JAASIR NAZIR WANI
AN OPEN PLATFORM FOR MOBILE DEVELOPMENT
Android is a software stack for mobile devices that includes
an operating system, middleware and key applications.
Based on the Linux kernel;
Developed by Google and later the Open Handset
Allows writing code in the Java and C/C++ language;
Simply: Android is a combination of three components:
A free, open-source operating system for mobile devices
An open-source development platform for creating mobile
Devices, particularly mobile phones, that run the Android operating
system and the applications
Initially, Andy Rubin founded Android Incorporation in Palo
Alto, California, United States in October, 2003.
In 17th August 2005, Google acquired android Incorporation.
Since then, it is in the subsidiary of Google Incorporation.
The key employees of Android Incorporation are Andy
Rubin, Rich Miner, Chris White and Nick Sears.
OPEN HANDSET ALLIANCE(OHA)
It's a consortium of 84 companies such as Google, Samsung,
AKM, Synaptic, KDDI, Garmin, Teleca, EBay, Intel etc.
It was established on 5th November, 2007, led by Google. It is
committed to advance open standards, provide services and
deploy handsets using the Android Platform.
This group of companies are allowed to use source code of
Android and develop applications.
Reason for Nokia not to develop Android Mobiles is Nokia is
not part of OHA.
It is open-source.
Anyone can customize the Android Platform.
Android is a multi-process system, in which each application
(and parts of the system) runs in its own process.
Android supports wireless communication using:-
802.11 Wi-Fi Networks
User gets millions of applications that user can not get in any
other mobile operating system.
Android supports advanced audio/video/still media formats such
as MPEG-4, MP3, MP4, and AAC, AMR, JPEG, PNG, GIF.
Developing an android application is not tough using
SDK(standard development kit) and java emulator we can easily
develop applications that we want.
TYPES OF ANDROID DEVICES
Galaxy Note 3 Galaxy Tablet
First Version of Android.
The focus of Android beta is on testing incorporating usability.
Android beta will generally have many more problems on speed
Android Aestro and Blender
First full version of android.
Released on September 23, 2008.
Wi-Fi and Bluetooth support.
Quite slow in operating.
Copy and paste feature in the web browser is not present.
Android Cupcake 1.5
Released on April 30, 2009.
Added auto-rotation option.
Copy and Paste feature added in the web browser.
Increased speed and performance but not up to required level
Android Donut 1.6
Released on September 15, 2009.
Voice search and Search box were added.
Faster OS boot times and fast web browsing experience.
Typing is quite slower.
Android Éclair 2.0/2.1
Released on October 26, 2009.
Bluetooth 2.1 support.
Improved typing speed on virtual keyboard, with smarter
no Adobe flash media support.
Android Froyo 2.2
Released on May 20, 2010.
Support for Adobe Flash 10.1
Improved Application launcher with better browser
No internet calling.
Android Gingerbread 2.3
Released on December 6, 2010.
Updated User Interface with high efficiency and speed
One touch word selection and copy/paste.
New keyboard for faster word input.
More successful version of Android than previous versions.
not supports multi-core processors.
Android Honeycomb 3.0
Released on February 22, 2011.
Support for multi-core processors
Ability to encrypt all user data.
This version of android is only available for tablets.
Android IceCreamSandwich(ICS) 4.0
Released on November 14, 2011.
Virtual button in the UI.
A new typeface family for the UI, Roboto.
Ability to shut down apps that are using
data in the background.
Android JellyBean 4.1
Released on June 27, 2012.
Smoother user interface.
Bluetooth smart ready
Multi language support
LATEST VERSION KIT-KAT
New version released on 31 October 2013
called Android 4.4 KitKat.
It was long-rumoured that the follow up to Jelly Bean
would be “Key Lime Pie”, however in a deal with
Nestle, Google named Android 4.4 after the Kitkat
You don’t need to touch the screen to get things done. When on
your home screen* or in Google Now, just say “Ok Google” to
launch voice search, send a text, get directions or even play
Kitkat hides the status bar and menu bar when in full screen
Print wherever, whenever
Bluetooth MAP support
Android now supports the Message Access Profile
(MAP) so Bluetooth-enabled cars can exchange
messages with your devices.
The future is calling
Newly redesigned Quickoffice.
ARCHITECTURE PART 1/5
Android provides a set of core applications:
All applications are written using the Java language.
ARCHITECTURE PART 2/5
Enabling and simplifying the reuse of
Developers have full access to the same framework
APIs used by the core applications.
Users are allowed to replace components.
ARCHITECTURE PART 3/5
Libc: c standard lib.
SSL: Secure Socket Layer
SGL: 2D image engine
OpenGL|ES: 3D image engine
Media Framework: Core part of Android multi-media
SQLite: Embedded database
WebKit: Kernel of web browser
FreeType: Bitmap and Vector
SufraceManager: Manage difference windows for different
Including a set of C/C++ libraries used by components of the Android
Exposed to developers through the Android application framework
ARCHITECTURE PART 4/5
Providing most of the functionality available in
the core libraries of the Java language
ARCHITECTURE PART 4/5
Dalvik Virtual Machine
Providing environment on which every Android application
Each Android application runs in its own process, with its
own instance of the Dalvik VM.
Dalvik has been written such that a device can run multiple
Register-based virtual machine
Executing the Dalvik Executable (.dex) format
.dex format is optimized for minimal memory footprint.
Relying on the Linux Kernel for:
Low-level memory management
ARCHITECTURE PART 5/5
Relying on Linux Kernel 2.6 for core system services
Memory and Process Management
Providing an abstraction layer between the H/W and the rest
of the S/W stack