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Climate and Health: The Nutshell View


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"Climate and Health: The Nutshell View" presented by Dr. Robert Byron

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Climate and Health: The Nutshell View

  1. 1. Climate and Health: The Nutshell View February 27, 2019 Robert Byron, MD, MPH
  2. 2. Climate Change is not about Temperature! 2 Charles Pierce 4/5/2016 Esquire
  3. 3. Boiling Frog Effect  “Rapidly declining remarkability of temperature anomalies may obscure public perception of climate change”  “We provide evidence for a “boiling frog” effect: The declining noteworthiness of historically extreme temperatures is not accompanied by a decline in the negative sentiment that they induce, indicating that social normalization of extreme conditions rather than adaptation is driving these results.”  “ . . . reference point for normal conditions appears to be based on weather experienced between 2 and 8 y ago.” Rapidly declining remarkability of temperature anomalies may obscure public perception of climate change Frances C. Moore, Nick Obradovich, Flavio Lehner, Patrick Baylis Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Feb 2019, 201816541; DOI:10.1073/pnas.1816541116
  4. 4. 200,000 premature deaths 180,000 nonfatal heart attacks 150,000 hospitalizations 130,000 ER visits for asthma 18 million lost work days 11 million missed school days lung cancer, strokes, fetal harms, links to learning and behavior problems in children, diabetes and dementia Air Pollution Damages Our Health Shindell,D. Societal Benefits from Reductions in Emissions of Methane and Black Carbon. Drew Shindell. Written Testimony to the Senate Committee on the Environment and Public Works Hearing on the Super Pollutants Act of 2014 . Dec 2,2014 v3.pdf Fabio Caiazzo, Aksshay Ashok, Ian Waitz, Steve H.L. Yim, Steven R.H. Barrett. Air pollution and early deaths in the united States. Part I: Quantifying the impact of major sectors in 2005. Environment volume 79, Nov 2013, 198-208.
  5. 5. Fetuses and Particulate Matter and Ozone all-time-american-adults-article-1.2541307 .php?hleda=forest+fire 7 43:1516913:1516907:1516904:1516900:1348086:884819:769027:768 951:767283:749709:441840:386458:386331:386138:386085:355538:2 50424
  6. 6. Take home message: air quality worsens with climate change  Particles: linger with stagnant air; smoke increases with forest fires.  Ozone is worse when it is hot (summer afternoons especially)  Allergens are increasing with warmer temperatures  About 10% of the U.S. population has either Asthma or chronic lung disease  Heat & air pollutants cause worsening symptoms, more ER visits and hospitalizations Franchini & Mannucci, 2015; GOLD, 2015; Halonen et al., 2009
  7. 7. Health Impacts  Heat-related illnesses  Cardiopulmonary illnesses  Infectious diseases: Food-, Water- & Vector- borne diseases  Mental health issues
  8. 8. Mental Health/Stress- Related Disorders  Temp increase 0.5 degrees F results in more violent behavior  Suicide rates increase with higher temperatures  PTSD, anxiety common after hurricanes (Katrina), floods, heat waves, possibly wildfires  Drought is slow, sustained, compared with most weather events  Loss of community cohesion and sense of belonging, inc violence & crime  Heat waves contribute to more alcohol and substance abuse.  Prenatal air pollution exposure increases schizophrenia and autism risk to the unborn child
  9. 9. Heat Dehydration, heat stroke Respiratory, cardiac, circulatory and cerebrovascular (stroke) conditions Risk of death on a heat day was 10% greater than on a non-heat day.1 1. Isaksen, T., Fenske, R., Hom, E., Ren, Y., Lyons, H., & Yost, M. (2016). Increased mortality associated with extreme-heat exposure in King County, Washington, 1980–2010. International Journal of Biometeorology, 60(1), 85–98. doi:10.1007/s00484-015-1007-9
  10. 10. Infectious Diseases  Spread of mosquito and tick vectors: Lyme Disease, West Nile;  Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitos: Dengue, Yellow Fever  Water-borne outbreaks due to flooding and resulting drinking water contamination.  Increased risk of GI outbreaks with both flooding and drought.
  11. 11. Mosquito Borne Disease Johnson TL et al. “Modeling the environmental suitability for Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti and Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Dipter: Culicidae) in the contiguous United States.” Jrl Med Entomol. Sept. 2017
  12. 12. Wildfires  Increased intensity, frequency, duration and acres burned  Increased exposure to PM  Studies strongly associate wildfire smoke with increased respiratory symptoms and all-cause mortality, less clearly with cardiac events and pneumonia.
  13. 13. Rice Ridge/Seeley Lake Fire 2017 ED Visits: July 24-Sept 7  378 ED visits by Missoula and Powell County residents for respiratory symptoms, compared with 163 in 2016.  2.3 times higher  Elderly (65 and over): 111 visits, compared with 39 in 2016.  5-17 year olds: 21 visits, compared with 14 in 2016.
  14. 14. Allergies Will Be Much Worse by 2040 2040 Grains of pollen per cubic meter: 21,735 2000 Grains of pollen per cubic meter: 8,455 Average pollen counts are specific to North America
  15. 15. CO2, Global Warming and Crops  Increased CO2 decreases protein content in grains  Zinc and iron content are also decreased.  Increased temperature decreases productivity of grains
  16. 16. Questions?
  17. 17. References  USGCRP, 2016: The Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A Scientific Assessment. Crimmins, A., J. Balbus, J.L. Gamble, C.B. Beard, J.E. Bell, D. Dodgen, R.J. Eisen, N. Fann, M.D. Hawkins, S.C. Herring, L. Jantarasami, D.M. Mills, S. Saha, M.C. Sarofim, J. Trtanj, and L. Ziska, Eds. U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, 312 pp.  NCA 4: USGCRP, 2018: Impacts, Risks, and Adaptation in the United States: Fourth National Climate Assessment, Volume II [Reidmiller, D.R., C.W. Avery, D.R. Easterling, K.E. Kunkel, K.L.M. Lewis, T.K. Maycock, and B.C. Stewart (eds.)]. U.S. Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC, USA, 1515 pp. doi: 10.7930/NCA4.2018.  Reid, C. E. et al. Critical Review of Health Impacts of Wildfire Smoke Exposure. Environ Health Persp 124, 1334–1343 (2016).  Cascio, W. E. Wildland fire smoke and human health. Sci Total Environ 624, 586–595 (2018).
  18. 18. Links  NCA 4: Health_Full.pdf  Medical Society Consortium: Medical Alert! Climate Change is Harming our Health, content/uploads/2017/03/gmu_medical_alert_updated_082417.pdf  APHA: Adaptation in Action, Part II, /media/files/pdf/topics/climate/adaptation_in_action_part_2.ashx
  19. 19. Robert Byron, MD: Contact Information