I tunnel per la mobilità in Italia


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I tunnel per la mobilità in Italia

  1. 1. SAFETY ASPECTS IN ITALIAN TUNNEL INFRASTRUCTURE Francesco Mauro Senior consultant for sustainability c/o URS Italia, Via Frattina, 35 00187 Rome, Italy
  2. 2. Italy: Country of tunnels <ul><li>Tunnels represent a distinctive component of the carefully manmade Italian landscape. </li></ul><ul><li>The art of tunnelling goes back to the ancient times of the Italian civilizations. </li></ul>
  3. 3. History of tunnels in Italy <ul><li>Etruscans (IX to III century BC) </li></ul><ul><li>Romans (753 BC to IV century AD) </li></ul><ul><li>Tunnels for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>urban streets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>inter-urban roads network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>drainage and irrigation systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>urban sewage collection systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fresh water aqueducts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>underground artificial lakes and swamps emissaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cryptoportica (artificial urban tunnels) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Restored by popes in late Middle Age, Renaissance, Baroque, and modern times </li></ul>
  4. 4. The epopee of rail (tunnel) building <ul><li>1839 1st railroad Naples-Portici </li></ul><ul><li>1864 the Porrettana line Bologna- Florence </li></ul><ul><li>1870 the Frejus tunnel Modane- Bardonecchia (13 km) </li></ul><ul><li>1906 the Simplon tunnel Brig- Domodossola (20 km) </li></ul><ul><li>1934 the direttissima Bologna- Florence </li></ul>
  5. 5. The autostrada tunnels <ul><li>1956-1964 Autostrada del Sole (Bologna-Florence) </li></ul><ul><li>1967 </li></ul><ul><li>Autostrada dei Fiori </li></ul><ul><li>Genoa-Leghorn </li></ul><ul><li>1984 </li></ul><ul><li>the Gran Sasso tunnel (10 km) & laboratory </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Physics Laboratory in the Gran Sasso Tunnel
  7. 7. Tunnels in Italy today: 4,000 km <ul><li>1,200 km for railways (vs. 105 to 750 km) </li></ul><ul><li>900 km for the various types of roads (vs. 30 to 370 ) </li></ul><ul><li>150 km for underground metropolitan railroads (more under construction) </li></ul><ul><li>the remaining for water works (including modern aqueducts) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Tunnels in Italy: protests and delays <ul><li>Bologna-Florence new TAV line (71/78 km) </li></ul><ul><li>Gran Sasso 3rd tunnel </li></ul><ul><li>Lyon-Turin TAV Val di Susa (53 km) </li></ul><ul><li>Brenner Base Tunnel (56 km) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Protest against the high speed train line
  10. 10. Tunnels in Italy: dichotomy <ul><li>preoccupation for the effects on the environment, questioning of the reasons for expanding and modernizing </li></ul><ul><li>evident advantages: for higher mobility, economic development, protection of the environment, sustainable development: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>necessary to built both TAV and underground metropolitan lines: shorter travel times and decrease of traffic congestion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>softer impact on landscape and terrestrial surface integrity </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. New tunnels for Italy (200 km already under construction) <ul><li>updating of traditional railroad lines (including Parma-LaSpezia) </li></ul><ul><li>completion of the TAV network (Bologna-Florence, Milan-Genoa “Terzo Valico” > Giovi 34 km, crossing of the major urban areas) </li></ul><ul><li>improvement of the expressway network (including the “Variante di Valico” Bologna-Florence, 24/40 km) </li></ul><ul><li>further underground metropolitan railways </li></ul><ul><li>530 km railroad tunnels programmed (> 400 km in project) by the Public Works Framework Law </li></ul>
  12. 12. Road tunnels safety (fire) <ul><li>2001 Frejus tunnel 19 injured </li></ul><ul><li>1999 Mont Blanc tunnel 39 victims </li></ul><ul><li>1996 near Palermo 5 victims </li></ul><ul><li>1983 Autostrada dei Fiori 9 victims </li></ul><ul><li>1965-1991 30 fires (13 promptly terminated) </li></ul><ul><li>1-2% fire as a cause of vehicle stopping in tunnels </li></ul><ul><li>85 tunnels longer than 1 km </li></ul>
  13. 13. Effects of road tunnels on safety (% in the toll expressway system) Incidence of tunnels in the network Accidents in tunnels in respect to total accidents Fatal accidents in tunnels in respect to total accidents
  14. 14. Road tunnels safety: actions in Alpine tunnels <ul><li>ventilation </li></ul><ul><li>transit control (speed limits, strict regulation about transport of dangerous substances) </li></ul><ul><li>fire fighting </li></ul><ul><li>illumination </li></ul><ul><li>fire shelter areas </li></ul><ul><li>traffic and smog video monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>emergency communications boxes </li></ul><ul><li>traditional and electronic fixed and variable signs </li></ul><ul><li>improved underground communication technologies </li></ul>
  15. 15. Safety: Research activities <ul><li>FITENEA ENEA, FIAT, Autostrade, Frejus C, etc, </li></ul><ul><li>SITI Consorzio TRAIN, CAT99 </li></ul>
  16. 16. Railroad tunnels safety <ul><li>Terrorist attacks: 1974 (12), </li></ul><ul><li> 1984 (17) Bologna-Florence </li></ul><ul><li>1,679 tunnels now: 2,000 </li></ul><ul><li>261 longer than 1 km 300 (1,050 km) </li></ul><ul><li>34 longer than 5 km </li></ul><ul><li>60% built before 1905 </li></ul><ul><li>25% built in 1905-1940 </li></ul><ul><li>being built longer than 5 km: </li></ul><ul><li>15 for traditional lines </li></ul><ul><li>7 for TAV lines </li></ul><ul><li>being built longer than 1 km: 36 (170 km) </li></ul><ul><li>being built all lengths: 85 </li></ul>
  17. 17. Railroad tunnels safety (fire): RFI improvements: <ul><li>fire detection in the train </li></ul><ul><li>fire detection in the tunnel (fire sensors) </li></ul><ul><li>automatic fire extinguishment in the train </li></ul><ul><li>fire shelter areas </li></ul><ul><li>automatic train stops in front of safety exits and escape routes </li></ul><ul><li>traveler information </li></ul>
  18. 18. Evolving regulatory framework: Road <ul><li>1973 CNR document </li></ul><ul><li>1988 ministerial decree for metropolitan railroads </li></ul><ul><li>1993 President of the Republic decree (1993), applying directive 89/106/CEE, concerning fire prevention in new construction products </li></ul><ul><li>1999 ministerial decree concerning vehicles transporting dangerous substances </li></ul><ul><li>2001 ministerial decree on road tunnel safety: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>inspection of the state of existing tunnels </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>adequate signaling of maintenance works in progress </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>updating of signals, visibility conditions, and ad hoc traffic limitation regulations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>updating of illumination systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>definition of an enhanced safety program and risk evaluation criteria </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>2003 ministerial decree: inter-ministerial (road and railroad) Technical Working Group: risk analysis </li></ul>
  19. 19. Evolving regulatory framework: Railroad <ul><li>ministerial decree: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>role of RFI confirmed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>responsible of the tunnel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>responsible of the tunnel safety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>independent experts for risk analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>collaboration with Protezione Civile </li></ul>
  20. 20. The Italian Decree <ul><li>Scopo del Decreto del Ministero delle Infrastrutture e dei Trasporti (elaborato dal Gruppo di lavoro tecnico per la redazione di norme per la sicurezza delle gallerie ferroviarie) è di assicurare un livello adeguato di sicurezza nelle gallerie ferroviarie mediante l’adozione di misure di prevenzione e protezione atte alla riduzione di situazioni critiche che possano mettere in pericolo la vita umana, l’ambiente e gli impianti della galleria, nonché mirate alla limitazione delle conseguenze in caso di incidente. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Evolving regulatory framework: Europe <ul><li>directive proposal (Italy approved) </li></ul><ul><li>UPTUN </li></ul><ul><li>FIT </li></ul><ul><li>International guidelines in preparation </li></ul>
  22. 22. Alpine Countries Working Group Position <ul><li>Italy, France, Austria and Germany have developed an alternative approach based on establishing safety objectives and defining consequent technical solutions according to the characteristics of each individual tunnel </li></ul>
  23. 23. Conclusion for Italy <ul><li>Technical aspects of tunnelling appear to be more than adequate </li></ul><ul><li>The economic, environmental, and social sustainability of tunnels should be thoroughly analyzed and transparently discussed </li></ul><ul><li>Further effort could be appreciated to improve maintenance and safety conditions of tunnels </li></ul><ul><li>The tradition and the expertise of such an important tunnelling country may deserves a renewed motivated effort </li></ul>