Deforestation: Causes, Effects and Solutions


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A presentation about the state of the world's forests, the main causes behind deforestation, and what we can do about it.

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  • 11 of 32 the 2nd point 'timbre' its actually 'timber'
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  • Excellent work. Very informative, well organised with great images to match your text. I really liked your solution section to empower the reader/class/ or whomever goes through your work. With global issues like this they can be overwhelming and depressing, so offering solutions that individuals can do is up-lifting. Thanks for your hard work.
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Deforestation: Causes, Effects and Solutions

  1. 1. DEFORESTATION Alexandra LOVICHOVA, Nicholas EIO, Kenneth HO
  2. 2. Content 1.  Introduction: Deforestation 2.  Current Situation of our Rainforests 3.  Causes of Deforestation 4.  Short & Long Term Effects of Deforestation 5.  Short & Long Term Solutions 6.  Conclusion
  3. 3. Introduction 1
  4. 4. Introduction: Deforestation •  Forests cover 31% of the land area on our planet •  They produce vital oxygen and provide homes for people and wildlife •  Many of the world’s most threatened and endangered animals live in these forests •  1.6 billion people rely on benefits forests offer, including food, fresh water, clothing, traditional medicine and shelter
  5. 5. Current Situation of our Rainforests 2
  6. 6. Country Deforested Area (Hectares) Brazil 3,466,000 Indonesia 1,447,800 Russia 532,200 Mexico 395,000 Papua New Guinea 250,200 Country Deforested Area (Hectares) Peru 224,600 USA 215,200 Bolivia 135,200 Sudan 117,807 Nigeria 82,000 Top 10 Countries with Highest Deforestation
  7. 7. Current Situation in Brazil h"p://  
  8. 8. Case Study: Amazon Rainforest Events Year Description 1960s Colonists began establishing farms within the forest via slash-and-burn method 1970s Construction began on the Trans-Amazonian Highway, paving roads and making it easier to transport timbre 1990 – 2000s Total Area forest lost in the Amazon rose by 160,000 sq km to 587,000 sq km, of which 70% used for livestock pasture 2005 Use of satellite data has helped the government slash deforestation by 80% by allowing police to pinpoint illegal activity in the forest 2013 Satellite data reported a 28% increase in deforestation to 5,843 sq km compared to the previous year
  9. 9. Case Study: Amazon Rainforest (Past 15 Years) •  While present figures are much better than before, deforestation continues to threaten the world’s ecosystem •  The razing of forests continues to be a major contributor to the emissions that drive climate change 17.3 18.2 18.4 23.3 24.9 27.4 18.9 14.3 11.7 12.9 7.5 7.0 6.4 4.7 5.8 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 ‘000 Sq km of deforestation (per annum) Source: Institute of Space Research (INPE)
  10. 10. Causes of Deforestation 3
  11. 11. Causes of Deforestation 1. Clearing land to build housing 2. Felling trees for wood 4. Other land uses •  Countries resort to deforestation to cope with the increasing demand for housing brought about by the growing population •  Logging, or simply cutting down trees for timbre is one of the main causes of deforestation 3. Agriculture •  To provide land for food crops such as palm oil and for rearing cattle, undisturbed rainforest areas end up being removed •  Land for mining and industrial projects •  Building dams
  12. 12. 1. Growing Demand for Housing World Population 3.0 billion 1960 6.0 billion 2000 9.6 billion 2050 •  The current world population of 7.2 billion is projected to reach 9.6 billion by 2050, according to a UN report •  To cater to the increasing housing needs, many resort to removing rainforests to create land
  13. 13. 2. Logging •  Many commercial logging companies fell down trees in a process known as selective logging, where only the most valuable trees are felled •  Over the years, the uses of wood moved from wood fuel to construction materials such as shelters and furniture •  Today, almost every household has something made out of wood, eg. floor tiles, cutleries and musical instruments Wood felling by commercial logging companies Growing demand for products made from wood
  14. 14. 3. Agriculture – Crop Planting & Cattle Ranching Clearing of Land for Palm Oil and other Crop Plantations Clearing of Land to Rear Cattle Subsistence Farming Breeding Cows for MilkCattle Ranching
  15. 15. 4. Other Land Uses Mining and Industrial Projects Building Dams •  In India and South America, rainforests have been destroyed by the building of hydro- electric dams •  It was the dominant view that new dams had to be built or otherwise these countries would suffer an energy crisis Mining Projects Industrial Projects
  16. 16. Effects 4
  17. 17. Environmental & Economical Impacts IMPACTS Increased Soil Erosion Disruption of Water Cycles Reduced Biodiversity Climate Change Disruption of Livelihoods
  18. 18. Short Term Environmental Effects •  No trees anchoring the fertile soil •  Erosion is sweeping the land into rivers •  The agricultural plants replacing the forests are unable to hold onto the soil •  Since 1960 a third of world’s arable land has been lost •  As fertile soil washes away producers move on, clearing more forests •  Trees play a key role in the local water cycle •  Keep balance between the water on the land and the water in the atmosphere •  Disrupted balance changes the precipitation and river flow Increased Soil Erosion Disruption of Water Cycles
  19. 19. Long Term Environmental Effects •  80 % species can be found in tropical rainforests •  Often unable to survive in the small fragments of forested lend left behind •  Accessible to hunters and poachers •  Leading to extinction •  Forests help to mitigate carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions •  When cut, burned or otherwise removed they become carbon source •  Tropical forests hold more than 210 gig tons of carbon •  Deforestation represents 15% of greenhouse gas emissions •  Rising temperatures, changed patterns of weather and increase of extreme weather events Reduced Biodiversity Climate Change
  20. 20. Economical Effects •  Deforestation greatly influences many lives •  In Southeast Asia deforestation contributed to migration and social conflicts •  In Brazil the poor people are constantly pressured to move from their villages often to remote soy plantations where they have to work under inhumane conditions •  Destroying sources of medicine •  Increasing food insecurity •  Flooding causing loss of many lives and homes Disruption of Livelihoods
  21. 21. Solutions 5
  22. 22. Solutions 1. Corporations 2. Governments •  If corporations have the ability to destroy the world’s rainforests, they also have the power to help save them •  Governments are able to enact ambitious domestic and international forest policies that have wide-ranging effects 3. Individuals •  As individuals, we contribute significantly to deforestation with our lifestyle, hence we have the responsibility to keep ourselves in check
  23. 23. 1. Corporations •  Corporations can implement anti-deforestation policies that require suppliers and other stakeholders to operate in ways that do not harm the environment •  Corporations are huge consumers of paper. Management can work towards a paper-free office by shifting towards email and soft-copies, and also encourage their employees to recycle Implement anti-deforestation policies Minimise paper wastage and encourage recycling
  24. 24. 2. Governments •  The cutting down of trees must be countered by replacing old ones that were cut with young ones. Trees are being planted every year, but they still don’t match the number of trees that we lost •  Governments have the resources to allow anti- deforestation organisations to get their message across and increase their sphere of influence. This is a good way to indirectly solve deforestation Reforestation Support organisations that push for anti-deforestation
  25. 25. 3. Individuals “You may never know what results come from your action. But if you do nothing, there will be no result.” – Mahatma Gandhi
  26. 26. 3. Individuals •  Everybody, even children, can be conscious of the need to recycle. Instead of throwing paper away, we can always seek to recycle it or use it for other purposes •  By purchasing recycled products, we are encouraging more and more companies to produce recycled products, which deal less damage to our forests , creates less waste and decreases the need for new raw materials Recycle Use recycled products
  27. 27. 3. Individuals •  For ecological deforestation to end, paper consumption must be drastically reduced. Opting for paperless bills, checks and payments significantly contributes towards mending the harmful effects of deforestation •  Cattle grazing is one of the primary causes of deforestation. Limit your consumption of fast food meat and always choose to buy locally. Knowing where your food comes from helps to combat deforestation Go paperless Be conscious of your food choices
  28. 28. 3. Individuals •  In some places, especially developing countries, wood is still used as fuel. Purchase renewable energy, such as solar, geothermal and wind energy to help stop deforestation •  What’s better than one person fighting deforestation? Two people doing the same thing. Spread your knowledge and urge others to follow in your footsteps and fight deforestation Use renewable energy Educate others of the need to fight deforestation
  29. 29. Conclusion 6
  30. 30. Conclusion
  31. 31. THE END