Lecture 2 academic writing in english scrap

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Lecture 2 Academic Writing for International Studies

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Lecture 2 academic writing in english scrap

  1. 1. Academic Writing Lecture 2
  2. 2. Structure of this lecture• Some practicalities• What is “English”?• Discussion of Chapter 2 (Including some notes on plagiarism)• Discussion of Chapter 3 (including a discussion on introductions)
  3. 3. Presentations course- Wrapping up the Presentations course
  4. 4. The expository essayGoal: “to acquaint the reader with a body of knowledge” (book page 29).
  5. 5. Argumentative essay- Goal: “to show the reader that they have a valid argument” (book pg 33)
  6. 6. Deadlines revisited:• Introduction to Area Studies: 23 November, at 15.59, upload via Safe Assign.• Academic Writing: three paragraphs in week of 5 November (not mandatory, but highly recommendable). Hand in: hard copy AND upload in Blackboard• 17 December at 15.59, one hard copy in a box provided (we will tell you where); also upload in Blackboard.
  7. 7. What is English?Definition: English language noun an Indo-European language belonging to the West Germanic branch; the official language of Britain and the United States and most of the commonwealth countries [syn: English](Dictionary.com)
  8. 8. English as an official language(British Council)
  9. 9. SpeakersEnglish as a first language: approximations vary between 350 million and 400 millionEnglish as a second language: up to 375 million speakersEnglish as a foreign language: around 750 million speakers(According to the British Council)
  10. 10. Academic EnglishAlso: English for Academic Purposes (EAP):“refers to the language and associated practices that people need in order to undertake study or work in English medium higher education.”(http://www.uefap.com/bgnd/whatfram.htm)
  11. 11. A New type of English?- “International English” (EIL) (Seidlhofer 2003)- Refers to the international USE of English- Also: Lingua Franca (Gnutzmann 2000); global language (Crystal 1997); world language (Mair 2003), medium of intercultural communication (Meierkord 1996)
  12. 12. Chapter 2Pre-Writing and the Rhetorical Situation Academic Language Centre
  13. 13. How to begin writing a paper?- Setting the goal: expository essay- Topic: choose a particular world area for the Introduction to Area Studies and the Areas course- Brainstorming: generating ideas, and then narrowing the topic to the specific perspective you would like to explore in your paper- Scope: the amount of detail will depend on the length of your paper and the knowledge of your audienceDo task 9, p. 63 Academic Language Centre
  14. 14. Developing your topic (1):Read actively (and efficiently):1.Read critically2.Look at the structure of the tekst3.Read the topic sentences4.Understand and interpret the author’smessage5.Analyse how it relates to your topic6.Develop your own response to the author’smessageDo task 10, p. 65 Academic Language Centre
  15. 15. Developing your topic (2):Take notes while you are reading, and include:Bibliographic informationSources, page numbersParaphrase the author’s message, unlessyou want to quote verbatimUse the chart on p. 67Do task 12, on p. 67; task 14 on p. 69; andtask 21 on p. 79. Academic Language Centre
  16. 16. Paraphrasing:- Find synonyms using a thesaurus- Find antonyms- Change the grammar (passive to active voice, and vice versa)However,a much better strategy is to write an outline with key and supporting points, put the original away, and write down what you have understood. Academic Language Centre
  17. 17. Is this plagiarism (1)?Copying some of the work of one of your classmates without giving a reference YESExamples 1-7 in this lecture are heavily based on: Bailey, Stephen. Academic Writing, A Handbook for International Students. London and New York: Routledge, 2011. Print. (From page 32-33.)
  18. 18. Is this plagiarism (2)?Copying and pasting from a source, citing the source, but not using quotation marks YES
  19. 19. Is this plagiarism (3)?Copying from an essay you wrote earlier and which was marked by a tutor, and giving a reference to that essay NO
  20. 20. Is this plagiarism (4)?Copying and pasting from a source, changing a few words and giving a citation YES
  21. 21. Is this plagiarism (5)? Miss-spelling a citation YES
  22. 22. Is this plagiarism (6)?Using information that constitutes general knowledge, and not giving a citation NO But check to be sure
  23. 23. Is this plagiarism (7)?Discussing an issue (for example an essay topic) with a group of classmates and using other classmates ideas in your essay Usually no But take care!
  24. 24. More on register- Anglo-Saxon verbs are informal, and easy to recognise (all are irregular)- Latinate words were introduced after 1066, when French was the language of the courts (royal and legal). This was therefore the formal language.Do task 22 on p. 82; task 23 on p. 83; task 26 on p. 85 (if time). Academic Language Centre
  25. 25. Types of peer feedback- Directive feedback, suggesting a specific change- Praise, a positive description of something the author has done well- Summary comments review main points of a text (organisation, clarity, etc.) Academic Language Centre
  26. 26. Chapter 3Planning
  27. 27. Introduction:- gives the topic of the essay- gives (historical) background information- shows concession (although, despite)- may include a definition- may contain interesting statistics or an anecdote- usually ends with your thesis statement
  28. 28. How to begin?Strategies for “grabbing” the reader’s attention
  29. 29. Defining a word/phrase- Identify key term/phrase- Various definitions in the literature?- Define term/phrase as you will use it
  30. 30. Asking questions- Attract attention- Answer question(s)
  31. 31. Turn about- Introduce opposing idea, belief or opinion- Turn about with a “but” or “however”- Present your own point of view
  32. 32. Using an anecdote- Relevant?- Brief?- Illustrative?
  33. 33. Using quotations- Clear link with thesis?- Sums up your argument?- Illustrates your idea?
  34. 34. ReferenceSource:http://www.buowl.boun.edu.tr/students/the%20eThis website provides useful information.
  35. 35. Planning stage (1)The thesis statement:-is the guiding main idea or hypothesis-may very well be revised later on the basisof what you have read in order to minimiseor expand the scope of your paper-is generally the last sentence of yourintroductory paragraph expressing what youintend to prove / explain in your paper
  36. 36. Planning stage (2):The thesis statement may be:-a debatable statement (used inargumentative essays in which you try andpersuade the reader to your point of view).-a non-debatable statement (used inexpository and scientific articles in whichyou explain a situation based on facts).Do tasks 11 and 12 on pp. 100 - 101
  37. 37. Effective Thesis Statement:suggests your essay’s direction,emphasis and scopeWidely ridiculed as escape reading, romancenovels are becoming increasingly importantas a proving ground for many never-before-published writers and, more significantly, asshowcases for strong heroines.
  38. 38. Introduction: Organisation: from general to specific •Setting the scene: - Statements about the subject / background information - Attention grabber: question, quote, anecdote, example, staggering statistic, etc. •Thesis statement Do task 14, p. 103. Peer review of your introduction
  39. 39. The funnel method Sentence 1: broad, general statement Subsequent sentences: narrower scope, more focused. Thesis
  40. 40. Example paragraph 1- (1) Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone is a great story that develops around the legend of the Sorcerer’s Stone, a long sought after substance that would transform any metal into gold and bestow immortality. (2) In telling the story of the Sorcerer’s Stone, the novel also touches on many universal themes, such as overcoming difficulties, dealing with conflict, relating to authority and learning new ideas. (3) Choosing just three themes to analyze from Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone was a difficult task because so many themes are fully developed in the novel. (4) However, the three significant themes that I chose to explain from the Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone novel are the power of love, the importance of friendship, and courage on the hero’s journey. (source: http://academicenglishcafe.com/ModelEssay5.aspx)
  41. 41. Thesis statement (in bold)- (1) Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone is a great story that develops around the legend of the Sorcerer’s Stone, a long sought after substance that would transform any metal into gold and bestow immortality. (2) In telling the story of the Sorcerer’s Stone, the novel also touches on many universal themes, such as overcoming difficulties, dealing with conflict, relating to authority and learning new ideas. (3) Choosing just three themes to analyze from Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone was a difficult task because so many themes are fully developed in the novel. (4) However, the three significant themes that I chose to explain from the Harry Potter and the Sorcerer’s Stone novel are the power of love, the importance of friendship, and courage on the hero’s journey. (source: http://academicenglishcafe.com/ModelEssay5.aspx)
  42. 42. Example paragraph 2- (1) Assignment essays are developed from set questions that give students a period of time to research a topic and produce their answer with references to their sources of information. (2) While there are some disadvantages with using assignment essays as an assessment tool, there are sound educational purposes underpinning this practice. (3) This essay examines the reasons why assignment essays are beneficial for student learning and considers some of the problems with this method of assessment. (source: http://www.une.edu.au/tlc/aso/aso- online/academic-writing/sample-essay.php)
  43. 43. Thesis statement (in bold)- (1) Assignment essays are developed from set questions that give students a period of time to research a topic and produce their answer with references to their sources of information. (2) While there are some disadvantages with using assignment essays as an assessment tool, there are sound educational purposes underpinning this practice. (3) This essay examines the reasons why assignment essays are beneficial for student learning and considers some of the problems with this method of assessment. (source: http://www.une.edu.au/tlc/aso/aso- online/academic-writing/sample-essay.php)
  44. 44. Integrating sources:- Direct quotation “ ………. “- Author + reporting verb- According to (author), …….- Paraphrasing- SummarisingNB. Punctuation (cf. pp. 114-5)Do task 20, p. 110; task 23, p. 115; task 25, p. 117

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