15.02, Segalas — Lecture on technology and sustainable development

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SD Course in Kyiv Polytechnic Institute, 12-23 Febraury 2006

SD Course in Kyiv Polytechnic Institute, 12-23 Febraury 2006

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  • 1. Erasmus Mundus Action 4 project “Promoting European Education in Sustainable Development” TEMPUS Joint European Project_ 25163_ 2004 “Bridging the gap between University and businesses” Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007 Technology and Sustainable Development Role of Engineers Case study Professor Jordi Segalas Technology and Sustainable Development Polytechnic University of Catalonia Barcelona, SPAIN Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  • 2. What role can engineers play, in sustainable development? Are we followers? Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  • 3. Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  • 4. The current world view - relative importance? Economy laws are ‘inevitable’ - market laws Environment Environment is used to fulfill (‘technology the demands of the Economy can fix it’) laws. (Resources, waste and pollution absorption) Economy (‘inevitable laws’) Society adapts to the inevitable economy laws: As much money as sooner as Society possible. Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  • 5. But this is what we all ultimately depend on for life - so... Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  • 6. Engineers provide the interfaces... Environmental laws are ‘inevitable’ - laws of nature. Products Products Environment nurtures, supports and makes possible…. Society - which has a Economy Economy mixture of instinctive and learned/cultural laws --invented! invented! Society has invented, to serve society’s purposes…. Society Society Economy - whose rules and practices are totally ‘invented’ Infrastructure Infrastructure by society Environment Environment --‘inevitable’ ‘inevitable’ SO: why do so many regard Economic laws as ‘inevitable’ (globalisation, etc); but Environmental laws, and limits, as manipulable? Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  • 7. Serving Needs, or Quality of Life, or Wants? • “Traditional cultures, having more limited means to satisfy human needs, tend to meet as many needs as possible with as few resources as possible. • In contrast, industrial capitalism emphasises the creation of specialised products that fight for market niches to fill ‘needs’ that, as often as not, cannot be satisfied by material goods. (Natural Capitalism, Ch. 14) Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  • 8. Example: which of these is more worth an engineer’s energy & interest? Hasbro's Tooth Tunes toothbrushes have an MP3 player built in. They use bone-conduction to rattle the sound through your teeth for 3 minutes, making sure you brush for the American Dental Association's recommended time. Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  • 9. Example: which of these is more worth an engineer’s energy & interest? Design of Temporary Shelters for Refugees Thousands of refugee deaths from hypothermia could be prevented every year if a new hi-tech UK-designed tent lining performs well in tests in Afghanistan. A team from the University of Cambridge has developed linings for existing refugee tents that will pay for themselves in saved heating costs in one winter. They are made of a sandwich of materials: polyester wadding like you'd find in a puffa jacket and a cheap breathable waterproof membrane. Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  • 10. Choosing what you are engineering for - engineers can’t be neutral Luxury OK NEVER NEVER y litty biili ip Affluence ab in arsh ip Quality GOOD ttaine rsh a s MAYBE NEVER u s ad e S u e ad S Le L Needs BRILLIANT GOOD MAYBE Technology No net impact In - between High impact Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  • 11. Engineers’ reputation as professionals, not mercenaries - whose interests do we serve? •• “Video toothbrush” “Video toothbrush” •• “In development by “In development by OK NEVER NEVER Panasonic, this Panasonic, this electric toothbrush electric toothbrush has aaminiature video has miniature video camera mounted camera mounted beside the bristles to beside the bristles to allow the user to see allow the user to see GOOD MAYBE on aamonitor the NEVER on monitor the ‘40%’ of debris they ‘40%’ of debris they normally miss.” normally miss.” •• (TYNKYN - -EC 11/01) (TYNKYN EC 11/01) BRILLIANT GOOD MAYBE Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  • 12. What defines a socially sustainable product? • Is being manufactured sustainably enough, whatever the product’s social impact? • Or, should engineers push for socially sustainable features in the products: for instance….affordability and accessibility for the ‘excluded’ - the poorest 10%? • Or, should we put our energy and interest into products and projects which serve ‘needs’ rather than artificially created ‘wants’? Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  • 13. Case Study http://www.interfacesustainability.com/ Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  • 14. Enterprise core Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  • 15. Enterprise relation to Society The company is part of a supply chain, with suppliers and customers and a market, our share of which we hope to increase. Products flow through that supply chain in one direction; money flows in the other direction. Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  • 16. XX Century Enterprise Model Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  • 17. 1. Zero Waste Against ideal operational standards—zero waste— they identified $70 million in waste, based on 1994 operations—10 percent of sales! Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  • 18. 1. Zero Waste Total manufacturing waste sent to landfills has decreased by 63% since 1996. The cumulative avoided costs from waste elimination activities since 1995 have totaled over $299 million. Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  • 19. 2. Benign Emissions Interface identified and inventoried 247 air emissions stacks and 19 waste water effluent pipes at their manufacturing locations. Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  • 20. 2. Benign Emissions Reduced the number of stacks on its facilities by 35 percent and the number of effluent pipes by 53 percent. Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  • 21. 3. Renewable Energies The third front, Renewable Energy, means eventually harnessing solar energy Harnessing renewable energy will attack numerous unwanted linkages, both to the lithosphere and to the biosphere, and will allow closed loop recycling Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  • 22. 3. Renewable Energies An emphasis on initiatives that improve efficiency and conserve energy has reduced the total energy used at carpet manufacturing facilities (per unit of product). It is down 41% since 1996. use of renewable energy increased from 11% to 13% in 2005. Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  • 23. 4. Closing cycles Two cycles are introduced: a natural, organic cycle, emphasizing natural raw materials and compostable products (quot;dust to dustquot;) a technical cycle, giving man- made materials and precious organic molecules life after life, through closed loop recycling. Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  • 24. 4. Closing cycles The ReEntry program diverted 85 million pounds of material from landfill between 1995 and 2005. In 2005, 18 million pounds was diverted from landfill and used in recycling (71%), energy capture and conversion (28%), and repurposed (1%). The percentage of recycled or biobased content in products worldwide has increased from 0.5% in 1996 to 15.9% in 2005. Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  • 25. 4. Closing cycles Water intake per square meter of carpet is down 81% in modular carpet facilities and down 52% in broadloom facilities from 1996 due to conservation efforts and process changes Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  • 26. 5. Efficient resources/goods transport We can: • videoconference to avoid the unnecessary trip for a meeting. • drive the most efficient automobiles available. • site our factories near the markets they serve • plan logistics for maximum efficiency Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  • 27. 6. Sensitivity Hookup • service to the community through involvement and investment in the community (especially in education), • closer relations among ourselves (inside the circle) to get all of us in alignment, and with suppliers and customers. Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  • 28. 6. Sensitivity Hookup Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  • 29. 7. Redesign of commerce Redesigning commerce probably hinges, more than anything else, on the acceptance of entirely new notions of economics, especially prices that reflect full costs. It means shifting emphasis from simply selling products to providing services Relationships based on delivering, via leasing agreements, the services our products provide, in lieu of the products themselves Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  • 30. 7. Redesign of commerce Other examples: Photocopies: Xerox: Sells copy services instead of copy machines. Elevator: Schindler, Sells vertical transport maintenance free instead of elevators We can go farther: In ICT: You can buy hours of word editor instead of hardware and software. In civil engineering: you can provide the service: connection between two places instead of roads. The enterprise is responsible for maintenance, in case of interruption enterprise is fined. Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  • 31. • service oriented • resource-efficient • wasting nothing • solar driven • cyclical (no longer take-make- waste linear) • strongly connected to stakeholders: communities (building social equity), customers, and suppliers— and to one another. • Our communities are stronger and better educated Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  • 32. Redefine engineering culture away from ‘Building things’ to ‘meeting needs sustainably’? The 19th (& 20th?) Century Engineer The 21st Century Engineer I built all I didn’t need this! to build anything new! Visible construction, at great public Providing and Refurbishing the expense, to meet society’s wants minimum to meet society’s needs Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  • 33. Engineers provide the interfaces... • Becoming Products Products sustainable requires leaders who recognise this world view, and act Economy Economy accordingly. --invented! invented! Society --instinctive? Society instinctive? Infrastructure Infrastructure Environment -- Environment ‘inevitable’ ‘inevitable’ Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  • 34. Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007