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Paris k net-5th

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Presentation on the Fifth Estate in Paris February 2012 for t

Presentation on the Fifth Estate in Paris February 2012 for t

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Paris k net-5th Paris k net-5th Presentation Transcript

  • William H. Dutton Professor of Internet Studies Oxford Internet Institute (OII) University of Oxford The Rise of the Fifth Estate in Networked Societies Presentation for the ‘Colloque villes et territoires numériques’, Paris, 6-7 February 2012.
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    • Press since the 18th Century - the ‘Fourth Estate’
    • Internet in the 21st - enabling a Fifth Estate
    • −−
    The Fifth Estate Enabling people to network with other individuals and with information, services and technical resources in ways that support social accountability in business and industry, government, politics, and the media.
  • “ [Edmund] Burke said there were Three Estates in Parliament; but, in the Reporters’ Gallery yonder, there sat a Fourth Estate more prominent far than they all. It is not a figure of speech, or witty saying; it is a literal fact – very momentous to us in these times.” Thomas Carlyle (1831), Heroes and Hero-Worship , at www.gutenberg.org.etext/1091 The Fourth Estate
  • Feudal Estates into the 21 st Century Estates Feudal Modern Clergy Public Intellectuals Nobility Business, Industry and Economic Elites Commons Government and Politicians ‘ 4 th Estate’ Press Journalists and the Mass Media Mob Civil Society, Networked Individuals, Mobs
    • 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009, 2011
    • Cross-sectional Surveys versus Panels
    • Multi-Stage Probability Sample
    • England, Scotland & Wales
    • Respondents: 14 years and older
    • Face-to-face Interviews, High Response Rates
    • Sponsorship for 2011 from the Nominet Trust, British Library, Ofcom, O2, and ITV.com
    • Component of World Internet Project (WIP)
    Oxford Internet Surveys
  • OxIS Samples 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 Fielded in June-July Feb.-March March- April Feb.- March Feb.-March Number of respondents 2,030 2,185 2,350 2,013 2,057 Response rate 66% 72% 77% 67% 51%
    • Collaboration of OII, INSEAD, and comScore for the World Economic Forum (WEF)
    • Online Global Survey
    • Completed by 5,400 Adult Internet Users
    • Conducted from Oct-Nov 2010
    • 13 countries: Australia/New Zealand, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, Italy, India, Mexico, South Africa, Spain, the United States, and the United Kingdom
    The Global Internet Values Project* *Dutta, S., Dutton, W. H. and Law, G. (2011), The New Internet World: A Global Perspective on Freedom of Expression, Privacy, Trust and Security Online . New York: The World Economic Forum, April. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1810005
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  • Pattern of Findings Supporting Rise of Networked Individuals
    • Networked Institutions, such as in e-Health
    • Networked Individuals:
      • going to the Internet for health and medical information
      • networking patients, e.g., UK Children With Diabetes Advocacy Group (500 Families)
      • networking physicians, e.g., Sermo
    Networked Institutions v Networked Individuals
  • Sermo: a Collaborative Network Organisation
    • The Performance of Distributed Problem-Solving Networks (DPSN), McKinsey Technology Initiative (MTI) and the Oxford Internet Institute (2007-8) http://www.oii.ox.ac.uk/research/project.cfm?id=45
    • The Oxford e-Social Science Project (OeSS), Economic and Social Research Council (2005-12)
    • The Fifth Estate Project, supported by the OII, Oxford Internet Surveys (2003-2012), and June Klein, Electronic Boardroom™
    Research on Collaborative Networks
  • The Wisdom of Crowds -- The many can outperform the few by: • statistical averaging of individual judgements – the Jury Theorem (Condorcet [1785]); • bringing the attention of more people – ‘eyeballs’ – to the problem; • aggregating information, intelligence, that is geographically distributed • enhancing diversity: bringing together more heterogeneous viewpoints, perspectives, and approaches; • simultaneous review rather than sequential processing, enabling more rapid diffusion of questions and answers; • avoidance of small group processes, such as ‘groupthink’; and • greater independence of, and less control by, established institutions.
  • Case Studies of ‘Distributed Problem Solving Networks’ Case study
      • News aggregators
      • Sermo
      • Seriosity
      • Information markets
      • Atlas
      • ASOA
      • Firefox development
      • Simple Wikipedia
    Source: OII What is it about?
      • Different paradigms to find, rate, and prioritize news available online
      • Physicians sharing medical information
      • Use of multi-player game features to help prioritize use of e-mail and attention foci
      • Aggregating judgments to predict public and private events
      • Designing and building a high energy physics (HEP) experiment
      • Financing and creating an Open Content Feature Film
      • Making an Open Source web browser “Mom-and-Dad” friendly
      • Improve readability of Wikipedia
    • Wisdom of Crowds?
    • Reconfiguring Access: Networked Individuals v. Networked Institutions
    • Well Managed ‘Networked Individuals’
    • Wisdom of Managing Networked Individuals: e.g. managing access, modularization of tasks, …
    Collaborative Network Organizations
  • Networked Institutions v Networked Individuals of the Fifth Estate Arenas: Networked Institutions Networked Individuals News Online journalism, BBC Online, Live Micro-Blogging Citizen Journalists, Bloggers, Netizens Posting Videos Democracy E-Democracy, E-Consultation, e-Voting Obama campaign, Networking the Pro-Democracy Protests Education Online Learning, Multimedia Classrooms Backchannels, informal learning Health and Medical NHS Direct, e-mailing safety alerts Going to the Internet for health information, Sermo
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  • The Fourth Estate Depends on an Independent Press – Independent in Relation to Other Estates The Fourth Estate : News of the World Case
  • “ Wael Ghonim, a 30-year-old executive from Google, was the administrator of an anti-torture page on Facebook, the social networking website, that is widely credited with organising the first day of protest [in Egypt] on January 25.” Jon Swaine, The Telegraph, 11 Feb 2011
  • The Fifth Estate ? England Riots & Cleanup
  • Centrality of the Internet, Trust in Government and Attitudes toward Internet Regulation over Time OxIS 2003: N=2,029; OxIS 2005: N=2,185; OxIS 2007 N=2,350. OxIS 2009: N=2,013
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  • OxIS 2003: N=2,029; OxIS 2005: N=2,185; OxIS 2007 N=2,350. OxIS 2009: N=2,013
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    • Networked Institutions: greater ubiquity, universal access
    • Networked Individuals of the Fifth Estate: require a critical mass, not universal access
    Networked Institutions v Networked Individuals of the Fifth Estate
  • Regions as Percentage of the Worldwide Population of Users
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  • Pattern of Findings Supporting Conception of a ‘New Internet World’: Many Limitations
  • 18th Century Estates: 21st Century Enemies 18th Century Estates 21st Century: Enemies of the 5th Estate Attacks Clergy Public Intellectuals ‘ Culture of Amateurism’, individualist consumerism Nobility Business, Industry and Economic Elites Vertical Integration; Monopoly over Search; Three Strikes Commons Government and Regulatory Agencies Filtering; Content Regulation; Identification; Surveillance; Disconnection Press Journalists and the Mass Media Co-opting, Imitating, Competing, and Supporting Mob Spammers, Fraudsters, Cyberstalkers, Rioters… Undermining Trust and Confidence; Fostering Regulation of Content, Attacks on Anonymity
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    • The Internet is:
      • NOT ushering point & click democracy, but
      • Empowering Networked Individuals
      • Enabling Collaborative Network Organisations
      • Both Support the Rise of a 5 th Estate
    • Enhancing Accountability of Government, Business and Industry, the Press, Civil Society, and Institutions in Every Sector
    • Not a Utopian Future, but a Literal Fact, Based on Empirical Evidence
    Internet and Democratic Accountability
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  • William H. Dutton Professor of Internet Studies Oxford Internet Institute (OII) University of Oxford The Rise of the Fifth Estate in Networked Societies Presentation for the ‘Colloque villes et territoires numériques’, Paris, 6-7 February 2012.