutions taking part in the operation. The doors are blocked with the purpose of simulating difficulties during evacuation and attaining better knowledge about what unforeseen events may occur. The crew on the right cuts the door with a special grinder.
The technical supply of the operation requires specialized vehicles, equipment and machinery. Media participation and public broadcasting are an essential part of the strategy for informing the public of the railway companies. The simulation is observed from three classes of students from the nearby school.
<ul><li>European experience with train fires </li></ul>
06/11/2002 Nancy (Paris-Vienna express) Midnight train fire in the sleeping compartments of carriage 261 of DB at 02.15 <ul><li>Facts: </li></ul><ul><li>There are passengers from 8 different nationalities, which make communication extremely difficult. </li></ul><ul><li>The train personnel include French and Germans. The fire and station crews are French. </li></ul><ul><li>The repaired and refitted in 1999 sleeping carriages, manufactured in 1960 property of DB apply to the European fire safety standards and are equipped with fire extinguishers. There was no smoke or CO2 detection systems in the train because of the smoking still allowed in the carriages. </li></ul><ul><li> “ The steward is the fire alarm ” - later said Hans Gustav Koch - one of the DB directors. </li></ul><ul><li>The German train driver does not know about what is going on in the train until the moment the train power is cut off. </li></ul>Cause: a luggage bag catches on fire from the “hot-plate” electrical appliance in the steward’ s compartment . The repercussions: 12 people dead- suffocated on the smoke and inhaled CO2.
06/11/2002 Nancy (Paris-Vienna express) Midnight train fire in the sleeping compartments of carriage 261 of DB at 02.15 <ul><li>Created are: </li></ul><ul><li>Seventeen recommendations concerned with emergency exits, security of electrical appliances and equipment, system for alarming the train crew in the case of fire and smoke, training of the crew for work in emergency situations, methods to close the doors, signalization of the passengers in case of emergency and other. </li></ul><ul><li>Actions taken: </li></ul><ul><li>After learning of the fire on board the train personnel decides to stop the train at Nancy station in order for the specialized equipment for the rescue operation to arrive. </li></ul><ul><li>The fire is reported by the station crew, who noticed smoke coming out of the carriages of the train while it was passing by Nancy station. The station signaler turns off the electrical overhead and the train comes to a stop 700 meters from the station. </li></ul><ul><li>The fire engulfs the carriage in less than 10 minutes. The blaze coming out the sides of the train are 2 meters high. </li></ul><ul><li>The first firemen crew arrives 9 minutes after the signal was made. Some of the passengers in the carriages are already dead from suffocating. Only nine passengers from the burning carriage manage to run away. </li></ul><ul><li>Nancy station is closed and first aid is administered to the passengers as well as blankets, food and warm drinks. </li></ul>
5/10/1999 Ladbroke Grove (Paddington) Massive fire supervene on train collision The repercussions: 31 people dead Created are: Big numbers of railway safety recommendations. Railway security and standardization commission. Survivors of the incident community with the purpose of making the level of railroad transport security higher . 28/11/2000. A large-scale simulation using carriages from the incident and over 100 volunteers. The analysis of this simulation gives vital information about improving the railway security.
<ul><li>Put the passengers </li></ul><ul><li>on the focus! </li></ul>