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A World of Hurt<br />Professor Corey J. A. Bradshaw<br />The Environment Institute &<br />South Australian Research & Deve...
the Anthropocene mass extinction event<br />extinction synergies<br />ecosystem services<br />fine-scale evidence: environ...
<ul><li>> 4 million protists
16600 protozoa
75000-300000helminth parasites
1.5million fungi
320000 plants
4-6 million arthropods
> 6500 amphibians
> 30000 fishes
10000 birds
> 5000 mammals</li></li></ul><li>99 % of ALL species that have ever existed...<br />EXTINCT<br />species lifespan = 1-10 M...
Bradshaw et al. 2009 Trends Ecol Evol24:541-548<br />Bradshaw et al. 2009 Front Ecol Environ 7:79-87<br /><ul><li>1,011,00...
highest in boreal biome (60 %)
humid tropics next (Brazil, Indonesia, Malaysia)
dry tropics next highest (Australia, Brazil, Argentina)
N.A. greatest proportional lost by continent
Nationally, Brazil, Canada, Indonesia, DR Congo</li></ul>Hansen et al. 2010 PNAS<br />doi:10.1073/pnas.0912668107<br />Bar...
IUCN RED LIST OF THREATENED SPECIES www.iucnredlist.org<br /><ul><li>21 % of all known mammals
30 % of all known amphibians
12 % of all known birds
35 % of conifers & cycads
17 % of sharks
27 % of reef-building corals</li></ul>threatened with extinction<br />
Sodhi et al. 2008 PLoS One 3:e1636<br />
Sodhi, Brook & Bradshaw 2007 Tropical Conservation Biology Wiley-Blackwell<br />log % forest remaining (km-2)<br />log hum...
© C. Sekerçioglu<br />
Halpern et al. 2008 Science 319:948-952<br />
invasive species and starfish outbreaks<br />bleaching<br />deforestation, soil erosion, sediment & nutrient loading<br />...
Field et al. 2009 Fish & Fisheries 10:323-328<br />
Evil quartet<br />habitat destruction<br />over-exploitation<br />introduced species<br />extinction cascades<br />Diamond...
Brook et al. 2008 Trends Ecol Evol25:453-460<br />
Evil quintet<br />Evil sextet<br />habitat destruction<br />over-exploitation<br />introduced species<br />extinction casc...
justification to maintain healthy ecosystems is intangible because it seems unrelated to personal well-being<br />© Millen...
reduce desertification<br />maintain soils<br />crop pollination<br />seed dispersal<br />food provision<br />water purifi...
land-based ecosystem loss €545 billion by 2010
> €14 trillion/year lost by 2050</li></ul>Cost of Policy Inaction (COPI):<br />The case of not meeting the 2010 biodiversi...
1990-2000<br /><ul><li>~100,000 people killed
320 million people displaced
total reported damages > US$1151 billion </li></ul>Bradshaw et al. 2007 Glob Change Biol13:2379-2395<br />
<ul><li>schistosomiasis
malaria
leptospirosis
dysentery
cholera
hepatitis
typhus</li></ul>increased host habitat availability & displacement of humans to areas where inadequate sanitation and temp...
Does a sick environment make sick people?<br />© http://tropicaltoxic.blogspot.com<br />
<ul><li>physician-assessed morbidity declines with more green spaces near Dutch patients</li></ul>Maas et al. 2009 J Epide...
habitat conversion/CO2 emissions	<br />- transmission of infectious zoonoses across forest-agriculture boundaries<br />fer...
City Development Index www.unchs.org<br />Ecological Footprint www.footprintnetwork.org<br />Environmental Performance Ind...
Environmental Performance Index epi.yale.edu<br />
http://epi.yale.edu<br />
<ul><li>natural forest loss</li></ul>2005-1990 D/ha<br /><ul><li>natural habitat conversion</li></ul>human-modified landco...
“I anticipate that the anti-science crowd will be screeching and howling with indignation when they read this one.”<br />“...
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A World of Hurt - Research Tuesday 2010

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It's no secret that environmental degradation has been shown to have damaged people's health, often fatally, in many specific cases.

Now, however, world-leading research at the University of Adelaide has linked the two on a staggering global scale.

Using data from over 100 countries, Professor Corey Bradshaw has examined the relationships between key indicators of human health and environmental quality and discovered a clear correlation, with dire implications.

As only one example, his findings indicate just a 10% overall reduction in water quality would raise infant deaths by many millions per year.

It's vital information for people and planet. And in this important presentation Professor Bradshaw will reveal the full story.

Published in: Health & Medicine, Technology
  • Did you see this article in TIME?

    http://ecocentric.blogs.time.com/2010/12/01/wildlife-protecting-biodiversity-might-just-protect-us-from-disease/
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  • Merci beaucoup, Bernard.
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  • Congratulations on your slideshow very interesting ! Great work... beautifully presented ! ! Thank you for sharing. I allowed myself to add it to 'YOU TUBE & SLIDECAST' Slideshare group . Feel free to join us. Thank you in advance for your participation and sharing your 'favorites'. .. With friendship from France. Bernard



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A World of Hurt - Research Tuesday 2010

  1. 1. A World of Hurt<br />Professor Corey J. A. Bradshaw<br />The Environment Institute &<br />South Australian Research & Development Institute<br />Global death count of<br />environmental degradation<br />© WWF<br />
  2. 2. the Anthropocene mass extinction event<br />extinction synergies<br />ecosystem services<br />fine-scale evidence: environment-health<br />global-scale evidence:<br />sick environment = sick people<br />© WWF<br />
  3. 3. <ul><li>> 4 million protists
  4. 4. 16600 protozoa
  5. 5. 75000-300000helminth parasites
  6. 6. 1.5million fungi
  7. 7. 320000 plants
  8. 8. 4-6 million arthropods
  9. 9. > 6500 amphibians
  10. 10. > 30000 fishes
  11. 11. 10000 birds
  12. 12. > 5000 mammals</li></li></ul><li>99 % of ALL species that have ever existed...<br />EXTINCT<br />species lifespan = 1-10 M years<br />Ordovician (490-443 MYA)<br />Devonian (417-354 MYA)<br />Permian (299-250 MYA)<br />Triassic (251-200 MYA)<br />Cretaceous (146-64 MYA)<br />Anthropocene<br />extinction rate 100-10000× background<br />© Tiantian Zhang, Good50x70.org<br />Crutzen 2002 Nature 415:23; Bradshaw & Brook 2009 J Cosmol2:221-229<br />
  13. 13. Bradshaw et al. 2009 Trends Ecol Evol24:541-548<br />Bradshaw et al. 2009 Front Ecol Environ 7:79-87<br /><ul><li>1,011,000 km2 lost 2000-2005 (3.1 %; 0.6 %/year)
  14. 14. highest in boreal biome (60 %)
  15. 15. humid tropics next (Brazil, Indonesia, Malaysia)
  16. 16. dry tropics next highest (Australia, Brazil, Argentina)
  17. 17. N.A. greatest proportional lost by continent
  18. 18. Nationally, Brazil, Canada, Indonesia, DR Congo</li></ul>Hansen et al. 2010 PNAS<br />doi:10.1073/pnas.0912668107<br />Barson et al. 2000 Land Cover<br />Change in Australia, Bur RurSci<br />© A. Prokopec<br />
  19. 19. IUCN RED LIST OF THREATENED SPECIES www.iucnredlist.org<br /><ul><li>21 % of all known mammals
  20. 20. 30 % of all known amphibians
  21. 21. 12 % of all known birds
  22. 22. 35 % of conifers & cycads
  23. 23. 17 % of sharks
  24. 24. 27 % of reef-building corals</li></ul>threatened with extinction<br />
  25. 25. Sodhi et al. 2008 PLoS One 3:e1636<br />
  26. 26. Sodhi, Brook & Bradshaw 2007 Tropical Conservation Biology Wiley-Blackwell<br />log % forest remaining (km-2)<br />log human population density (km-2)<br />
  27. 27. © C. Sekerçioglu<br />
  28. 28. Halpern et al. 2008 Science 319:948-952<br />
  29. 29. invasive species and starfish outbreaks<br />bleaching<br />deforestation, soil erosion, sediment & nutrient loading<br />destructive fishing practices<br />overfishing<br />
  30. 30. Field et al. 2009 Fish & Fisheries 10:323-328<br />
  31. 31. Evil quartet<br />habitat destruction<br />over-exploitation<br />introduced species<br />extinction cascades<br />Diamond 1984 Extinctions Chicago University Press<br />
  32. 32. Brook et al. 2008 Trends Ecol Evol25:453-460<br />
  33. 33. Evil quintet<br />Evil sextet<br />habitat destruction<br />over-exploitation<br />introduced species<br />extinction cascades<br />climate change<br />synergies<br />Brook et al. 2008 Trends Ecol Evol25:453-460<br />
  34. 34. justification to maintain healthy ecosystems is intangible because it seems unrelated to personal well-being<br />© Millennium Ecosystem Assessment<br />
  35. 35. reduce desertification<br />maintain soils<br />crop pollination<br />seed dispersal<br />food provision<br />water purification<br />fuel provision<br />fibre provision<br />climate regulation<br />flood regulation<br />disease regulation<br />waste decomposition/detoxification<br />nutrient cycling<br />soil formation<br />primary production<br />pharmaceutical sources<br />cultural appreciation (aesthetic, spiritual, educational, recreational…)<br />€153 billion/year<br />fisheries: €50 billion/year<br /><ul><li>€50 billion lost/year
  36. 36. land-based ecosystem loss €545 billion by 2010
  37. 37. > €14 trillion/year lost by 2050</li></ul>Cost of Policy Inaction (COPI):<br />The case of not meeting the 2010 biodiversity target.<br />European Commission<br />
  38. 38. 1990-2000<br /><ul><li>~100,000 people killed
  39. 39. 320 million people displaced
  40. 40. total reported damages > US$1151 billion </li></ul>Bradshaw et al. 2007 Glob Change Biol13:2379-2395<br />
  41. 41. <ul><li>schistosomiasis
  42. 42. malaria
  43. 43. leptospirosis
  44. 44. dysentery
  45. 45. cholera
  46. 46. hepatitis
  47. 47. typhus</li></ul>increased host habitat availability & displacement of humans to areas where inadequate sanitation and temporary high-density living promote disease<br />Ohl & Tapsell 2000 Br Med J 321:1167-1168; Ivers & Ryan 2006 Curr Op Infect Dis19:408-414<br />
  48. 48. Does a sick environment make sick people?<br />© http://tropicaltoxic.blogspot.com<br />
  49. 49. <ul><li>physician-assessed morbidity declines with more green spaces near Dutch patients</li></ul>Maas et al. 2009 J EpidemiolComm Health 63:967-973<br /><ul><li>dioxin-poisoning accident in Milan – increased circulatory disease, lymphoma, pulmonary disease & diabetes 25 years later</li></ul>Consonni et al. 2008 Am J Epidemiol167:847-858<br /><ul><li>low water quality, poor sanitation & indoor air pollution from household solid fuels increased child mortality and reduced life expectancy in Mexico</li></ul>Stevens et al. 2009 Proc NatlAcadSci USA 105:16860-16865<br /><ul><li>malaria-vector mosquito bite rates 278× higher in deforested sites in Amazon</li></ul>Vittor et al. 2006 Am J Trop Med Hyg74:3-11<br /><ul><li>Anopheline mosquito density  after deforestation in 60% of 60 studies over past century; 70 % of cases  incidence of malaria</li></ul>Yasuoka & Levins 2007 Am J Trop Med Hyg76:450-460<br />
  50. 50. habitat conversion/CO2 emissions <br />- transmission of infectious zoonoses across forest-agriculture boundaries<br />fertilisers<br /> - nitrate intake & cancer<br /> - water contamination<br /> - water acidification<br /> - toxic algae blooms<br /> - cholera outbreaks<br /> -  mosquito disease vectors <br />air & water quality<br />- toxins/pollutants<br /> - pathogens<br /> - particulates<br />Butler 2004 Health and Forests Earthscanpp 13-33<br />Peoples et al. 2004 Agriculture and the Nitrogen Cycle Island Presspp 53-69<br />McMichael et al. 2008 Br Med J 336:191-194; Smith et al. 2000 Proc NatlAcadSci USA 97:13286-13293; Pope et al. 2009 N Engl J Med 360:376-386; Finlayson-Pitts & Pitts 1997 Science 276:1045-1051; Pope et al.2004 Circulation 109:71-77<br />© N.D. Kim, Strange Matter www.lab-initio.com<br />
  51. 51. City Development Index www.unchs.org<br />Ecological Footprint www.footprintnetwork.org<br />Environmental Performance Index epi.yale.edu<br />Environmental Sustainability Index sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu<br />Genuine Savings Index worldbank.org<br />Human Development Index hdr.undp.org<br />Living Planet Index www.panda.org<br />Well-Being Index www.well-beingindex.com<br />Environmental Impact Rank<br />Böhringer & Joachim 2007 Ecol Econ 63:1-8<br />
  52. 52. Environmental Performance Index epi.yale.edu<br />
  53. 53. http://epi.yale.edu<br />
  54. 54. <ul><li>natural forest loss</li></ul>2005-1990 D/ha<br /><ul><li>natural habitat conversion</li></ul>human-modified landcover/total landcover<br /><ul><li>marine captures</li></ul>1990-2005 fish, whales, seals/EEZ km<br /><ul><li>fertiliser use</li></ul>NPK/ha arable land<br /><ul><li>water pollution</li></ul>biochemical oxygen demand/total renewable water resources<br /><ul><li>carbon emissions</li></ul>forestry, land-use change, fossil fuels/km2<br /><ul><li>biodiversity threat</li></ul>Red List threatened birds, mammals, amphibians/listed species<br />Bradshaw et al. 2010 PLoS One 5:e10440<br />
  55. 55. “I anticipate that the anti-science crowd will be screeching and howling with indignation when they read this one.”<br />“This is such BS, China is WAY worse then the U.S.”<br />“This researcher is a waste ...”<br />“This article is crap.”<br />“Can we really depend on some study when the Chinese could have funded this or maybe some group who was angry at the US and Brazil for whatever? I highly doubt the accuracy of the findings. Looks like the Treehuggers are at it again.”<br />“Shame on you Australia !!! I guess your dying great Barrior[sic] reef is America's fault too!!!!”<br />“here we go again. I'm so frickin' sick of these watermelons (green on the outside, red (communist) on the inside) treehuggers. The only f*^king green I care about is made of paper and folds.”<br />Bradshaw et al. 2010 PLoS One 5:e10440<br />
  56. 56. DATA<br />Human health: World Health Organization Global Burden of Disease database<br />Environment: - Environmental Combination Index (adapted from Yale Env Performance Index)<br />- Proportional Environmental Impact rank (Bradshaw et al. 2010 PLoS One 5:e10440)<br />- natural habitat conversion proportion (Global Land Cover 2000 dataset)<br /> - air/water quality (Yale Environmental Performance Index)<br /> - NPK fertiliser use/area arable land (FAOSTAT database)<br /> - CO2 emissions (Climate Analysis Indicators tool)<br />Control: - human population size (United Nations Common Database)<br /> - purchasing-power parity-adjusted GNI (World Resources Institute)<br /> - health expenditure (WHO Statistical Information System)<br />
  57. 57. DATA<br />Human health: WHO Global Burden of Disease database<br /><ul><li>Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALY) - years of life lost due to premature mortality and healthy years of life lost due to disability
  58. 58. Infant Mortality (male) – 2004 mortality per 1000 live births
  59. 59. Life Expectancy at birth (male) – 2004
  60. 60. Diarrhoea deaths among children < 5 years (2000)
  61. 61. Malaria deaths among children < 5 years (2000)
  62. 62. Deaths due to Cardiovascular Disease (2002 age-standardised per 10,000)
  63. 63. Deaths due to Cancers (2002 age-standardised per 10,000)</li></li></ul><li>S<br />b<br />ENVIRONMENTAL COMBINATION INDEX<br />e<br />P<br />http://epi.yale.edu<br />
  64. 64. 10 %  ECI   mINFM 7.0/1000 live births <br /> mLE 1.9 years<br />http://epi.yale.edu<br />
  65. 65. S<br />b<br />PROPORTIONALENVIRONMENTAL INDEX RANK<br />e<br />P<br />Bradshaw et al. 2010 PLoS One 5:e10440<br />
  66. 66. Bradshaw et al. 2010 PLoS One 5:e10440<br />
  67. 67. S<br />b<br />ALL DISEASE<br />e<br />P<br />
  68. 68. ALL DISEASE<br />
  69. 69. S<br />b<br />INFECTIOUS DISEASE<br />e<br />P<br />
  70. 70. INFECTIOUS DISEASE<br />
  71. 71. S<br />b<br />NON-INFECTIOUS DISEASE<br />e<br />P<br />
  72. 72. NON-INFECTIOUS DISEASE<br />
  73. 73. 10 %  water quality   infant mortality 3.4/1000 live births<br />  > 946,000 extra infant deaths/year§<br />   1.6 years life expectancy<br />10 %  air quality   2.0 cancer deaths/100,000<br />  > 132,900 extra cancer deaths/year§<br />10 %  pcCO2 emissions  infant mortality 0.4/1000 live births<br /> > 11,700 extra infant deaths/year§<br />§assuming 21.2 births/1000 population & human population 6.5 billion<br />
  74. 74. countries > median pcGNI<br />countries < median population density<br />
  75. 75. habitat is degraded  disease spreads, but country improves economically  healthcare improves  better state of health<br />habitat is degraded  spread of zoonotic disease/pollutants/pathogens  state of health declines<br />country is poor/population is high  drives habitat degradation; country is poor  also drives poor healthcare  state of health declines<br />© WWF<br />
  76. 76. Bradshaw et al. 2010 PLoS One 5:e10440<br />
  77. 77. habitat is degraded  disease spreads, but country improves economically  healthcare improves  better state of health<br />habitat is degraded  spread of zoonotic disease/pollutants/pathogens  state of health declines<br />country is poor/population is high  drives habitat degradation; country is poor  also drives poor healthcare  state of health declines<br />© WWF<br />
  78. 78. © Moronail.net<br />
  79. 79. <ul><li>heavy species loss not seen since Cretaceous
  80. 80. losing essential ecosystem services
  81. 81. despite enormous variation & leakage, clear environment-human health signal among countries
  82. 82. more than just water/air pollution, but likely strongest direct mechanisms
  83. 83. different mechanisms operating on different disease pathways
  84. 84. > 60 % of EIDs caused by zoonotic pathogens, of which > 70% derive from wildlife
  85. 85. Increasing fragmentation & penetration by humans risks  probabilities of novel disease emergence and spread</li></ul>© WWF<br />
  86. 86. <ul><li>Guo-Jing Yang</li></ul>Jiangsu Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Wuxi, PR China<br /><ul><li>Barry W. Brook</li></ul>The Environment Institute, The University of Adelaide<br /><ul><li>Xiao-Nong Zhou</li></ul>National Institute of Parasitic Disease, China Centre for<br /> Disease Control, Shanghai, PR China<br /><ul><li>Anthony J. McMichael</li></ul>National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health<br /> The Australian National University<br /><ul><li>Colin D. Butler</li></ul>National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health<br /> The Australian National University<br /><ul><li>XingliGiam</li></ul>Princeton University, USA<br /><ul><li>Navjot S. Sodhi</li></ul>National University of Singapore<br />© Tiantian Zhang, Good50x70.org<br />corey.bradshaw@adelaide.edu.au<br />www.adelaide.edu.au/directory/corey.bradshaw<br />ConservationBytes.com<br />
  87. 87. for upcoming presentations and podcasts visit: <br />www.adelaide.edu.au/researchtuesdays<br />for related topics visit:<br />ConservationBytes.com<br />
  88. 88.
  89. 89.
  90. 90.
  91. 91.
  92. 92. Bradshaw et al. 2010 PLoS One 5:e10440<br />
  93. 93. ENVIRONMENTAL<br />KUZNETS CURVE<br />environmental damage<br />per capita prosperity<br />Bradshaw et al. 2010 PLoS One 5:e10440<br />
  94. 94. Bradshaw et al. 2010 PLoS One 5:e10440<br />

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