Erasmus Mundus Action 4 project
    “Promoting European Education in Sustainable Development”
           TEMPUS Joint Euro...
1. Use of indicators

           2. Many many indicators

           3. GPI - GDP
Contents
           4. Ecological Footpr...
Uses of indicators:
• to measure progress - eg. GDP/capita
• to measure efficiency - eg. ‘productivity’
• to communicate, ...
Using the right Indicators is vital to
    moving to sustainability..
   • “If I can’t measure it, I can’t manage it”
• Bu...
Many many indicators….




           Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
             NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
http://mdgs.un.org/unsd


           Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
             NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
  NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
  NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
  NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
The GPI starts with the same
  personal consumption data the GDP
  is based on, but then makes some
  crucial distinctions...
What's Wrong with the GDP as a Measure of Progress

Since its introduction during World War II as a measure of wartime pro...
What's Wrong with the GDP as a Measure of Progress

I. GDP Treats Crime & Natural Disasters as Economic Gain
II. GDP Ignor...
Monetary benefits (ignored by GDP) included in GPI:

1. Value of time spent on household work, parenting, and volunteer wo...
GPI subtracts of expenses that’s do not improve well-being:

1. Defensive expenditures, defined as money spent to maintain...
GPI versus GDP as a Measure of Progress




                        Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
                       ...
Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
  NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
ECOLOGICAL
FOOTPRINT.
  WHAT?
    &
   WHY?




             Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
               NTUU “KPI”, 12-...
Introduction
• In Rio-92 Conference it was showed the need of reducing
  the impacts of human beings to the environment.

...
What is Ecological Footprint?

• It’s defined as the surface of productive
  land and water necessaries to support an
  sp...
What does the EF measure?
    •   Consumption of food and materials: in relation to the surface of earth and seas
        ...
How is the EF evaluated?
Consumption patterns               Land patterns & its use
 1. Housing.              Use         ...
Evaluation Matrix
                         A                         C                                   F
Ecological Foot...
Example: Canada
                              A                         C                                 F
Ecological Foo...
Global values              Informe Living planet 2004




• World availability per capita: 1.8 units
• Word consumption 2,...
Local Ecological Footprint,
      Available 5

      Available 4

      Available 3

      Available 2

       Available

...
LA
SE   SP NL    Ukraine




              Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
                NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
Global values              Informe Living planet 2000




• World availability per capita: 1.8 units
• Word consumption 2,...
Regional Ecological Footprint, 1996                                                      Living planet
                   ...
Ecological Footprint evolution




              Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
                NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February...
Evolution of the Global Ecological Footprint




                      Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
                    ...
Evolution of the Global Ecological Footprint




                      Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
                    ...
Evolution of the Global Ecological Footprint




                      Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
                    ...
Evolution of the Global Ecological Footprint




                      Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
                    ...
Evolution of the Global Ecological Footprint




                      Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
                    ...
Evolution of the Global Ecological Footprint




                      Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
                    ...
Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
  NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
Four factors make up the ecological debt;therefore, debt
  reduction requires policies and actions that lead to:
1. Increa...
The following actions will help create a society where all people live well,
 within the capacity of one planet.
1. Improv...
2. Advancing product design and urban infrastructure by
• Making transport pricing reflect the full social and environment...
3. Using markets and regulation by
• Providing incentives for financial markets to favour long-term
  sustainability over ...
4. Enhancing international cooperation by
• Pressuring governments to move from short-term national self-interests to
  lo...
As Meadows et al. (2004) suggest in Limits to Growth: The 30-Year
 Update:

“We don’t think a sustainable society need be
...
Which is my Ecological Footprint?

• http://www.myfootprint.org/
• http://www.lead.org/leadnet/footprint/intro.htm
• http:...
Conclusions

•   The EF is a tool to measure:
     • The unsustainability of our society.
     • The unfair sharing out of...
du chemin du développement quot;classiquequot; aux
    chemins du développement durable
                                  ...
Erasmus Mundus Action 4 project
    “Promoting European Education in Sustainable Development”
           TEMPUS Joint Euro...
http://sustainabilityindicators.org

                 Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
                   NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 ...
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16.02, Segalas — Lecture on indicators

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16.02, Segalas — Lecture on indicators

  1. 1. Erasmus Mundus Action 4 project “Promoting European Education in Sustainable Development” TEMPUS Joint European Project_ 25163_ 2004 “Bridging the gap between University and businesses” Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007 Indicators for sustainability Assessment Professor Jordi Segalas Technology and Sustainable Development Polytechnic University of Catalonia Barcelona, SPAIN Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  2. 2. 1. Use of indicators 2. Many many indicators 3. GPI - GDP Contents 4. Ecological Footprint Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  3. 3. Uses of indicators: • to measure progress - eg. GDP/capita • to measure efficiency - eg. ‘productivity’ • to communicate, to stimulate urgency and commitment - eg. ‘Environmental footprint’ • to stimulate action - eg. by quantifying impact Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  4. 4. Using the right Indicators is vital to moving to sustainability.. • “If I can’t measure it, I can’t manage it” • But be careful not to go down this road: • “Step 1. Measure what can be easily measured - This is OK as far as it goes • Step 2. Disregard that which can’t be easily measured, or give it an arbitrary quantitative value - This is artificial and misleading • Step 3. Presume that which can’t be measured easily really isn’t important - This is blindness • Step 4. Say that what can’t be easily measured really doesn’t exist - This is suicide” • Adapted from C.Handy-The Empty Raincoat: Making sense of the Future (1994) Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  5. 5. Many many indicators…. Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  6. 6. http://mdgs.un.org/unsd Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  7. 7. Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  8. 8. Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  9. 9. Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  10. 10. The GPI starts with the same personal consumption data the GDP is based on, but then makes some crucial distinctions. • adjusts for certain factors (such as income distribution) • adds certain others (such as the value of household work and volunteer work) • subtracts yet others (such as the costs of crime and pollution) Because the GDP and the GPI are both measured in monetary terms, they can be compared on the same scale. Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  11. 11. What's Wrong with the GDP as a Measure of Progress Since its introduction during World War II as a measure of wartime production capacity, the GDP has become the nation's foremost indicator of economic progress. It is now widely used by policymakers, economists, international agencies and the media as the primary scorecard of a nation's economic health and well-being. It is merely a gross tally of products and services bought and sold, with no distinctions between transactions that add to well-being, and those that diminish it. Instead of separating costs from It is as if a business tried to assess benefits, and productive activities its financial condition by simply from destructive ones, the GDP adding up all quot;business activity,quot; assumes that every monetary thereby lumping together income transaction adds to well-being by and expenses, assets and liabilities definition. Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  12. 12. What's Wrong with the GDP as a Measure of Progress I. GDP Treats Crime & Natural Disasters as Economic Gain II. GDP Ignores the Nonmarket Economy of Household & Community III. GDP Treats the Depletion of Natural Capital as Income IV. GDP Increases with Polluting Activities & Again with Clean-Ups V. GDP Takes No Account of Income Distribution VI. GDP Ignores the Drawbacks of Living on Foreign Assets Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  13. 13. Monetary benefits (ignored by GDP) included in GPI: 1. Value of time spent on household work, parenting, and volunteer work. 2. Value of services of consumer durables (such as cars and refrigerators) 3. Services of highways and streets Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  14. 14. GPI subtracts of expenses that’s do not improve well-being: 1. Defensive expenditures, defined as money spent to maintain the household's level of comfort, security or satisfaction, in the face of declines in quality of life due to such factors as crime, auto accidents or pollution. (water filters, locks or security systems, cost of repainting houses damaged by air pollution,…) 2. Social cost, such as the cost of divorce, crime or loss of leisure time. 3. Depreciation of environmental assets and natural resources, including loos of land, reduction of stocks of natural resources and damaging effects of wastes and pollution. Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  15. 15. GPI versus GDP as a Measure of Progress Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  16. 16. Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  17. 17. ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT. WHAT? & WHY? Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  18. 18. Introduction • In Rio-92 Conference it was showed the need of reducing the impacts of human beings to the environment. If we can not measure, we can not manage. If we can measure it does not implies that we can manage…. But it’s the firs step… by me • New indicators of sustainability: – Ecological Footprint: Land surface needed to support a community. – Ecological Rucksack: Total weight of the material flow needed for the production of a specific good in all its life cycle. Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  19. 19. What is Ecological Footprint? • It’s defined as the surface of productive land and water necessaries to support an specific economy or population within an specific standard of living. Origin: Concept ideate by William Rees from the British Columbia University. Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  20. 20. What does the EF measure? • Consumption of food and materials: in relation to the surface of earth and seas biologically productive needed to produce that natural resources. • Consumption of energy: on the basis of the surface necessary to absorb the correlatives emissions of CO2. • The measuring is done in “units of surface”. A surface’s unit is equivalent to an hectare of world productivity average. Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  21. 21. How is the EF evaluated? Consumption patterns Land patterns & its use 1. Housing. Use Patterns 2. Transport. Surface to absorb the 3. Consumption Energy Fossil energy CO2 emissions goods. 4. Alimentation. Consumption Construction Degraded Surface 5. Services. Agricultural Reversible surface growing Use Cereals Growing ecosystems Pastures Modified ecosystems Forestry running Virgin woods Natural ecosystems Unusable No productive Desserts and polar lands lands Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  22. 22. Evaluation Matrix A C F Ecological Footprint B D E Fossil Agricultural Forestry TOTAL [ha/capita] Degradation Cereals Pastures energy growing running 1 ALIMENTATION 11 Vegetables 12 Animal 2 HOUSING 21 Construction 22 Operation 3 TRANSPORT 31 Private 32 Public 33 Of products 4 CONSUMPTIN GOODS 41 Packing 42 Clothing 43 Furniture 44 Books/Journals 45 Tobacco/Alcohol 46 Personal care 47 Recreational equipment 48 Others 5 SERVICES 51 Government + Army 52 Education 53 Health 54 Social Services 55 Tourism 56 Culture 57 Banking/Financing 58 Others Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT TOTAL NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  23. 23. Example: Canada A C F Ecological Footprint B D E Fossil Agricultural Forestry TOTAL [ha/capita] Degradation Cereals Pastures energy growing running 1 ALIMENTATION 0.33 0.02 0.60 0.33 0.02 1.30 11 Vegetables 0.14 0.02 0.18 0.01 12 Animal 0.19 0.42 0.33 0.01 2 HOUSING 0.41 0.08 0.002 0.40 0.89 21 Construction 0.06 0.35 22 Operation 0.35 0.05 3 TRANSPORT 0.79 0.10 0.89 31 Private 0.60 32 Public 0.07 33 Of products 0.12 4 CONSUMPTIN GOODS 0.52 0.01 0.06 0.13 0.17 0.89 41 Packing 0.10 0.04 42 Clothing 0.11 0.02 0.13 43 Furniture 0.06 0.03 44 Books/Journals 0.06 0.10 45 Tobacco/Alcohol 0.06 0.04 46 Personal care 0.03 47 Recreational equipment 0.10 48 Others 0.00 5 SERVICES 0.29 0.01 0.30 51 Government + Army 0.06 52 Education 0.08 53 Health 0.08 54 Social Services 0.00 55 Tourism 0.01 56 Culture 0.01 57 Banking/Financing 0.00 58 Others 0.05 TOTAL 2.34 0.20 0.02 0.66 0.46 0.59 4.27 Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  24. 24. Global values Informe Living planet 2004 • World availability per capita: 1.8 units • Word consumption 2,2 units => 22% higher than availability Local values Informe Living planet 2004 • There are distinguished high and low biological capacity areas in order to show the regions with an “ecological lack”. Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  25. 25. Local Ecological Footprint, Available 5 Available 4 Available 3 Available 2 Available Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  26. 26. LA SE SP NL Ukraine Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  27. 27. Global values Informe Living planet 2000 • World availability per capita: 1.8 units • Word consumption 2,2 units => 22% higher than availability Local values Informe Living planet 2000 • There are distinguished high and low biological capacity areas in order to show the regions with an “ecological lack”. Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  28. 28. Regional Ecological Footprint, 1996 Living planet Inform 2000 HE Available Excess Area remarks Ut/persona Ut/persona Ut/persona OCDE 7.22 3.42 -3.8 Ecological Debt!!! No OCDE 1,81 1,82 0.1 Africa 1.33 1.73 0.4 Surplus due to the generalized poverty Latinamerica Latin + Carib 2.46 6.93 3.93 High biological availability Low biological availability. Middle East + Central Asia 2.73 0.91 -1.82 Higher shortage in the richer petrol economies. Asia & Pacific 1.78 1.11 -0.67 Huge amount of population North America 11.94 -5.64 Maximum deficit although having the 6.3 (USA) (12.9) (-6.6) second biological availability Occidental Second world deficit Europe 6.28 2.93 -3.35 Higher in UK, Switzerland and Denmark Central & Oriental Europe 4.89 3.14 -1.75 Maximum in Txequia & Estonia. World 2.85 2.18 -0.67 30% Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  29. 29. Ecological Footprint evolution Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  30. 30. Evolution of the Global Ecological Footprint Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  31. 31. Evolution of the Global Ecological Footprint Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  32. 32. Evolution of the Global Ecological Footprint Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  33. 33. Evolution of the Global Ecological Footprint Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  34. 34. Evolution of the Global Ecological Footprint Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  35. 35. Evolution of the Global Ecological Footprint Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  36. 36. Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  37. 37. Four factors make up the ecological debt;therefore, debt reduction requires policies and actions that lead to: 1. Increasing biocapacity by protecting, conserving, and restoring ecosystems and biodiversity, to maintain biological productivity and ecological services. 2. Lowering world population. 3. Reducing per person consumption of goods and services. 4. Improving the resource efficiency with which goods and services are produced. Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  38. 38. The following actions will help create a society where all people live well, within the capacity of one planet. 1. Improving information for decision making by • Providing better quality and quantity of information in the media. Governments and companies will not receive appropriate signals from citizens and consumers unless the public is well informed. • Presenting responsible and accurate product information so that consumers are not misled by advertising. • Encouraging wide use of corporate environmental reporting to show which companies are making efforts to become sustainable, and how. • Supporting public information and education campaigns on sustainability challenges and opportunities covering issues such as climate change, forests, and fisheries. • Asking governments to measure and report on more comprehensive indicators of social, economic, and ecological performance to complement existing economic measures like GDP, trade balance, and rate of inflation. • Encouraging full cost pricing for all goods and services from energy to Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT water. NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  39. 39. 2. Advancing product design and urban infrastructure by • Making transport pricing reflect the full social and environmental costs of road and air travel, and encouraging public transport. • Implementing comprehensive waste reduction systems which include municipal resource reuse and recycling, and give priority to preventing the release of hazardous substances. • Introducing building design requirements that lead to reductions in waste generation and energy use. Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  40. 40. 3. Using markets and regulation by • Providing incentives for financial markets to favour long-term sustainability over short-term gains. Pension funds and insurance companies in particular have opportunities to invest in ecologically responsible ways and divest their interests in unsustainable activities. • Allowing governments to adjust market frameworks and provide regulatory and fiscal incentives to become less resource intensive and minimize waste. • Creating incentives for promoting renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies. Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  41. 41. 4. Enhancing international cooperation by • Pressuring governments to move from short-term national self-interests to long-term global common interests. In a global economy, governments rarely engage in unilateral action on international issues such as climate change, biodiversity conservation, or management of the oceans. International conventions and treaties encourage equitable solutions to sustainability challenges. Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  42. 42. As Meadows et al. (2004) suggest in Limits to Growth: The 30-Year Update: “We don’t think a sustainable society need be stagnant, boring, uniform, or rigid. It need not be, and probably could not be, centrally controlled or authoritarian. It could be a world that has the time, the resources, and the will to correct its mistakes, to innovate, to preserve the fertility of its planetary ecosystems. It could focus on mindfully increasing the quality of life rather than on mindlessly expanding material consumption…”. Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  43. 43. Which is my Ecological Footprint? • http://www.myfootprint.org/ • http://www.lead.org/leadnet/footprint/intro.htm • http://www.bestfootforward.com/footprintlife.htm • http://www.educ.uvic.ca/faculty/mroth/438/environment/ webstuff/footprint.html • http://www.environment.govt.nz/footprint/personal.html • http://www.epa.vic.gov.au/Eco-footprint/Calculator.asp Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  44. 44. Conclusions • The EF is a tool to measure: • The unsustainability of our society. • The unfair sharing out of resources. • The unit of measure makes it ease to understand by citizenship. Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  45. 45. du chemin du développement quot;classiquequot; aux chemins du développement durable : chemin du développement quot;classiquequot; Besoins des générations : chemins du développement durable actuelles Indicateur de développement humain –IDH) 1 /5 /3 0,9 développement durable 0,8 0,7 les « chemins » 0,6 souhaitables diffèrent mais tentent de susciter 0,5 une convergence à long 0,4 terme écologiquement viable et politiquement 0,3 acceptable. 0,2 0,1 0 Besoins des générations 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 futures Empreinte écologique (ha/hab) Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT d’après Aurélien Boutaud, ENSMSE, RAE C. Brodhag, http://www.brodhag.org NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  46. 46. Erasmus Mundus Action 4 project “Promoting European Education in Sustainable Development” TEMPUS Joint European Project_ 25163_ 2004 “Bridging the gap between University and businesses” Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007 Indicators for sustainability Assessment Professor Jordi Segalas Technology and Sustainable Development Polytechnic University of Catalonia Barcelona, SPAIN Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007
  47. 47. http://sustainabilityindicators.org Course SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT NTUU “KPI”, 12-23 February 2007

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