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  2. 2. Submitted to Mam Sabahat Submitted by Anum shahzadie Arifa khan
  3. 3. A brief history of language teaching  This chapter in briefly reviewing the history of language teaching method .From the historical perspective we are also able to see that we are prompted modern method innovation which were similar to major concern of discussion in language teaching “ how to teach foreign language”  Change in language teaching method throughout the history the change in the kind of proficiency such as move towards the oral proficiency rather than the reading comprehension the major goal of language study.
  4. 4. Conti…  It has been estimated60% people of the world are “ multilingualism” .Bilingualism or multilingualism are norms rather than exception. Today English widely use in all over the world but 500 years ago Latin was dominated language of education , commerce, religion and government in the western world.
  5. 5. In 16th century  English , French , Italian gained importance as a result of political change in Europe and Latin gradually became displaced as a language of spoken and written communication.
  6. 6. In the 16th , 17th , 18th century  In England were initially given a rigorous introduction to Latin grammar which was taught through rote learning of grammar rules, study of declensions and conjugation, translation and practice in writing sample sentences.  But the way of teaching Latin it was deadly experience for children.
  7. 7. • Roger Ascham • Montaigne In 16th century • Comenius • John Locke In 17th century
  8. 8. Conti…  They had specific proposal for curriculum change and for changes in the way Latin was taught.
  9. 9. In 18th century  As modern language began to enter curriculum of European school in the 18th century and they were with same procedure that used for teaching Latin.  Text book consisted of statements of abstract grammar rules. List of vocabulary and sentences for translate, speaking the foreign language was not a goal. Oral proficiency was limited to student reading aloud the sentences they had translated.
  10. 10. In 19th century  In the mid of !9th century a typical textbook thus consisted the chapter of lesson organized around grammar point. Each grammar point was listed rules on its use were explained and it was illustrated by sample sentence.  In 19th century textbooks complier were mainly determined to codify the foreign language in to frozen rules of morphology, syntax to be explained and eventually memorized. Many books during 19th century published those by Seidenstucker and ploz.
  11. 11. Conti…  He divide the text in to two parts carefully. one Giving the rules and necessary paradigms. second Giving French sentence translated into German and German sentences into French
  12. 12. The Grammar-Translation method  The Grammar-Translation method was first known in the United State as the Prussian method. An American classic teacher published in 1845 was title The Ciceronian or the Prussian method of Teaching the Elements of Latin Language.
  13. 13. Characteristics of it…  The Grammar-Translation is a way of studying language that approaches the language first through detailed analysis of its grammar rules , followed by application of this knowledge to the task of translating sentences and texts into and out of the target language. The first language is maintained as the reference system in the acquisition of second language.
  14. 14.  More focus on reading writing.  Vocabulary selection is based solely on the reading text used and word are taught trough bilingual word list, dictionary study and memorization.  The sentence is the basic unit of teaching and language practice. Translate the sentence in to targeted language.
  15. 15.  Accuracy is emphasized.  The Grammar-Translation taught deductively.  The student’s native language use for medium of instruction.  The Grammar-Translation dominated European and foreign language teaching from the 1840s to the 1940s. According to the Howartt (1984) it is worst excess for those who introduced that study of German of French no less rigorous as studied the classical language. That's why German translation courses remembered with distaste thousand of school learner.
  16. 16.  In mid of 19th century opposition to The Grammar- Translation method gradually developed in several European countries. This reform movement it was referred to the foundation for the development of new way of teaching language and raised controversies that have continued to the present day.
  17. 17. Language teaching innovation in the 19th century  The Frenchman C. Marcel referred to child learning as a model of language teaching, emphasized the importance of meaning in learning , proposed that reading be taught before other skills and try to locate language teaching within a broader educational framework.  The Englishman T . Prendergast was one of the first to record the observation that children use contextual and situational cues to interpret utterances and that they use memorized phrases and routines in speaking.
  18. 18. Conti…  The Frenchman F. Gouin developed an approach to teaching foreign language based on his observation of children use of language to accomplish events consisting of sequence related action.  Gouin’s emphasis on the need to present new teaching item in a context that makes their meaning clear and the use of gestures and action to convey the meaning of utterances are practices that later became part of such approaches and method as situational language teaching.
  19. 19. The reform Movement  The International Phonetics Alphabet was designed to enable the sound of any language to be accurately transcribed. It found in 1886.It advocated…  The study of spoken language  Phonetics training in order to establish good pronunciation habit.  The use of conversation text and dialogues.  Inductive approach to the teaching of grammar.  Teaching new meanings through establishing association within target language.
  20. 20. Conti…  Henry Sweet argued that sound methodological principles should be based on a scientific analysis of language and a study of psychology.  Book “The practical study of languages” he set 4th principles for the development of teaching method.
  21. 21. Conti… Careful selection what is to be taught. Imposing what is to be taught. Arranging what is to be taught. Grading material from simple to complex. 4 principles
  22. 22. Conti…  Vietor, Sweet and other reformers in the late 19th century shared many beliefs about principles…  The spoken language is important  The findings of phonetics should be applied to teaching and to teacher training.  Learner should hear the language first before seeing it I written form  Sentences should be practice in meaningful context.  Grammar should b taught inductively.  Translation should b avoided although native language could be used in order to explain new words.
  23. 23. The Direct Method  The Direct Method introduced it in France and Germany and it became widely known in the united state through it use by Sauveur and Maximilian Berlitz in successful commercial language school. Following principles are,  Classroom instruction was conducted exclusively in the target language.  Only everyday vocabulary and sentences were taught  Oral communication skill were built up  Grammar was taught inductively  New teaching points were introduced orally.  Concrete vocabulary was taught through demonstration, objects and pictures and abstract vocabulary taught by association of ideas  Both speech and listening comprehension were taught.  Correct pronunciation and grammar emphasized.
  24. 24. The method era  An approach method refers to a theoretically consistent set of teaching procedure and define best practice in language teaching.  Particular approaches and methods, it will lead to more effective levels of language learning than alternative ways of teaching.  If teacher use best approach the quality of language learning will approve.
  25. 25. Conti…  The most active period in the history of approaches and methods was from 1950s to the 1980s . The 1950s and 1960s the emergence of Audiolingual method and situational method. During the same period other two methods included the Silent Way , the Natural Approach and total physical Response.  In the 1990s Content Based Instruction and Task Based language Teaching emerged as a new approach to language.