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Presentation about how climate change impacts maternal and child health in the preconception and prenatal periods, infancy and childhood.

Presentation about how climate change impacts maternal and child health in the preconception and prenatal periods, infancy and childhood.

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  • Dioxin in smoke, deposited on range and farmland resulting in human ingestion and accumulation in fatty tissues. 80% of dioxin exposure is from beef and dairy <br />
  • Pollutants that are volatile, that change to a gaseous form at natural temperatures, move from soil to air and then deposit back into soil or water when they meet cold air. Grasshopper effect Bioconcentration in fish Bioconcentration factors for fish have been documented <br /> to occur from 3,000 to 247,000 times ambient levels <br />
  • PAH also in wildfire smoke adhered to very fine particulates. In addition to consumption of contaminated food , Inhalation is a signifcant exposure route, can cause lung cancer. PAHis very persistent. levels are used by paleontologists studying prehistoric fires. <br /> Runoff from burned areas, has higher levels of PAH than urban runoff. <br />
  • Elevated mercury in cord blood tripled risk of developmental delay at 1 year <br />
  • Estimations of average fish consumption for purposes of regulating water quality have become political issues between industry, government, environmentalists, and native american groups. WA using thimbleful at day, OR uses estimate that is 3 times higher, <br /> Adults in columbia river intertribal fish commission&apos;s member tribes who eat fish frequently (48 meals per month) over a period of 70 years may have cancer risks that are up to 50 times higher than those in the general public who consume fish about once a month. <br />
  • Evaporation of surface water concentrates and existing contaminants <br /> Flow reverses, surface water moves into groundwater <br /> Increased pumping for irrigation drops water table <br /> Arsenic in aquifer bound to other minerals converts to arsenate and arsenite (more mobile and 500x more toxic ) <br />
  • Unused fertililzer not taken up by drought stunted plants will sink down into groundwater with next rain and also run into rivers and lakes, increasing HABs <br />
  • Thyroid cancer increased with water half the EPA standard, nitrates plus atrazine non hodgkins lymphoma <br />
  • Dry lake beds which can contain high levels of minerals left behind when the water evaporated. Owens Lake emits about 300,000 tons of PM-10 per year: 30 tons of this is arsenic and 9 tons is cadmium.Aerosols sampled from Owens dust storms commonly contains significant amounts of arsenic concentrated in the &lt;10 micron fraction. levels can be as high as 400 ng/m3 <br /> About 25% of airborne arsenic in SE US comes in dust from Africa <br />
  • Combination of nutrient load from ag runoff and warm water causing increased fresh water algae blooms. <br /> 2 problems: <br /> 1) microcystin The extensive HAB on Lake Erie in 2011 <br /> microcystin concentrations exceeding 1000 ug/L limit is 1ug/l <br /> 2) increased dissolved organic carbon resulting in trihalomethanes, carcinogenic byproducts of chlorine disinfection <br /> prenatal exposure to brominated THM increase the risk of congenital heart and musculoskeletal anomalies. <br /> Use of choloramine- not as effective LA Naegleria in public water systems, In DC lead leached from pipes <br />
  • HABs in ocean are also the result of ag drainage of nutrients and warmer water. <br /> Toxins concentrate in clams, mussels, oysters and cause human illness <br />
  • Poisoning events are increasing, closures by PHDs are becoming more frequent <br />
  • TERATOGENIC, DECREASED BIRTH WEIGHTS. PLACENTA CONCENTRATES, found levels 6x higher in cord blood than maternal <br />
  • THE CROPS WE GET DURING A DROUGHT MAY NOT BE HEALTHY. STRESSED CORN GETS A FUNGUS INFECTION THAT MAKES Aflatoxin potent natural carcinogen. Inserts self into DNA TURNS OFF tumor suppresser gene. <br />
  • Compared with pregnancies before and after the wildfires, mean birth weight was estimated to be 7.0 g lower [95% confidence interval (CI): -11.8, -2.2] when the wildfire occurred during the third trimester, 9.7 g lower when it occurred during the second trimester (95% CI: -14.5, -4.8), and 3.3 g lower when it occurred during the first trimester (95% CI: -7.2, 0.6). <br />
  • Increased vulnerability to disseminated disease 3rd trimester and immediately postpartum <br /> New cases in eastern WA beyond previous endemic area. <br /> Cryptococcus gattii- lung and CNS infection Vancouver Island, Pacific NW, mutation to highly virulent strain affecting immunocompromised and immunocompetent.37% higher than endemic countries. average incubation 6 months <br /> Also being found in NW dead porpoises and dolphins, in one case transmitted in utero to fetus <br />
  • Toxic pea soup. Most common for there to be multiple algal toxins. Safety limits set on basis of sole effect, no research on combined effects. <br />
  • WATER TEMP AT LILY LAKE 76 DEGREES, REPRODUCED AT 77 DEG <br />
  • This slide shows how childrens visits to the emergency room for gastroenteritis (black line) match up with a model based on heavy rainfall (blue line). Majority of drinking water contamination cases in urban watersheds and nearly 70% of all gastroenteritis outbreaks occur after heavy rainstorms. Hospital admission of kids with diarrhea triples after heavy rain. <br />
  • SUMMER ASTHMA CAMP STUDY SHOWS MDI USE DOSE RESPONSE AT OZONE LEVELS BELOW EPA LIMITS, increase in er visits <br /> Causes asthma 3 sports=3x risk <br />
  • CO2 acts as fertilizer, increases pollen production and allergenicity, and extends flowering season, spread of allergenic plants. Graph shows pollen production under preindustrial, current and projected future CO2 levels. Pollen levels predicted to double by 2040. <br /> SEASON EXTENDING MOST IN HIGHER LATITUDES. <br /> NE HAY FEVER SEASON NOW 10D LONGER <br />
  • Mold causes increased ER visits for asthma and causes asthma. Recent birth cohort study higher levels of mold in home dust samples at 8 months of age doubled the risk of developing asthma by age 7 <br /> Mold more allergenic when grown at higher CO2.. <br />
  • Lead exposure can occur by inhalation and contact with airborne dust. Dust levels and air lead levels follow a seasonal pattern, rising when temperature is warm and soil is dry. <br />
  • Soil is a significant source of lead exposure. About 30% of kids with elevated blood levels don&apos;t live in houses with lead paint. The correlation of lead poisoning incidence with areas with old housing could be because by virtue of their age, those communities have seen a lot of traffic and have a higher legacy burden of lead in their soil. Children&apos;s blood lead levels follow the same seasonal pattern which can be predicted by a model incorporating soil moisture and air temperature. The longer we have hot dry weather, the more exposure to lead kids will get. <br />
  • You can see fromstandardized test scores the significant impact of lead levels between 5-10 mcg/dl on academic achievement. Currently about half a million US kids have BLL over 5. This chronic low level exposure cannot be terminated by home hazard abatement unless we are to cap or remove all soils from urban centers. <br />
  • 1999 national nutritional survey blood samples analysed last year for aflatoxin. 1% detectable. Higher in younger, Latinos, males, and immigrants. <br />
  • INCREASES RISK OF LIVER CANCER ABOUT 7 TIMES HIGHER BUT WHEN COUPLED WITH CHRONIC INFLAMMATION LIKE HEP B OR C OR ALCOHOL, RISK IS 60 TIMES HIGHER. <br /> NAFLD increasingly common risk factor for HCC in US. Childhood obesity increases risk of adult liver cancer 12-20%. currently affects 30% of US population, predicted to double by 2050 <br /> Biomarkers detected in Texas community with high prev HCC, related to corn tortillas and riceFDA allowed blending for feed in 4 states. <br />
  • , deaths related to exertional heat stroke (EHS), the most severe form of EHI, appear to be on the rise [2]. STUDENT ATHLETE DEATHS from EHS were higher during the period from 2005 to 2009 than any other five year period over the past 35 years. CDC 9,000 PER YEAR <br /> 1991-1999- 17 child deaths/yr from being left in hot car <br /> 2002-2012 40/yr <br />
  • So what&apos;s the forecast? Two columns <br /> By 2047we will be outside of temperature range of the past 150 years. the coldest year will be warmer than our current hottest year. severe heat waves that used to occur once every 30 years, will happen annually and the number of extreme heat days will triple to quadruple. NE will have an extra 15-20 days over 95 by mid century, with heat waves lasting longer <br /> HEAT RELATED DEATHS WILL quadruple nationally but in some urban areas increase as much as INCREASE 7 FOLD BY 2050 <br />
  • AGRESSION increased rates of assault, murder, domestic violence, suicides and psychiatric holds for danger to others <br /> UC Berkeley metaanalysis of 60 studies- for each SD of increased temp <br /> or decreased rainfall 4% increase in individual/small group violence, <br /> 14% increase in major conflicts. 2 SD INCREASE BY 2050. <br />
  • We are facing a public health emergency. Public health- affects whole populations <br />
  • Emergency- not because everyone will drop dead right away but because greenhouse gases are almost forever, <br />
  • if we stopped now, it would take 300 hundred years for the ocean to absorb 60% CO2 because once the surface water gets saturated, have to wait for deep water to cycle up. Then the ocean is full. Removal of the next 10% takes 1000 years to react chemically with rock to become bicarbonate and get taken up into seashells, fall to the floor and get turned into limestone. The remaining 20% has to go back underground to coal and oil, which will take 10,000 years. Meanwhile, CO2 from natural sources is still being emitted and adding to what&apos;s there. If you add faster than you can remove, it keeps building up. <br /> What happens to T? Global warming is like weight. Its easier to gain than lose. T would keep increasing for decades and then plateau. It wouldn&apos;t go down for 1000 years. <br />
  • By 2030, 40% of adults will be obese, 44% will have cardiovascular disease, 1 of 5 will have DM <br />
  • WHY? BECAUSE OUR FOSSIL FUEL ADDICTION IS MAKING US SICK <br /> 1/3 OF COLON CANCERS, 1/3 OF POSTMENOPAUSAL AND RECURRENT BREAST CANCERS, 1/3 OF HEART DISEASE AND DIABETES CASES PREVENTABLE BY PHYSICAL ACTIVITY <br /> HALF ENDOMETRIAL CANCERS, 1/3 ESOPHAGEAL AND PANCREATIC CANCERS ATTRIBUTED TO OBESITY WHICH IS RELATED TO INACTIVITY <br />
  • Ag system- fossil fuel, nitrogen fertilizer and water intensive. , using up our soil. <br /> Ruminants produce methane. 20X Fertilizer produces nitrogen oxides 300X <br /> Overconsumption of meat and corn sugars leads to CVD, cancer, obesity and diabetes. <br />
  • 3 IN NE: Belleview, Lincoln, and Omaha. <br /> Cities across the country have almost a decade of experience and many successful projects to decrease energy waste and lower emissions. <br /> So we know what to do and we know how to do it, but we don&apos;t have the political will in Washington to scale them up and get them done. <br /> 32 TEXAS, 50 FLA, 33 IOWA, <br /> SO WHAT&apos;S IN THE DOCTORS&apos; PRESCRIPTION? <br />
  • LUCKILY, ITS NOT THAT DIFFICULT. THE SOLUTIONS ARE COMMONSENSE, PAY FOR THEMSELVES IN FUEL AND HEALTHCARE SAVINGS, AND IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF LIFE. BUT OF COURSE THERES A CATCH, <br />
  • Not problem deniers, solution deniers. <br /> BUYING A PRIUS WON&apos;T HELP <br />
  • JOHN SNOW BECAME THE FATHER OF EPIDEMIOLOGY BY STOPPING A CHOLERA EPIDEMIC IN LONDON BEFORE THE GERM THEORY OF DISEASE WAS EVEN ESTABLISHED. DID HE DO IT BY GOING AROUND THE NEIGHBORHOOD TELLING EVERYONE NOT TO DRINK WATER? HEWENT TO HIS LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND GOT THEM TO TAKE THE HANDLE OFF THE PUMP. “The pestilence was stayed.” <br /> Take the handle off the pump is not something you do at your own house, <br />
  • ZERO ENERGY HOME SEATTLE, MAKES UP USE WITH SOLAR. 75% CONSERVATION AND 25% GENERATION. <br />
  • Atlanta Olympics- traffic decreased 20%, ozone decreased almost 30%, and kids ER visits for asthma down over 40%. <br /> The health cost of fossil fuel addiction is enormous. Globally 400,000 people a year die as a result of climate change (90% are children) but 4.5 million die from lung disease, CVD and cancer from carbon related air pollution. We spend more on the health consequences of fossil fuel than we do on fossil fuel itself. <br /> Closing all coal burning power plants in the US would save 13,200 lives and prevent nearly 10,000 hospitalizations and more than 20,000 heart attacks each year with an annual health savings of more than $100 billion per year <br /> For every ton of CO2 emissions we eliminate, even counting the cost to do it, we come out economically ahead. <br />
  • WE NEED TO GET PEOPLE OUT OF THEIR CARS. EVEN WITH IMPROVED FUEL ECONOMY, THE REDUCTION IN EMISSIONS WILL BE OUTWEIGHED BY the projected INCREASE IN THE NUMBER OF CARS and miles driven. <br /> WE GET WHAT WE PAY FOR: HIGHWAYS. ONLY 1% FOR ACTIVE TRANSPORT AND WE HAVE TO FIGHT TO KEEP IT. <br /> Public transit: equalize the federal match, invest till people are using it. NY and transit <br /> 40% of daily trips are under 2 miles. Put the things we need within walking distance, separate the people from the cars, Mass transit mixed mode. <br /> Public transport – 30% get recommended exercise vs 80% of total pop that doesn&apos;t. <br /> Why should each person take 1-2 tons of steel if they&apos;re all going to the same place. Highly functional system, investment, subsidy. <br />
  • Increased average daily time spent on active transport from 4 to 22 minutes/d SF bay area <br /> Decrease <br /> 14% heart disease, stroke, and diabetes <br /> 6-7% dementia and depression <br /> 5% breast and colon cancer <br /> 1.4 -22 billion dollars/year saved <br /> Midwestern metrop areas- 50% short trips by bike save over $5 billion in health spending per year: $3.8 billion/year saved due to health benefits of exercise and $2.5 billion due to benefits of cleaner air. <br />
  • Nutritionally in the US we get what we pay for. We&apos;re subsidizing corn for feed and ethanol and that&apos;s what we get. !% of crop subsidies goes for produce. Just got on crop insurance this year. <br /> We know that lowering prices of produce increases consumption. Align subsidies with federal dietary recommendations. 40% of food is wasted. <br /> Revising use by labelling <br /> Tax credits for farmers who donate cosmetically unsellable food. <br /> Lets make energy out of waste instead of methane. <br />
  • Heavy meat eaters eat an avg 700 cal more/d <br /> Decrease cancers by 10%, heart disease by 20%, 25% less diabetes <br />
  • I&apos;d like to call your attention to one small problem: <br /> While a STRONG MAJORITY OF US CITIZENS WANT CLIMATE ACTION NOW, even if other countries don&apos;t act, and even if it costs us some money <br />
  • .They are not representing us, their constituents on this critical issue. If we don&apos;t wake them up or kick them out, they will create a living hell on earth. <br /> 25% of Americans surveyed are willing to join a campaign to straigten out Congress. They&apos;re waiting for someone in their community to step forward. <br />
  • Call, write, lobby, go to candidate debates and ask what they&apos;re going to do about climate change. Most important be public, and create opportunities for others to join you. <br />
  • THANKS FOR YOUR ATTENTION TODAY. Please go online to climate911.org, to join our email list and endorse our prescription for action. <br /> THIS SLIDESHOW AND MY SPEAKERS NOTES ARE AVAILABLE FOR YOU TO DOWNLOAD AND USE along other shorter PRESENTATIONS FOR GENERAL AUDIENCES THAT YOU CAN SHARE WITH YOUR COMMUNITY. <br />

Climate Change and Maternal and Child health Climate Change and Maternal and Child health Presentation Transcript

  • CLIMATE CHANGE AND MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH
  • MULTIPLE POINTS OF IMPACT  Preconception  Prenatal  Infancy  Childhood
  • PRECONCEPTION BODY BURDEN Chemicals and Heavy Metals  Stored in Fat  Cross Placenta  Secreted in Breast Milk
  • DIOXINS and Wildfires Smoke from Idaho Fires 2013
  • DIOXINS and Heavy Rainfall Origins of dioxins in SF Bay
  • Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Post Wildfire Runoff E. Stein, Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry Volume 31, Issue 11, pages 2625–2638, November 2012
  • PCBs Migrate from Warm to Cold by Volatilizing and Condensing
  • PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (Dioxins, PCBs, PAH) BABY MOTHER Low birthweight Cancer Decreased IQ Endocrine Abnormalities Multiple chromosomal abnormalities Later cancer?
  • Mercury and Storm Runoff Rainfall and Mercury Runoff River Miles Under Fish Advisory 1993-2010
  • Differing Fish Consumption = Unequal Exposure
  • MERCURY BABY  Impairs Neurologic Development − Memory − Attention − Language − Fine Motor − Visual Spatial MOTHER  At high levels− Neurologic Symptoms
  • PRENATAL    Cross Placenta Affect Maternal Delivery of Nutrients or Oxygen Increase Maternal Vulnerability
  • Drought and Water Quality
  • Nitrates: Spontaneous Abortion Neural Tube Defects NE Nitrate Impaired Wells and Waterways
  • Iowa Women's Health Study Thyroid Cancer Related to Nitrates in Water
  • Arsenic Owens Valley, CA Dust Storm Low Birth Weight Neonatal Infections Abnormal Gene Expression Groundwater Arsenic Levels
  • Disinfection Byproducts in Drinking Water TRIHALOMETHANE DIBROMOCHLOROME THANE  Low Birth Weight  Congenital Anomalies
  • Marine Biotoxins in Shellfish
  • HARMFUL ALGAE BLOOMS DOMOIC ACID California 2012
  • PRE 1972 INCREASE IN HARMFUL ALGAE BLOOMS PRESENT
  • AFLATOXIN Carcinogenic Hepatotoxic Teratogenic Immunosuppressive   Concentrated by Placenta Transmitted in Breast Milk
  • AFLATOXIN in the US 200 8 2012
  • WILDFIRE SMOKE: Decreased Birth Weight
  • OZONE: IUGR, Low Birth Weight IUGR, Low Birth Weight
  • Coccidiodomycosis Valley Fever Dust Storm, Fresno, CA Endemic Area by Skin Test Incidence/100,000 1998-2011
  • INFANCY AND CHILDHOOD
  • NITRATES: Blue Baby Syndrome Methemoglobinemia
  • Mixtures of Cyanotoxins
  • AMOEBIC MENINGOENCEPHALITIS
  • Gastroenteritis and Rainfall Combined Sewer Overflow Pediatric ER GE Visits P. Drayna et al, Environ Health Perspect. 2010 October; 118(10): 1439–1443.
  • Ozone Causes and Worsens Asthma 3 Sports = Triple Risk for Asthma Inhaler Use Acute exposure increases bronchodilator use Ozone ppb Thurston GD Am J Respir Crit Care Med February 1, 1997 vol. 155 no. 2654-660 RMcConnell Lancet.304):386-91.
  • CHRONIC OZONE EXPOSURE AND PEDIATRIC ASTHMA ADMISSIONS
  • Pollen Higher Counts Longer Season Ziska, L. H. and F. A. Caulfield. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology, 2000. 27: 893− 898.
  • Mold exposure doubles asthma risk, increases ER visits & hospitalizations
  • US Childhood Asthma Rates Tripled 1960-2009 L Akinbami, 2009 National Center for Health Statistics
  • Atmospheric Lead
  • Seasonal Variation Child Blood Lead
  • Probability of Low Scores ACHIEVEMENT TESTS AND LEAD LEVELS Blood Lead
  • Aflatoxin Biomarkers NHANES 1999-2000 Schleicher, 2013
  • Aflatoxin Biomarkers and Risk Factors for Hepatocellular Carcinoma RISK FACTORS RATIO ODDS + Biomarker 7 Hepatitis B Ag alone + Biomarker + Hepatitis B Ag Fatty Liver Disease alone + Biomarker + Fatty Liver 7-28 60 3-16 ? 10% OF US KIDS & 40% OF OBESE US KIDS HAVE FATTY LIVER DISEASE
  • HEAT ILLNESS 9,000 US high school athletes/year 40 heat deaths in cars/year
  • Severe Heat Waves that were every 30 years will be EVERY YEAR by 2040. Journal of Great Lakes Research 36 (2010) 65–73 K Hayhoe
  • HEAT AND DROUGHT INCREASE INTERPERSONAL AND INTERGROUP VIOLENCE
  • + 2-3 DEGREES BY 2030 + 4-6 DEGREES BY 2050
  • Carbon Dioxide Is (pretty much)Forever. YEARS TO REMOVE CO2 FROM ATMOSPHERE Hundreds Tens of Thousands Thousands
  • EMERGENCY 2030 40% OBESE 44% CV DISEASE 1 in 5 DIABETES 2050 1 in 2 OBESE AND CV DISEASE, 1 in 3 DIABETES
  • ME EITHER
  • SEDENTARY LIFESTYLE: ONE THIRD CAUSED BY HEART DISEASE, OBESITY, DIABETES; CANCERS: PROSTATE, COLON, UTERUS, RECURRENT BREAST PHYSICAL INACTIVITY
  • AIR POLLUTION: ASTHMA, CANCER, HEART DISEASE
  • UNHEALTHY DIET: HEART DISEASE, CANCER, DIABETES, OBESITY
  • LOW CARB(ON) DIET HOW MUCH? IN HALF BY 2030 HOW FAST? IN HALF AGAIN BY 2050
  • CAN WE? YES! OVER 1000 US CITIES SHOWED US HOW
  • A Healthy Prescription For Climate Action
  • CLEAN ELECTRICITY INVEST STOP EXPORTS REGULATE CARBON POLLUTION PUT A PRICE ON CARBON
  • IMPROVED ENERGY EFFICIENCY BUILDINGS FUEL ECONOMY CLEAN FUEL
  • 20,000 Heart Attacks 23,000 Deaths PREVENTED each year SAVED: OVER 100 BILLION DOLLARS PER YEAR
  • GET CITY PEOPLE OUT OF THEIR CARS SMART GROWTH BIKEWAYS AND WALKWAYS BETTER PUBLIC TRANSIT
  • 10,000 colon cancers 215,000 heart attacks 570,000 new diabetes cases PREVENTED each year ANNUAL SAVINGS SF AREA $1.4-22 BILLION/YEAR
  • HEALTHY FARMS & HEALTHY FOODS SUBSIDIZE FRUITS AND VEGETABLES SUBSIDIZE SOIL CARBON DECREASE FOOD WASTE TURN WASTE INTO ENERGY
  • 300,000 Heart Attacks/Strokes 260,000 New Diabetes Cases 144,000 Cancer Deaths PREVENTED each year
  • THE LONGER WE WAIT, THE WORSE (AND MORE EXPENSIVE) IT WILL BE
  • A strong majority of US citizens across the country wants climate action
  • but a majority in our Congress doesn't even admit its happening
  • We can have a healthy high quality future if we act now.* *but we're almost out of time.
  • HEALTHY PEOPLE = HEALTHY PLANET www.climate911.org