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Crafting the research paper session 3


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Crafting the research paper session 3

  1. 1. WARM UP!Improving Sentences:Choose the best way to revise the underlined part of the sentence.Your choice should make the most effective sentence and express themeaning of the original sentence. If no revision is needed, choose (A).Anna Mary Robertson Moses sold her first painting and she wasseventy-seven years old at the time.(A)and she was seventy-seven years old at the time(B) at the age of seventy-seven years(C)at the time she was seventy-seven(D)upon the time she reached seventy-seven years(E) when she was seventy-seven
  2. 2. “GCA: Working to provide an exemplary individualized and engaging educational experience for all students “ CRAFTING A RESEARCH PAPER ENG 403A 11/29/12
  3. 3. GCA VISION: GCA students will emerge as confident leaders in the 21 st centuryglobal community through a holistic approach of rigorous academic standards, acommitment to individualized learning paths, and attention to the growth of eachstudent as a civic minded contributor both within their local communities andbeyond.GCA MISSION: Our mission is to provide an exemplary individualized andengaging educational experience for all students by incorporating school andcommunity/family partnerships coupled with a rigorous curriculum within a data-driven and student-centered instructional model. Student success will be measuredby valid & reliable assessment data, parent and student satisfaction, and continuedinstitutional growth within the academic community.
  4. 4. A LITTLE FUN BEFORE WE GET STARTED!Have you been to the library for your research? Ifnot, it might be fun to try it out!
  5. 5. TODAY WE WILL:• Review the assignment• Look at the structure of our paragraphs• Discuss how to draft and revise our paper• CCGPS: • ELACC9-10RI11, 12, 13, 16,17 • ELACC9-101, 2, 7, 8, 9 • ELACC9-104
  6. 6. REVIEWING THE ASSIGNMENT• Select a topic on an aspect of British literature. You have received a list of topics and a research question. Each topic connects a work of literature to the time and culture in which it was written. It is located in Doc Sharing or the announcements section.
  7. 7. PLANNING1. Review the assignment instructions and grading criteria thoroughly. Keep in mind that the research project is divided into three major components spread across three units.2. Choose a topic for your paper and submit 5.02.3. Conduct research to help you narrow and develop your topic. Use both print and online sources for your research.4. Cite at least four sources, at least one of which is a print source. Do not cite an encyclopedia, wikipedia, or Your final paper should be between 2-3 pages with an additional page for the Works Cited. This is a difference from the LMS!6. Complete the first assignment, Research Paper Planning Assignment, which includes writing a thesis statement and developing a formal outline. You will submit the completed plan for a grade (5.10)
  8. 8. DRAFTING1. Begin drafting your paper. Use your research notes to support your thesis.2. Write in standard formal English, and use the third person and the present tense. Your ideas should be expressed objectively and be supported with your research. Avoid sentences that begin with “I think” or “I feel.”3. Review the Checklist and Rubric. Your first draft will be graded against the checklist, so be sure that you have included everything that the checklist requires. Keep the rubric in mind as you draft because your final paper will be graded against the rubric.4. Continue to work on your draft, referring to your research materials. Then submit the first draft of your Research Paper after you have double-checked it against the checklist that follows in this document. (File transfer checklist)
  9. 9. FINALIZING1. • Revise your research paper. Use the feedback on the first draft you received from your teacher. Also consider feedback you may have received from your mentor or other readers.2. • The final paper will be graded against a rubric that assesses the essay in the following five categories: purpose and voice; ideas and content; structure and organization; language, word choice, and tone; and sentences and mechanics. The rubric appears at the end of this document. Keep the criteria listed on the rubric in mind as you revise your paper.3. • Proofread your research paper. Use the proofreading checklist as a guide. Be sure you review how to cite sources correctly, both within your paper and on the Works Cited page before you hand in your paper.4. • Make a final, clean copy of your Research Paper and submit it to your teacher.
  10. 10. WHAT IS DUE?• You should have submitted your Topic (5.02), your Planning (5.10), and your First Draft (7.01) already.• The Final Draft (8.03) is due next Wednesday, December 5th.
  11. 11. TIPS FOR EARNING A GOOD GRADE• There are a few important things to remember when working through a writing project: • ALWAYS read and work through all lessons in the LMS! • Check the rubric – and then follow it. • Check Doc Sharing for additional information. • Do NOT procrastinate! • Turn your work in on time. • Ask questions.
  12. 12. OVERALL RESEARCH PAPER• Your paper should contain all of these: • Purpose • Introduction, body, and conclusion • Thesis statement • Body paragraphs: facts and quotations • In-text citations and Works Cited page • Easy to follow organization • Appropriate, clear language • Consistent, serious tone • Varied sentence structures and beginnings • Length 2-3 pages, plus Works Cited
  13. 13. PARAGRAPH STRUCTURE• The Introduction • Think of the introduction as an inverted triangle. • The top is the hook. It might be a historical event or a scene from the authors life. It may tell a story or provide background information. This is the largest part. • The connecting idea, the middle section of your triangle, helps explain the hook and connects the hook to the thesis. It may bring in a second piece of information that links to the first. This takes up a little less room in the paragraph. • The thesis is the smallest section because it is narrowed down to one statement.
  14. 14. LOOK IN THE LMS FOR A MODEL RESEARCH PAPER:• In the Model Research Paper, the hook is a description of how England changed during the Industrial Revolution.• The middle of the introduction narrows from the broad statement about the Industrial Revolution to a more limited focus: the Romantics response to the Industrial Revolution.• The end of the introduction further restricts the boundaries of the paper to focus on• one Romantic: William Blake• one idea: the thesis statement based on Blakes poetic response to the Industrial Revolution
  15. 15. OUTLINED• Paragraph 1: Introduction (Use HABMAT)• Hook• Author• Background• A short summary• Thesis
  16. 16. If a British citizen had fallen asleep in 1750 and awakened in 1800, he or shewould have found upon arising a vastly different nation from the one in which theslumber began. Britain began the eighteenth century as a mainly agricultural societywith a small urban population. However, the Industrial Revolution, a period of economicgrowth in which the agrarian economy shifted to a machinepowered economy,created a fundamental change in the way people lived and worked. Inventions such asthe fly shuttle (1733), the water frame (1769), the steam engine (1769), the spinning jenny(1770), and the power loom (1783), along with an innovative method of refining iron byusing coal, transformed the textile and mining industries. New jobs and inventionsbrought people out of the English countryside and into the cities, such as London, insearch of work in textile mills and factories. The Industrial Revolution had many positiveeffects; for example, there were more jobs in industry than there were on farms, andcommunications and transportation became faster as new roads and canals were built(King 46). But industrialization also had negative consequences, and some of the artists,writers, and thinkers of the age commented on the less desirable outcomes, includingpoverty, disease, and child labor in their work.
  17. 17. CONTINUING THE PARAGRAPHS• Unity • A research paper should be unified and coherent. • A unified paper has the following characteristics. • Every paragraph supports the thesis of the paper. • Every sentence supports the main idea of the paragraph to which it belongs. • The paper does not contain unnecessary details.
  18. 18. CONTINUING THE PARAGRAPHS• Coherence • In a coherent paper, every sentence and paragraph flows naturally from what came before and into what comes afterward. • What does "flows naturally" mean? It means that the reader can see how each paragraph belongs in the place it occupies. The reader doesnt wonder, "Why is that here?" • To help achieve coherence, use transitions to link sentences, paragraphs, and ideas. When the connections between ideas are clear, the reader has an easier time understanding the content.
  19. 19. TRANSITIONS BETWEEN PARAGRAPHS• Transitions can • show chronological or spatial order • show cause and effect • signal comparisons and contrasts • join ideas or examples • File transfer handout on transition words…
  20. 20. USING YOUR OUTLINE AND NOTES• Think of your outline as a compressed version of your paper. • Turn every outline heading into approximately a paragraph. The most important headings may require more than one paragraph; the smallest headings may only require a sentence or two. • Arrange your subtopics in the same order in your paper as they are in the outline. • Use your notes to flesh out what you say about each subtopic.
  21. 21. IS YOUR DRAFT TURNING INTO A LONGER VERSION OF YOUR OUTLINE? IF SO, YOURE DOING IT RIGHT!• If you look back at your outline and dont recognize your paper in it, that means your draft is going off track. Regroup and get back on course.• Using the outline as your guide, see which passages in your paper are out of position and which passages do not come from the outline. Remove passages not from the outline that should be cut, unless theyre great new relevant ideas that youre adding.
  22. 22. BODY PARAGRAPHSIII. Paragraph 2: First Body Paragraph A. Topic sentence (what this paragraph will discuss, how it will prove your thesis) B. Context for the quote 1. Who says it? 2. What’s happening in the text when they say it? C. Quote from the text (cited appropriately) D. Analysis of the quote: How does it prove your thesis? E.Closing sentence (wrap up the paragraph to effectively transition to the next paragraph)
  23. 23. topic sentence: Blake’s concern for people who are unable toexperience nature is also evident in his poem “The Chimney-Sweeper.”example from text In fact, Blake wrote two poems by this same name—onein Songs of Innocence and the other in Songs of Experience. AnalysisPerhaps the chimney sweepers were much on the poet’s mind becausethey were prevalent in his London. In Blake’s era, homes and other buildingswere heated by fireplaces with chimneys, and the chimneys became filthyfrom smoke and soot. Context set-up for quote: Chimney sweepers climbedup chimneys to clean them. This dirty, dangerous job was an example of thechild labor practices that were common in England’s cities at the time. Verysmall boys, often between four and seven years of age, were the preferredchimney sweepers because they were agile enough to climb to the top.The boys’ impoverished parents sold them as apprentices for periods ofseven years, so they had no other choice of livelihood. Ackroyd paints astark picture of the chimney sweepers’ working conditions: quote The average size of these vents was something like seven inches square, and the small child was prodded or pushed…or scorched with fire to make them climb with more enthusiasm. Of course many died of suffocation, while others grew deformed; many others suffered from what were known as ‘sooty warts,’ or cancer…. Concluding sentenceChimney sweepers worked from before dawn till noon. At that hour, “theywere turned upon thestreets—all of them in rags…all of them unwashed,poor, hungry” (124).
  24. 24. FOCUS ON THE CONCLUSION• The conclusion is your chance to make a final impression. Its important to wrap up your ideas in a way that leaves the reader with something to remember and think about.• In your conclusion, be sure to restate your thesis in a new, fresh way. As you know from reading the Model Research Paper, the conclusion repeats the main idea that was present in the papers introduction, but it doesnt repeat the same words. By restating the thesis, you prompt your readers to think about your ideas after they have finished reading the paper.
  25. 25. APPROACHING THE CONCLUSION• To get started on your conclusion, reread your introduction and focus on your thesis statement.• Then skim your supporting paragraphs for the material that you think is most important in conveying your thesis.• Finally, reread the part of your formal outline that deals with the conclusion of the paper.• All of these aspects of your work can help give you ideas for your conclusion.
  26. 26. ELEMENTS OF A CONCLUSION• In addition to restating your thesis, consider using one or more of these strategies for concluding a research paper: • Elaborate on how the authors work fits into its historical context. • Make a generalization about the literary work having to do with the thesis. • Name specific works that you have discussed in your paper and link them to the thesis.
  27. 27. OUTLINEDI. Conclusion (You do not necessarily have to follow this order, but include the following): A. Restate your thesis B. Summarize your argument. C. Extend the argument. D. Show why the text is important.
  28. 28. CONCLUDING PARAGRAPH restate thesis: Blake’s vision of a strugglebetween industrialization and nature presents arealistic conflict in his society. Summarize argument Hisprotest against the Industrial Revolution results inpoems that are sometimes angry and sometimes filledwith pastoral beauty. Why it is important/extendargument The contrast between industrialization andnature provides him with material for some of the mostmemorable poems in British literature, such as“London,” the two poems titled “The Chimney-Sweeper,” and the “Jerusalem” hymn.
  29. 29. COMPLETING A DRAFT• Review the Research Paper Checklist and Rubric in the Research Paper Overview. Your first draft will be evaluated against the checklist. The rubric will be used to evaluate the final draft.• To receive full credit, include each item on the checklist in your draft.• Reread your outline. Have you included all the points from your outline in your draft? Did you adhere to your organizational structure?• Reread the feedback your teacher gave you for the Planning a Research Paper Assignment. Did you follow the advice you received?• Have you supported all of your assertions with evidence? If not, review your notes for evidence you can add.
  30. 30. YOUR PAPERS ORGANIZATION• Make sure your research paper includes an introduction, a body of supporting paragraphs, and a strong conclusion.• Double-check to see that your introduction includes a hook as well as a thesis statement.• Review your supporting paragraphs. Do they follow a logical organizational pattern?• Does your conclusion make a general statement that echoes your thesis? In your conclusion, reiterate your thesis in different language.• Notice your use of transitions. Although you havent begun revising yet, consider adding some transitions now.
  31. 31. CITATIONS• We use MLA formatting in English papers.• The citation rules are very exact, and must be done properly.• Depending on the type of resource you are citing, the rules change. In other words, you will cite differently for a web based article than you will for a print source.• The easiest way to look up the proper way to cite your sources is to use an MLA handbook. You can find an electronic one at The Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL)
  32. 32. CITATIONS: WHAT AND HOW TO CITE1. Use citations frequently. If you are unsure about whether a fact or idea requires a citation, cite it.2. Do not cite widely available facts such as the birth and death dates of an author or the date and place of a historical event.3. You will need to refer to Writing Resource: Citations as you draft. Remember that the key to in-text citations is clarity and conciseness.4. Note: If you mention the name of your sources author in the sentence containing the in-text citation, you dont have to repeat the name in that citation.5. Create a Works Cited page. The Works Cited listings contain more specific and detailed information than in- text citations.
  33. 33. INTERNAL CITATIONS• Internal or in-text citations appear within the main text of a research paper. When you read the Model Research Paper, you may have noticed notations in parentheses, such as (Kazin 179). These are internal citations. They appear immediately after items of information in the paper, and they tell the reader the source for the information.• Citations are crucial for avoiding plagiarism. If you place a citation after a piece of information, youre giving the author credit. If you dont use a citation there, youre taking credit or claiming that you are the source for the information. Thats plagiarism.
  34. 34. IN-TEXT CITATIONS: THE BASICS• The basic format is the authors last name and page number or numbers of the source inside parentheses. Do not write p. before the page number.• Example: (Smith 87)• If the source doesnt include an authors name--as may be the case for some magazine articles--use the title.• Example: ("New Blake Manuscript Found" 153)• Include the same information for both Internet and print sources. Include the authors name if available and the title if not, and the page number if available.
  35. 35. IN-TEXT CITATIONS: VARIATIONS• If you use two consecutive citations from the same source, the second citation includes the page number only.• First citation: (Jones 22)• Second citation: (23)• If the information in your passage came from two different places in the same source, list both page numbers, separated by a comma.• Same source, different pages: (Williams 17, 29)• If you gathered the information in your passage from two different sources, cite both sources within the same parentheses, separated by a comma.• Example: (Smith 96, Jones 105)
  37. 37. WORKS CITED PAGE• The Works Cited page is a list of all the sources that you cited in your paper. It only includes the sources you cited. If you read a source but did not cite it in the paper, do not list that source on the Works Cited page. • Works Cited entries include more facts than in-text citations. They give • the reader complete publication information for each source.
  38. 38. WHAT NEEDS TO BE INCLUDED?• Include all the necessary information for readers to be able to track down the source on their own. • Dont include extra information. For example, a Works Cited entry for a book doesnt include page numbers. • If a piece of information, such as an authors name or a publication city, is not available, just do without it and use the rest of the format. • Always state the medium: Print or Web. • Follow the required punctuation.
  39. 39. BUILDING THE WORKS CITED PAGE • 1. Begin a new page for the Works Cited list. • 2. Write the title "Works Cited," centered at the top of the page. • 3. Use "hanging indent" for the entries on the Works Cited page. That means that the first line of an entry begins at the left margin, and if the entry contains additional lines, theyre indented half an inch.
  40. 40. ALPHABETIZE THE LIST OF WORKS CITED• Use one and the same alphabetical sequence for all the sources on your list. In other words, dont make separate lists for print sources, Internet sources, books, articles, or other categories.• Alphabetize items that start with the authors name and items that start with the title on the same list. • Examples: Ackroyd, Peter. Blake. New York: Knopf, 1996. Print. Blake, William. "London." Songs of Experience. The English Romantics: Major Poetry and Critical Theory. Ed. John L. Mahoney. Lexington: Heath, 1978. 40. Print. Strange, Hannah. "Blakes Jerusalem Banned by Leading British Church." Times Online. 10 Apr 2008. Web. 7 May 2009.
  41. 41. SEQUENCE OF INFORMATION• The sequence of information in a Works Cited entry varies for different types of sources, but the rules are logical. • For printed books, include the authors name, title of the work, city of publication, name of publication, and date of publication. Name the medium—Print--at the end. • Other forms of entries are variations on that. • Use the exact punctuation shown on your Citation Guidelines page.
  42. 42. REVISINGRevising the Introduction• Recall that the introduction contains two parts: the hook and the thesis statement. The introduction must also connect those two parts.• Here are some tips for revising your introduction. • Reread the hook. Does it interest you? If not, consider using a different hook. • Reread the thesis statement. Is its meaning clear? If not, delete any unnecessary phrases and add phrases or details that clarify the idea. • Reread whats between the hook and the thesis statement. Make sure it explains how the two parts are related.
  43. 43. REVISINGRevising the Conclusion• The conclusion reminds the reader what he or she has learned. The way to do this is to restate the papers thesis. • If your conclusion doesnt restate your thesis, the solution is simple: Reread your introduction and make the same point in your conclusion. • The trick is to not let the conclusions restatement seem to simply repeat the introductions thesis statement. • If you have this problem, read the statement and the restatement together. Wherever they use identical or nearly identical phrases, change the wording in the conclusion. • Use a thesaurus or dictionary to find different words. And change the sentence structure by combining short sentences, breaking long ones in two, or changing the beginnings of sentences.
  44. 44. COMMON ORGANIZATIONAL PROBLEMSOrganizational problems in research papers may includethe following:• The paper lacks an introduction.• Some material in the introduction belongs in the supporting paragraphs.• Supporting paragraphs are arranged in an order that seems random or illogical.• Supporting paragraphs contain chunks of unnecessary or irrelevant material.• The paper lacks a conclusion.• Some material in the conclusion belongs in the supporting paragraphs.
  45. 45. HOW TO USE THE RUBRIC TO REVISE1. Work with one category at a time, such as Purpose andVoice or Ideas and Content.2. Read the highest-score box for that category.3. Reread the parts of your paper that relate to thecategory.4. Ask yourself whether your paper meets the highest-scorestandard.5. If your paper doesnt meet the highest-score standard,continue reading the scoring boxes to the right until youfind the box that best describes your paper.6. Compare the description in that box to the descriptionin the highest-score box. Now you know whatimprovement your paper needs.
  46. 46. SMALL REVISION PROBLEMS TO LOOK FOR • Your language is not formal. • Your tone is not serious. • Your voice is not objective and impersonal. • Your word choices are vague or imprecise. • You express personal opinions. • Your sentences are not varied in structure and beginnings. • Transitions are needed between sentences, paragraphs, or ideas. • Details need to be added or deleted.• When you discover such problems, take time to think of better alternatives. Use the dictionary and thesaurus for word choices. Return to your notes when you need to add details.
  47. 47. PROOFREADINGChecking Citations• Proofreading citations may be the most demanding kind of proofreading you will ever do as a student. As you know, each type of source has its own formatting requirements for citations. Whenever you proofread a citation, you must make sure of two things: • The information in the citation must be accurate. • The formatting of the citation must be accurate.
  48. 48. PROOFREADINGChecking Citation Content• For every citation, include each of the following elements, as applicable: • Titles • Spelling of authors names • Publication dates and other publishing information • Page numbers • Website information, including site and page titles; names of authors, editors, and sponsors; access information; and URL, if applicable • Designation of Print or Web• Check the accuracy of the information first. Then check the accuracy of your formatting.
  49. 49. PROOFREADINGChecking Citation Format • Check each of your citations against the Writing Resource: Citations page. All of the following must be correct each time: • Punctuation, such as when to use a period or comma • Use of italics or quotation marks for titles • Order of information, such as the authors name before the title • Completeness of information, such as when to include or not include page numbers • Spelling of all information • Parentheses for in-text citations • Alphabetization of the Works Cited page• The secret to writing perfect citations is this: Be extremely careful. Double-check everything.
  50. 50. MAKING A FINAL COPY OF YOUR PAPER• Now proofread your research paper. The task consists of (1) proofreading the text and (2) proofreading the citations. This is the last stage in the writing process!• You may prefer to proofread the entire text first and then go back to proofread the citations, or proofread both text and citations as you go along. Its up to you.
  51. 51. PEER MENTORING SESSION• Peer Mentor sessions are designed by students for students!• Often having another student explain a concept is just what you need to help understand it.• Each Peer Mentor Session has an advisor present to supervise and assist.• British Literature Sessions take place Monday and Thursday, 4:30-5 and they are already in your daily/weekly plan.• Attend the session and have the peer mentor help you with your thesis statement and outline. She is great!!!
  52. 52. QUESTIONS• If you have questions, please make sure you are reaching out to your teachers…. Do not wait until the end or stay frustrated • We are here to help you.