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Computer Systems
Prepared By:
Amanda Nicole G. Potonia
BSN2A
COMPUTER HARDWARE
 Defined as all of the
physical components of
the machine itself.
 Basic hardware of a
computer includes the
electronic ...

Keyboard, mouse, printer, f
ax, and storage
components such as the
hard drive, Universal Serial
Bus (USB) drive, floppy
...
Keyboard
Mouse
Printer
Computer
 a machine that uses electronic
components and instructions to the
components to perform calculations and
repeti...
Computer Hardware
Fundamentals
1. Motherboard
 It is a thin, flat sheet made of a
firm, nonconducting material on
which the internal components–
printed...
 “Brains” of the computer
 Consists of at least one arithmetic
and logic unit, a control unit, and
memory.
 The arithme...
 The control unit carries out the
machine language functions called
fetch, execute, decode, and store.
 Memory includes ...
• Types of memory in the
Main Memory of a
Computer
1. ROM (Read Only Memory)
2. RAM (Random Access Memory)
Input Devices
 Keyboard
 Mouse
 Touch screen
 Light pen
 Voice
 Scanner
 Electrodes
Output Devices
 Text
 Data
 Files
 Sounds
 Graphics
 Signals
Forms of Output Devices
 Monitor
 Printer
Storage Media
 Hard Drive
 Diskettes
 CD-ROM
 USB Disk
Classes of Computers
 Analog Computer
 Digital Computer
 Hybrid Computer
Types of Computers
 Supercomputers
 Mainframes
 Microcomputers
 Handheld Computers
Common Hardware
Peripherals
 Keyboard
 Monitor
 Mouse
 Floppy Disks/Diskettes and CD-
ROMs
 Touch Pad and Mouse Button
 Light Pen/Touch Screen
...
 Voice Synthesizer
 Imaging
 Digital Versatile Disk
 Printers
 Modems
Basics of Computer
Network Hardware
Network
 a set of cooperative
interconnected computers for the
purpose of information
interchange.
 The networks of grea...
 a set of interconnected computers
that, through hardware and
software technology, work
cooperatively for the purpose of
...
e. Provision of a powerful
communication medium among
widely separated employees who
may use different computer platforms
...
Types of Networks
 Local Area Network (LAN) – is a
data network intended to serve a
single building or a group of
buildin...
 Wide Area Network (WAN) – is a
system of connected computers
spanning a large geographical area,
often a continent or co...
possible for users of any one of the
networks to communicate with or
use the services located on any of
the other networks.
Popular Search Engines:
 Altavista
 Yahoo!
 Google
 37.com
 Go2net
• Network Hardware
 role of hardware in a network is
to provide an interconnection
between computers.
 Two pieces:
a. Ne...
 the most important components
of network hardware are the
adapter or interface card, cabling,
and server.
 the most imp...
Computer software and
systems
Software
 is the general term applied to the
instructions that direct the
computer’s hardware to perform
work.
 It is di...
Why Software is needed?
 Computers do not directly
understand human language and
software is needed to translate
instruct...
Types of Software
 System Software
- “boots up”
- starts up and initiates the
computer system;
- controls input, output, ...
- Consists of variety of programs
that control the individual
computer and make the user’s
application programs work well
...
programs are running
together, “cleans up” the hard
drive so that the storage is
managed efficiently, and performs
other s...
 Application System
- includes the various programs
that users require to perform day-
to-day tasks.
- they are the progr...
Programming Languages
 a mean of communicating with the
computer.
 divided into five generations, or
sometimes into thre...
A. Machine Language
- True language of the computer.
- consists only of the binary numbers
1 and 0, representing the on an...
C. Third Generation Languages
- Include the procedural languages and
were the beginning of the second
level in programming...
D. Fourth Generation Languages
- Specialized application programs
that require more involvement of the
user in directing t...
E. Fifth Generation Languages
- Third level languages
- Natural Language
- In these types of programs, the user
tells the ...
Common Software Useful
to Nurses
 Chat Rooms
 Electronic Bulletin Boards
 Listservs
Computer Programming
 refers to the process of writing a
computer program, which is a
series of instructions written in a...
• Five Major Steps in
writing any computer
program:
1. Problem definition (functional
specifications)
2. Program design
3....
Computer Systems
 It is a complex entity, consisting
of an organized set of
interconnected components or
factors that fun...
System Theory
 provides the conceptual basis for
understanding complex entities
(“system”) that consist of multiple
inter...
System Elements
 Interdependent parts
 Input
 Process
 Output
 Control
 Feedback
Classification of System
 Closed Systems
 Open Systems
Open Source and Free
Software
Common Acronyms:
 OSS – Open Source System
 FS - Free Software
 FOSS – Free and Open Source
Software
 FLOSS – Free/Lib...
Free Software
 Free software is a matter of the
users’ freedom to run, copy,
distribute, study, change, and
improve the s...
2. The freedom to study how the
program works and adapt it to your
needs (freedom 1). Access to the
source code is a preco...
4. The freedom to improve the
program and release your
improvements to the public so that
the whole community benefits
(fr...
Open Source Software
 Open Source Software is any
software that satisfies the open
software initiative’s definition.
 It...
Common OSS/FS Licenses:
 GNU GPL (Recommended by FSF for most
software packages)
 GNU Lesser General Public License (GNU...
OSS/FS Healthcare
Applications
 OpenEHR
(http://www.openehr.org)
 FreeMED
(http://www.freemed.org)
 OpenEMR
(http://www...
Organizations and
Resources
 Open Source Health Care Alliance
(OSHCA) – oldest of the organizations
 National and Intern...
 International Medical Informatics
Association (IMIA) – established
an Open Source Health
Informatics
 Special Interest ...
Data Processing
 DATA – raw uninterrupted facts that
are without meaning.
 Database – an organized collection of
related data.
Sorting
C...
Types of Data
 Computer-Based Data Types –
Alphanumeric data include letters
and numbers in any combination.
However, the...
 Conceptual Data Types – reflect
how users view data. These can be
based on the source of the data. It
can also based on ...
Data Management Systems
 DBMs are computer programs
used to input, store, modify,
process, and access data in a
database....
Types of Files
1. Processing Files – Executable
files consists of a computer
program or set of instructions
that, when exe...
2. Data Files – contains data that
have been captured and stored on
a computer using a software
program.
Database Models
 A database system provides
access to both the data in the
database and to the
interrelationship within a...
Conceptual Models
 A conceptual model includes a
diagram and narrative description
of data elements, their attributes,
an...
Structural (Physical) Data
Models
 The physical data model includes
each of the data elements and the
relationship betwee...
1. Hierarchical Model – All access to
data starts at the top of the
hierarchy or at the root.
2. Network Model – Developed...
Data to Knowledge (D2K)
 Process of extracting
information and knowledge from
large-scale databases has been
referred to ...
 D2K uses powerful automated
approaches for the extraction of
hidden predictive information from
large databases. These a...
Six Phases:
1. Understanding the business
2. Understanding the data
3. Data preparation
4. Modeling
5. Evaluation
6. Deplo...
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  • Transcript of "Computer systems"

    1. 1. Computer Systems Prepared By: Amanda Nicole G. Potonia BSN2A
    2. 2. COMPUTER HARDWARE
    3. 3.  Defined as all of the physical components of the machine itself.  Basic hardware of a computer includes the electronic circuits, microchips and processors, and the motherboard.
    4. 4.  Keyboard, mouse, printer, f ax, and storage components such as the hard drive, Universal Serial Bus (USB) drive, floppy drives, tape drives.
    5. 5. Keyboard Mouse Printer
    6. 6. Computer  a machine that uses electronic components and instructions to the components to perform calculations and repetitive and complex procedures, process text, and manipulate data and signals.
    7. 7. Computer Hardware Fundamentals
    8. 8. 1. Motherboard  It is a thin, flat sheet made of a firm, nonconducting material on which the internal components– printed circuits, chips, slots of the computer are mounted.  It is made of a dialectric or nonconducting plastic material, and the electric conductions are etched or soldered onto the bottom of the board.
    9. 9.  “Brains” of the computer  Consists of at least one arithmetic and logic unit, a control unit, and memory.  The arithmetic and logic units control mathematical functions such as addition and subtraction and functions that test logic (boolean) conditions. 2. Central Processing Unit (CPU)
    10. 10.  The control unit carries out the machine language functions called fetch, execute, decode, and store.  Memory includes the locations of the computer’s internal or main working storage.  Memory consists of: A. Registers B. RAM (Random Access Memory) C. Cache
    11. 11. • Types of memory in the Main Memory of a Computer 1. ROM (Read Only Memory) 2. RAM (Random Access Memory)
    12. 12. Input Devices  Keyboard  Mouse  Touch screen  Light pen  Voice  Scanner  Electrodes
    13. 13. Output Devices  Text  Data  Files  Sounds  Graphics  Signals Forms of Output Devices  Monitor  Printer
    14. 14. Storage Media  Hard Drive  Diskettes  CD-ROM  USB Disk
    15. 15. Classes of Computers  Analog Computer  Digital Computer  Hybrid Computer
    16. 16. Types of Computers  Supercomputers  Mainframes  Microcomputers  Handheld Computers
    17. 17. Common Hardware Peripherals
    18. 18.  Keyboard  Monitor  Mouse  Floppy Disks/Diskettes and CD- ROMs  Touch Pad and Mouse Button  Light Pen/Touch Screen  Optical Character Recognition  Magnetic- Ink Character Recognition
    19. 19.  Voice Synthesizer  Imaging  Digital Versatile Disk  Printers  Modems
    20. 20. Basics of Computer Network Hardware
    21. 21. Network  a set of cooperative interconnected computers for the purpose of information interchange.  The networks of greatest interest include local area networks (LANs), wide area networks (WANs) , and the internet, which is a network of networks.
    22. 22.  a set of interconnected computers that, through hardware and software technology, work cooperatively for the purpose of information and application program interchange.  FUNCTIONS: a. File transfer b. Information Availability c. Resource Sharing d. Online Transactions
    23. 23. e. Provision of a powerful communication medium among widely separated employees who may use different computer platforms f. Interactive Environment g. Education and Entertainment h. E-mail
    24. 24. Types of Networks  Local Area Network (LAN) – is a data network intended to serve a single building or a group of buildings in close proximity to each other.  Physical wiring  “Hard wiring”
    25. 25.  Wide Area Network (WAN) – is a system of connected computers spanning a large geographical area, often a continent or country.  The Internet – is a network of networks. - is a collection of thousands of networks linked by a common set of technical protocols that make it
    26. 26. possible for users of any one of the networks to communicate with or use the services located on any of the other networks.
    27. 27. Popular Search Engines:  Altavista  Yahoo!  Google  37.com  Go2net
    28. 28. • Network Hardware  role of hardware in a network is to provide an interconnection between computers.  Two pieces: a. Network adapter or network interface card b. Communication Medium
    29. 29.  the most important components of network hardware are the adapter or interface card, cabling, and server.  the most important concepts in network hardware are architecture and topology.
    30. 30. Computer software and systems
    31. 31. Software  is the general term applied to the instructions that direct the computer’s hardware to perform work.  It is distinguished from hardware by its conceptual rather than physical nature.
    32. 32. Why Software is needed?  Computers do not directly understand human language and software is needed to translate instructions created in human language into machine language.  Packaged or stored software is needed to make the computer an economical work tool.
    33. 33. Types of Software  System Software - “boots up” - starts up and initiates the computer system; - controls input, output, storage; - controls the operations of the application software.
    34. 34. - Consists of variety of programs that control the individual computer and make the user’s application programs work well with the hardware. - - System software helps speed up the computer’s processing, expands the power of the computer by creating cache memory, reduces the amount of confusion when multiple
    35. 35. programs are running together, “cleans up” the hard drive so that the storage is managed efficiently, and performs other such system management tasks.
    36. 36.  Application System - includes the various programs that users require to perform day- to-day tasks. - they are the programs that support the actual work of the user.
    37. 37. Programming Languages  a mean of communicating with the computer.  divided into five generations, or sometimes into three levels. a. Machine Language b. Assembler Language c. Third Generation Languages d. Fourth Generation Languages e. Fifth Generation Languages
    38. 38. A. Machine Language - True language of the computer. - consists only of the binary numbers 1 and 0, representing the on and off electrical impulses. B. Assembler Language - Far more English-like language, but it is still very close to machine language.
    39. 39. C. Third Generation Languages - Include the procedural languages and were the beginning of the second level in programming languages. - Procedural languages require the programmer to specify both what the computer is to do and the procedure how to do it. - FORTRAN and COBOL are examples of early third generation languages.
    40. 40. D. Fourth Generation Languages - Specialized application programs that require more involvement of the user in directing the program to do the necessary work. - Procedural languages include programs such as spreadsheets, statistical analysis programs, and database query languages.
    41. 41. E. Fifth Generation Languages - Third level languages - Natural Language - In these types of programs, the user tells the machine what to do in the user’s own natural language or through use of a set of very English- like commands.
    42. 42. Common Software Useful to Nurses  Chat Rooms  Electronic Bulletin Boards  Listservs
    43. 43. Computer Programming  refers to the process of writing a computer program, which is a series of instructions written in a proper sequence to solve a specific problem.
    44. 44. • Five Major Steps in writing any computer program: 1. Problem definition (functional specifications) 2. Program design 3. Writing the code and program documentation 4. Alpha testing 5. Beta testing and program documentation
    45. 45. Computer Systems  It is a complex entity, consisting of an organized set of interconnected components or factors that function together as a unit to accomplish results that one part alone could not.
    46. 46. System Theory  provides the conceptual basis for understanding complex entities (“system”) that consist of multiple interrelated parts working together to achieve .
    47. 47. System Elements  Interdependent parts  Input  Process  Output  Control  Feedback
    48. 48. Classification of System  Closed Systems  Open Systems
    49. 49. Open Source and Free Software
    50. 50. Common Acronyms:  OSS – Open Source System  FS - Free Software  FOSS – Free and Open Source Software  FLOSS – Free/Libre/Open Source Software  GNU – GNU is Not a Unix project
    51. 51. Free Software  Free software is a matter of the users’ freedom to run, copy, distribute, study, change, and improve the software.  Four kinds of freedom for the users of the software: 1. The freedom to run the program for any purpose (freedom 0)
    52. 52. 2. The freedom to study how the program works and adapt it to your needs (freedom 1). Access to the source code is a precondition for this 3. The freedom to redistribute copies so you can help your neighbor (freedom 2)
    53. 53. 4. The freedom to improve the program and release your improvements to the public so that the whole community benefits (freedom 3). Access to the source code is a precondition for this  A program is free software if users have all of these freedoms.
    54. 54. Open Source Software  Open Source Software is any software that satisfies the open software initiative’s definition.  It’s concept is said to promote software reliability and quality by supporting independent peer review and rapid evolution of source code, as well as making the source code of software freely available.
    55. 55. Common OSS/FS Licenses:  GNU GPL (Recommended by FSF for most software packages)  GNU Lesser General Public License (GNU LGPL)  X11 License  Modified BSD License  W3C Software Notice and License  MySQL database license  Apache License, version 1.0  GNU Free Documentation
    56. 56. OSS/FS Healthcare Applications  OpenEHR (http://www.openehr.org)  FreeMED (http://www.freemed.org)  OpenEMR (http://www.openemr.net)  CARE2X (http://www.care2x.com)
    57. 57. Organizations and Resources  Open Source Health Care Alliance (OSHCA) – oldest of the organizations  National and International Health Informatics Organizations – awoken late to the need to consider the potential impact of OSS/FS.
    58. 58.  International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) – established an Open Source Health Informatics  Special Interest Group in Nursing Informatics of IMIA (IMIA-NI) – first nursing or NI organization to establish a group dealing with OSS/FS issues.
    59. 59. Data Processing
    60. 60.  DATA – raw uninterrupted facts that are without meaning.  Database – an organized collection of related data. Sorting Classifying Summarizing Calculating
    61. 61. Types of Data  Computer-Based Data Types – Alphanumeric data include letters and numbers in any combination. However, the numbers in an alphanumeric field cannot perform numeric function. Ex: Social Security Number
    62. 62.  Conceptual Data Types – reflect how users view data. These can be based on the source of the data. It can also based on the event that the data are attempting to capture.
    63. 63. Data Management Systems  DBMs are computer programs used to input, store, modify, process, and access data in a database.  Database system design – process of configuring the database software.
    64. 64. Types of Files 1. Processing Files – Executable files consists of a computer program or set of instructions that, when executed, causes the computer to open or start a specific computer program or function. These are the files that tell a computer what actions the computer should perform when running a program.
    65. 65. 2. Data Files – contains data that have been captured and stored on a computer using a software program.
    66. 66. Database Models  A database system provides access to both the data in the database and to the interrelationship within and between the various data elements.  It has 3 views: users’ view, logical view and physical view.
    67. 67. Conceptual Models  A conceptual model includes a diagram and narrative description of data elements, their attributes, and the relationships between the data.  Example: one-to-one relationship, one-to-many-relationship
    68. 68. Structural (Physical) Data Models  The physical data model includes each of the data elements and the relationship between the data elements as they will be physically stored on the computer.  There are 4 primary approaches to the development of a physical data model: hierarchical, network, relational, a nd object-oriented.
    69. 69. 1. Hierarchical Model – All access to data starts at the top of the hierarchy or at the root. 2. Network Model – Developed from hierarchical models. 3. Relational Database Model – Consist of a series of files set up as tables. 4. Object- Oriented Model – It was developed because the relational model has a limited ability to deal with binary large objects or BLOB.
    70. 70. Data to Knowledge (D2K)  Process of extracting information and knowledge from large-scale databases has been referred to as knowledge discovery and data mining (KDD) or D2K applications.
    71. 71.  D2K uses powerful automated approaches for the extraction of hidden predictive information from large databases. These approaches make it possible to automate the prediction of trends and patterns as well as the discovery of previously unknown trends.
    72. 72. Six Phases: 1. Understanding the business 2. Understanding the data 3. Data preparation 4. Modeling 5. Evaluation 6. Deployment
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