Students often see writing as a pproduct: they write one piece and consider tha tto be the final product. They may run a grammar and spelling check on a pc, but that is it. What students are usually familiar with is informal, spoken English. In the Netherlands, the distinction between formal and informal English is often not taught explicitly More on this later.
1. The chapters in this book are organised according to this linear process 2. For many writers, however, writing is not always such a structured, logical process: new ideas may come up during the writing process and need to be incorporated at a llater stage. The “ Developing your Textt” section at the end of each chapter takes this recursive model into account.
This depends on the kind of paper you are writing 3. This makes the paper circular in argument
A 2000-word expository essay is what the students will need to write during this course, so you may want to point out the Expository Essay Structure on p. 32 at this stage. NB. I think there is a mistake in task 10: it says “ exponential essay”, but I am pretty certain it should be “expository essay”
Before showing the next slide: The reliabillity of a scientific article is of crucial importance, and therefore the integrity of the author. Elicit issues such as plagiarism, scientific fraud, manipulating data, citation kartels – all of which have been in the news in recent times. Ask students what they think constitutes plagiarism, etc. If you have students from non-Western cultures, ask them what the attitude is like in their society
This is a plagiarised definition as no source is given ! Cf next slide.
Briefly . Point out to students that although Business Reports are not dealt with during this course, students may have to write one later during their studies, eg. while on work placements.
Informal language is probably what is most familiar to students. In some textbooks by Dutch publishers they even teach the contracted forms only ! In pairs, ask students to write down what the formal version would be for every bullet point, and give examples. Do not discuss yet.
In pairs, ask students to write down what the formal version would be for every bullet point, and give examples. Then show the next two slides and compare with what they have.
You may have to give examples of relative clauses, embedded sentenes, and inversion. Useful resource: Advanced language Practice (with key), by Michael Vince – or any other grammar book you like.
Students do not always realise what the differences are. Point out that if they use “Word” on a pc, it will automatically change the spelling to American English unless you reset it to British English.
Plus anything else that you may know of.
Ch 1 ac wr in e
Chapter 1Introduction to Academic Writing Academic Language Centre
Academic Writing is a complex task:As a student you need to learn two processessimultaneously:1.Writing is a process of drafting, writing, andrevising2.Academic writing requires the use of a formalregister. Academic Language Centre
Two Models for Writing:1. Writing as a linear process of pre-writing, drafting, revising, fine-tuning, editing and post-writing2. Writing as a recursive process of exploring, structuring, polishing and publishing, incubating and unloadingDo task 4b, p. 25 Academic Language Centre
Organisation of an academic paper:• Introduction, with a thesis statement, problem statement, research question or hypothesis• Main body, with arguments arranged in a logical order• Conclusion, which addresses the statement presented in the introduction• Do task 7, p. 29 Academic Language Centre
Purpose and audience in Academic Writing (1):• Expository essay: aims to explain a (new) body of knowledge to the reader, using facts and statistics in a logical order, with examplesDo task 10, p. 31• Argumentative essay: has a debatable topic, presents arguments for and against, takes a clear positionDo task 14, p. 37 Academic Language Centre
Purpose and audience in Academic Writing (2):• Scientific article: describes the results of the writer’s own research, critically reviews someone else’s research, or develops new theories on the basis of other people’s research.• Its organisation is based on the IMRD model: Introduction, Methodology, Research and Discussion Academic Language Centre
Avoiding plagiarismDefinition:Plagiarism is a form of intellectual dishonesty ortheft. When a person plagiarises he or she“steals” someone else’s words or ideas bypassing them off as their own. Academic Language Centre
That was plagiarism!The sentence on the previous slide was found in someone else’s text and not acknowledged as such. It was taken from: www.services.unimelb.edu.au/llsu Academic Language Centre
Purpose and audience in Academic Writing (3):• Investigative Business Reports present information and recommendation in report format (using headings). Academic Language Centre
Characteristics of informal writing• Short, simple sentences• Phrasal verbs (to carry out), colloquial and slang expressions• Simple linking words (and, or, so, but)• Informal punctuation: !, ?, • Contractions used (it’s, doesn’t)• Active voice (people say)• Personal tone, use of 1st person (I think) Academic Language Centre
Characteristics of informal writing• May not be clearly or logically organised (Oh, by the way, I forgot to mention)• Use of abbreviations (asap, fyi, etc.) Academic Language Centre
Characteristics of formal writing• Long, complex sentences (use relative clauses, embedded sentences, inversion)• One-word verbs of Greek or Latin origin (to conduct)• More sophisticated use of linking words and phrases (in addition to, alternatively, as a result, however, etc.)• Formal punctuation (e.g. including semi- colons) Academic Language Centre
Characteristics of formal writing• Full forms (does not, it is, etc.)• Passive voice (it is said)• Impersonal tone (in my opinion)• Clear organisation sign-posted by linking words; rephrasing of vocabulary items (use of synonyms / antonyms); clear referencing (this phenomenon, one of the reasons)• Words written out in full (as soon as possible, for your information) Academic Language Centre
British or American English? The need to be consistentBritish English: American English:• Differences in • fall, resumé vocabulary (autumn, curriculum vitae)• Differences is spelling • Program, center, color, (programme, centre, realize colour, realise, etc.) Academic Language Centre
Resources supporting academic vocabulary• www.academicvocabularyexercises.com• Academic Word List (AWL)• Lextutor• Phrasebankcf. p. 228Apps:Advanced Learners’ Dictionary (Audio)Chambers’ Thesaurus Academic Language Centre