Chapter 2Pre-Writing and the Rhetorical          Situation          Academic Language Centre
How to begin writing a paper?• Setting the goal: expository essay• Topic: choose a particular world area for the  Introduc...
Developing your topic (1):Read actively (and efficiently):1.Read critically2.Look at the structure of the tekst3.Read the ...
Developing your topic (2):Take notes while you are reading, and include:Bibliographic informationSources, page numbersP...
Paraphrasing:• Find synonyms using a thesaurus• Find antonyms• Change the grammar (passive to active voice,  and vice vers...
More on register• Anglo-Saxon verbs are informal, and easy to  recognise (all are irregular)• Latinate words were introduc...
Types of peer feedback• Directive feedback, suggesting a specific  change• Praise, a positive description of something the...
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Ch 2 ac wr in e

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  • cf. p. 64
  • Sometimes it is so obvious to a university teacher that a student cannot possibly have written such a beautiful piece themelves, so try and google a sentence. – that ’s what students do ! Many universities have plagiarism detection programmes on a computer which highlight all the sentences and phrases that have been lifted from other sources, so the best strategy to use is the last one. They usually allow up to 10 %; between 10 and 20% is regarded as suspicious and students will be given a warning; more than 20% and students will be expelled straight away.
  • Ch 2 ac wr in e

    1. 1. Chapter 2Pre-Writing and the Rhetorical Situation Academic Language Centre
    2. 2. How to begin writing a paper?• Setting the goal: expository essay• Topic: choose a particular world area for the Introduction to Area Studies and the Areas course• Brainstorming: generating ideas, and then narrowing the topic to the specific perspective you would like to explore in your paper• Scope: the amount of detail will depend on the length of your paper and the knowledge of your audienceDo task 9, p. 63 Academic Language Centre
    3. 3. Developing your topic (1):Read actively (and efficiently):1.Read critically2.Look at the structure of the tekst3.Read the topic sentences4.Understand and interpret the author’s message5.Analyse how it relates to your topic6.Develop your own response to the author’smessageDo task 10, p. 65 Academic Language Centre
    4. 4. Developing your topic (2):Take notes while you are reading, and include:Bibliographic informationSources, page numbersParaphrase the author’s message, unless youwant to quote verbatimUse the chart on p. 67Do task 12, on p. 67; task 14 on p. 69; and task 21on p. 79. Academic Language Centre
    5. 5. Paraphrasing:• Find synonyms using a thesaurus• Find antonyms• Change the grammar (passive to active voice, and vice versa)However,a much better strategy is to write an outline with key and supporting points, put the original away, and write down what you have understood. Academic Language Centre
    6. 6. More on register• Anglo-Saxon verbs are informal, and easy to recognise (all are irregular)• Latinate words were introduced after 1066, when French was the language of the courts (royal and legal). This was therefore the formal language.Do task 22 on p. 82; task 23 on p. 83; task 26 on p. 85 (if time). Academic Language Centre
    7. 7. Types of peer feedback• Directive feedback, suggesting a specific change• Praise, a positive description of something the author has done well• Summary comments review main points of a text (organisation, clarity, etc.) Academic Language Centre

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