Subject - MatterIntroductionBackgroundArchitecture of “Android”Versions & ConfigurationFeatures & UsesComparision with Other Operating SystemConclusionBiblography
IntroductIonA software platform and operating system for mobiledevicesPowered by Linux operating systemDeveloped by Google and later the Open HandsetAlliance (OHA)It utilizes ARM ProcessorsARM stands for ADVANCED RISC MACHINE.Where
Mobile Operators Handset Manufacturers OHASemiconductor Companies Software Companies Commercialization Companies OPEN HANDSET ALLIANCE
bacKGroundAndroid Inc. was founded by ANDY RUBIN, RICHMINER, NICK SEARS, CHRIS WHITE in October 2003in Palo Alto in CaliforniaAndroid has got his name by the developer ANDYRUBIN. In 17th August 2005 ‘GOOGLE’ acquired Android Inc.
(cont.)At ‘GOOGLE’ a team lead by Andy Rubin developed amobile device platform powered by the Linux Kernel version2.6On 5th November 2007 the 1st Android Mobile Device waslaunched.On same day OHA was formed to develop Open Standardsfor mobile devices which promotes development from globalcommunity.
detaILS oF arcHItecture(1/5)Android uses Linux kernel for it’s device manager,memory management, power management & processmanagement, and networking.This layer contains all the drivers used in the device.This layer is written in c.
detaILS oF arcHItecture (2/5) This layer contains Android’s libraries. Contents are written in C, C++. But runs only throughJAVA Interface. Exposed to Developers through the Android Applicationframework.
detaILS oF LIbrareIS Libc : c standard lib. SSL : Secure Socket Layer SGL : 2D image engine OpenGL/ES : 3D image engine Media Framework : Core part of Android multi-media SQLite : Embedded database WebKit : Kernel of web browser FreeType : Bitmap and Vector SufraceManager : Manage difference windows for differentapplications
detaILS oF arcHItecture(3/5)Core Libraries Provides the functionality of the JAVA Programming Language Android Application runs in its own process, with its own instance of the Dalvik virtual machineDalvik Virtual Machine : Java based license free VM Register based VM, optimization for low memory requirements Executes files in the Dalvik Executable (.dex) format DX tool converts classes to .dex format Dalvik has been written such that a device can run multiple VMs efficiently.
detaILS oF arcHItecture(4/5)Developer use the Application Framework as well assystem resources based on local hardware to createApplications.Important component of this layer is activity manager,which manages Life Cycle of Application.
detaILS oF appLIcatIon FraMeworK Feature Role View Used to build an application, including lists, grids, text System boxes, buttons, and embedded web browser Content Enabling applications to access data from other Provider applications or to share their own dataResource Providing access to non-code resources (localized strings,Manager graphics, and layout files)Notification Enabling all applications to display customer alerts in the Manager status bar Activity Managing the lifecycle of applications and providing Manager a common navigation.
detaILS oFarcHItecture(5/5) Android provides a set of core applications:- Contacts Message Home Screen Maps Email etc. All the Application’s code are written in C, C++, & inJava
androId verSIonSThe Android era officially began on 22nd October , 2008. With thelaunching of G1 from T1 mobile.The names of the versions of ANDROID are named inAlphabetical order on a Dessert or Sugary treat.The different versions of Android with release dates are:- Android 1.0 ASTRO on 23rd September, 2008. Android 1.1 BENDER on 9th February, 2009. Android 1.5 CUPCAKE on 30th April, 2009.
verSIonS(contd.) Android 1.6 DONUT on 15th September, 2009. Android 2.0/2.1 ÉCLAIR on 26th October, 2009. Android 2.2.x FROYO on 20th May, 2010. Android 2.3.x GINGERBREAD on 6th December, 2010. Android 3.x HONEYCOMB on February 22, 2011. Android 4.0.x ICE CREAM SANDWICH on 19th October, 2011. Android 4.1.x JELLY BEAN on June 27, 2012.
MInIMuM requIreMentS CHIPSET ARM based MEMORY 128 mb Ram, 256 mb flash external STORAGE Mini or Micro SD PRIMARY DISPLAY QVGA,TFT LCD or Larger, 16 Bit color or bettterNAVIGATION KEYS Minimum 5 navigation & application keys like power, volume, camera. USB Standard mini usb interface. BLUETOOTH 1.2 or 2.0
FeatureS Handset layouts : Platfom based on VGA, 2D & 3D Graphics Storage : SQLite a relational database used for data storage. Connectivity : GSM/EDGE, CDMA, WI-FI, BLUETOOTH,UMTS.Multitasking : Multitasking of applications, with uniquehandling of memory allocation, is available.Voice based features : Voice actions for calling, texting,navigation, etc. are supported on Android 2.2 onwards. Multiple language support : Android supports multiplelanguages.
FeatureS (cont.) Video calling : via the UMTS network. Video callingthrough Google Talk is available in Android 2.3.4 andlater. Media support : It supports almost every format of Audio/Video/Pictures/Text. GPS based navigation.
coMparISon wItH otHer MobILe oSChange the defaults:- Unlike Symbian, Apple’s IOS orany other operating system, Google’s Android comeswith the power of customization. Browsing :- Other OS have the Browsers which havecomplex algorithms, whereas Android has Google basedno.1 browser Chorme as it’s default browser. Android can Run Multiple Apps at the Same Time.Every Information is Visible on Your Home Screen.Android Has a Better Free App Market.Android Gives You Better Notifications. displays an iconfor every notification you have waiting.