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  1. 1. Submitted by 2 members M.Phil Applied Linguistics
  2. 2.  To know about Motivation  Major components  Types  Process model of motivation  Learning motivation
  3. 3.  a reason or reasons for acting or behaving in a particular way.  Internal and external factors that stimulate desire and energy in people to be continually interested and committed to a job, role or subject, or to make an effort to attain a goal.
  4. 4. Activation involves the decision to initiate a behavior, such as enrolling in a psychology class. Persistence is the continued effort toward a goal even though obstacles may exist, such as taking more psychology courses in order to earn a degree. intensity can be seen in the concentration and vigor that goes into pursuing a goal. For example, one student might coast by without much effort, while another student will study regularly, participate in discussions and take advantage of research opportunities outside of class
  5. 5. Extrinsic motivation • are those that arise from outside of the individual and often involve rewards such as trophies, money, social recognition or praise. Intrinsic motivation • are those that arise from outside of the individual and often involve rewards such as trophies, money, social recognition or praise.
  6. 6.  Learner motivation is considered to affect the success of learning, not only in the case of second/foreign language instruction, but throughout all aspects of educational activities.
  7. 7. Pre-decisional phase • Intention formation (planning and goal-setting) Post-decisional phase • Intention implementation (concrete implementation of actions)
  8. 8.  The main assumption underlying our process- oriented approach is that motivation consists of several distinct phases.  . First it needs to be generated the motivational dimension related to this initial phase can be referred to as choice motivation, because the generated motivation leads to the selection of the goal or task to be pursued.
  9. 9.  Second, the generated motivation needs to be actively maintained and protected while the particular action lasts. This motivational dimension has been referred to as executive motivation, and it is particularly relevant to learning in classroom settings, where students are exposed to a great number of distracting influences, such as off-task thoughts, irrelevant distractions from others, anxiety about the tasks or physical conditions that make it difficult to complete the task.
  10. 10.  Finally, there is a third phase following the completion of the action termed motivational retrospection which concerns the learners‘ retrospective evaluation of how things went. The way students process their past experiences in this retrospective phase will determine the kind of activities they will be motivated to pursue in the future.
  12. 12.  The co-occurrence of mental illness and substance use disorders (termed “dual diagnosis”) represents a significant public health issue and is associated with significant impairment and negative health consequences, particularly among individuals with serious mental illness.
  13. 13.  Therefore, the current study sought to validate change language as an indicator of motivation among 45 individuals with serious mental illness and co-occurring substance use disorders .
  14. 14.  This disorder is associated with increased risk for suicide and increased social impairment .  Specifically, dually diagnosed clients seeking treatment for psychiatric problems are often not ready to seek treatment for their substance use, or do not recognize their substance use as needing to be addressed. This problem is enhanced in those with psychosis, who are often difficult to engage in treatment and who are at increased risk for dropout (Barrowclough, Haddock, Lowens, Allott, Earnshaw, Fitzsimmons, et al., 2007).
  15. 15.  A key factor underlying poor treatment outcomes among individuals with serious mental illness has been hypothesized to be low motivation (Barrowclough, Haddock, Fitzsimmons, & Johnson, 2006).
  16. 16.  In Motivational Enhancement Therapy, a personalized feedback component is integrated into the sessions.  Although Motivational Interviewing and Motivational Enhancement Therapy were initially used for addictive behaviors, they have spread rapidly as an effective non- prescriptive approach to enhancing motivation for behavior change with respect to a variety of health behaviors .
  17. 17. Four principles roll with resistance express empathy support self-efficacy develop discrepancy
  18. 18.  a Motivational Interviewing process model based on natural language indicators of clients’ intentions to change. As such, the codification of natural language is based on speech act theory (Schiffrin, 1994; Searle, 1969), which underscores the intentional function of certain utterances during conversation.
  19. 19.  1. Productive use of resources.  2. Increased efficiency and output.  3. Achievement of goals.  4. Development of friendly relationships.  5. Stability in workforce.