Although the struggle to close the gap between the technology haves and have-nots will continue for at least the next 10 years (according to recent Gartner research), the digital divide has been recognized as a serious threat and things are moving in the right direction.
And a recent Gartner report stated that 1 in 5 households worldwide will have a fixed broadband connection by the end of this year. Which means 422 million households will have broadband by the end of this year, compared to 382 million in 2008, and it is likely that the this trend will grow to 580 million by 2013.
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But while strides have been made in the recent years to close the digital divide gap with open and reliable access to Internet, a new digital divide has opened up. The new digital divide separates those who, for a variety of reasons, decide not to utilize technology from those who do.
Seth Godin, in his book “Small is the new big” notes that the new digital divide is “based far more on choice than on circumstance.” And while in certain situations this choice might not be directly yours, a distinction should still be made between not having reliable access to the Internet and simply not using it.
Why does the new digital divide exist? In our research, we have identified several reasons as to why the new digital divide exists, including: 21st century and social media literacy skills; access restrictions that have nothing to do with the availability of broadband or the technology; socioeconomic barriers, which is especially evident in schools; fear, resistance, privacy and security, as well as awareness and relevance specifically for the digital immigrants.
We also identified four groups of people who are being affected by new digital divide: digital natives, digital immigrants, people lacking opportunities, conscientious objectors
In several European countries, Internet access has been declared a human right…
HOWEVER…. This has not eradicated the digital divide among today’s youth. WHY?...
Participation gap -- effect on students even in the wealthiest suburbs… kids don’t have enough time in school computer labs/libraries… public libraries have limits (30 min) for user time… not enough time for kids to get work done when teachers are assigning a lot of computer required work….
But in addition to the traditional divide… the new digital divide is also a divide in knowledge and ability. As we know and others are coming finally to understand, you can’t just throw computers into schools and libraries and be done with it. We must give students the opportunities and the knowledge to be able to use these technologies to involve themselves in today’s participatory / Web 2.0 culture.
Some of these standards are embedded within content area standards (so they take a back seat); some teachers are barely competent (or not) with these technologies, so how can they possibly integrate them into their curriculum? No separate “Technology Skills” or even “Media Literacy Skills” class—so how do kids learn?
As educators know, if a skill or competency isn’t testable or tested, it tends to fall by the wayside. So many of these standards are getting “lip service” right now. AND media literacy needs have advanced beyond educating students about powerpoint and email… become about 2.0! (Read quote )
This represents a shift to more of a focus on participatory culture…
Providing access to computers isn’t enough to close the divide—this must be combined with education to help young people learn the skills and knowledge needed to use these tools effectively.
In addition to building technology skills, building awareness of the potential of the technology is important. One thing that divides the digital immigrants from the natives, is that they don’t think of the internet as a source of information. And even when they are aware of what the technology has to offer, they find it difficult to see how they can benefit directly from it. In short, digital immigrants are either not aware of what the internet has to offer or they don’t see it as relevant to them, and in most cases it’s both.
The above two examples, Pete Taylor and my Mom, also illustrate fear of privacy and security. And these are not imagined fears, these are real concerns that all of us are facing. For digital immigrants who are new to the Internet it can be that much more difficult to start using internet resources, especially social networking sites.
Day 5 social justice and multiculturalism
Social Justice and Multiculturalism<br />In relation to Technology Integration<br />
2013 – 580 million households</li></ul>Source: http://www.gartner.com/it/page.jsp?id=1189323<br />
But it’s more than just access…<br />The Real Access criteria are:<br />(1) Physical access to technology (2) Appropriateness of technology(3) Affordability of technology and technology use(4) Human capacity and training (5) Locally relevant content, applications, and services(6) Integration into daily routines(7) Socio-cultural factors (8) Trust in technology(9) Local economic environment (10) Macro-economic environment (11) Legal and regulatory framework(12) Political will and public support<br />
“hidden digital exclusion”<br />Gain little from their engagement with ICTs<br />Individuals drop in and out of ICT engagement at different stages<br />Unequal ways that computers are used<br />Smart use of ICTs<br />Empowered “digital choice”<br />
Some possiblities?<br />Age<br />Socio-economic status<br />Education<br />Family composition<br />Gender<br />Geography<br />Race<br />Futurelab handout with these<br />
Some Research<br />Pew institute<br />Take a look at some stats…key finding, surprises etc?<br />Google search –group + ict digital divide may produce some useful results<br />
Internet Statistics <br /><ul><li>79% of American adults used the internet in 2009, up from 67% in Feb. 2005</li></ul>Source: http://www.pewinternet.org/Infographics/Growth-in-Adult-SNS-Use-20052009.aspx<br />
Using the Internet as a Tool<br /><ul><li>Some 69% of all Americans have used the internet to cope with the recession as they hunt for bargains, jobs, ways to upgrade their skills, better investment strategies, housing options, and government benefits. That amounts to 88% of internet users.</li></ul>Source: http://www.pewinternet.org/Reports/2009/11-The-Internet-and-the-Recession.aspx<br />
Poverty <br /><ul><li>1 in 10 Americans are unemployed
Internet Access as a Human Right<br />Estonia, France, and most recently Finland have made internet access a human right<br />
Here are some examples of the New Digital Divide …<br />
The Divide Among Digital Natives<br />Access to Technology through Schools<br /><ul><li>Nearly universal in the U.S. </li></ul> • No Child Left Behind <br /> • Telecommunications Act of 1996 <br />Nationwide average of four students per computer in schools<br />
The Divide Among Digital Natives<br />Access to Technology at Home<br />70% of individuals aged 3 – 17 <br /> live in households with internet access. <br /> — U.S. Census Bureau’s 2007 population report (released online in 2009)<br />
Lack of Home Internet Access<br /><ul><li>Creates a Divide when Using Technology at School</li></ul> “Children who have access to home computers demonstrate more positive attitudes towards computers and show greater ease when using computers than those who do not… <br /> More often than not, those youth who have developed the most comfort with the online world are the ones who dominate classroom use of computers, pushing aside less technically skilled classmates.”<br />(Jenkins 8; 13) <br />
The NEW Divide = a Division in Knowledge<br /><ul><li>We must “shift the focus of the conversation about the digital divide from questions of technological access to those of opportunities to participate and to develop the cultural competencies and skills needed for full involvement” in society.
“Access to today’s participatory culture functions as a new form of the hidden curriculum, shaping which youth will succeed and which will be left behind as they enter school and the workplace.” </li></ul>(Jenkins 3) <br />
Media Literacy - knowledge<br />Media Literacy Education<br /> All states have adopted educational standards detailing what students should know and be able to do with technology. <br />But… <br />(Hightower)<br />
Media Literacy - knowledge<br /><ul><li>Only 5 states actually test students’ knowledge and skills with technology (Hightower).
The focus of technology education must shift to the “new media literacies: a set of skills that young people need in the new media landscape…The new literacies almost all involve social skills developed through collaboration and networking” (Jenkins 4). </li></li></ul><li>Participatory Culture<br /><ul><li>A study conducted by the Pew Internet and American Life Project suggests that “we are moving away from a world in which some produce and many consume media, toward one in which everyone has a more active stake in the culture that is produced” </li></ul>(Lenhardt & Madden)<br />
Participatory Divide<br /><ul><li>More than half of American teens could be considered media creators</li></ul>Created a blog or webpage<br />Posted original artwork, photos, stories, videos<br />Remixed online content into a new creation<br />What about the other half ? ? ?<br />(Lenhardt & Madden)<br />
Participatory Culture<br />The New Literacies<br />How are they addressed in your life? In your classroom?<br />
Awareness and Relevance<br /> “Pew survey indicates that about 65 million Americans don’t go online. Of this group, only five percent cite money as the reason; 39 percent say only that they’re not interested or it’s a waste of time.”<br />Source: http://firstmonday.org/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/1395/1313<br />
Fear – Privacy – Security <br /> “It is often fear, however, as much as absence of opportunity that holds people back.”<br />Source: http://www.guardian.co.uk/culture/2009/oct/25/internet-uk-martha-lane-fox<br />
The “Conscientious Objectors (COs)”<br /><ul><li>Of the nearly 65 million Americans who don’t go online, 39% say they’re “not interested.” –Pew Internet Life Statistics, qtd. in Green.
Why?</li></ul>Learning habits<br />Demonization of technology<br />Ideas about technology users/early adopters<br />Nonusers’ social networks are narrow<br />Sources: Green, R. Michelle. “Unpacking ‘I Don’t Want It’” – why novices and non-users don’t use the Internet.” First Monday 11(9). 9 September 2006. Via http://firstmonday.org/htbin/<br />cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/1395/1313<br />
COs: An Intergenerational Perspective<br />Boomers: <br />Learning new literacies takes too much time<br />Feel guilty using social media at work<br />Embarrassed to ask Millennials for help <br />Gen X:<br />Uncomfortable with homogenization<br />Technological burnout<br />Time demands<br />Sources: Lynne Lancaster, “Social Media: Jumping In or Opting Out?” Twin Cities Business Magazine via http://tinyurl.com/yfn6mkb<br />Michael Martin, “’Refuseniks’ Say They’ll Pass on Facebook, Twitter” National Public Radio Interview. Via http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=113928457<br />
COs: An Intergenerational Perspective, Continued<br />Millennials:<br />View overlapping social media as “redundant”<br />Disdain a “me, me, me” mentality<br />Josh Friedman, “Twitter for Business? Call Me Dr. Jekyll…” Central Desktop Blog via http://tinyurl.com/yh22fp4<br />
Futurelab<br />Explore a little about Digital Inclusion<br />http://www.futurelab.org.uk/themes/digital-inclusion<br />Designing educational technologies for social justice<br />
More than access…digital literacy<br />Skills and knowledge to access and use a variety of digital media software applications and hardware devices<br />Ablity to critically understand digital media content and applications<br />Knowledge and capacity to create with digital technology<br />
Why bother?<br />Increase consumer confidence and trust in the online marketplace<br />Support Canada’s capacityt o innovate with digital technology in the workplace, healthcare and education<br />Support growth of Canada’s ICT industries<br />Support the development of Canadian digital media content<br />
Benefits of Digital Literacy<br />Jigsaw Read<br />
Barriers<br />Read article excerpt…how do we as educators fit in?<br />